Gene Symbol: Ptges
Description: prostaglandin E synthase
Alias: Pges, prostaglandin E synthase
Species: rat
Products:     Ptges

Top Publications

  1. Murakami M, Naraba H, Tanioka T, Semmyo N, Nakatani Y, Kojima F, et al. Regulation of prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis by inducible membrane-associated prostaglandin E2 synthase that acts in concert with cyclooxygenase-2. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:32783-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, COX-2 and mPGES are essential components for delayed PGE(2) biosynthesis, which may be linked to inflammation, fever, osteogenesis, and even cancer. ..
  2. Ikeda Matsuo Y, Ota A, Fukada T, Uematsu S, Akira S, Sasaki Y. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 is a critical factor of stroke-reperfusion injury. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11790-5 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that mPGES-1 may be a critical determinant of postischemic neurological dysfunctions and a valuable therapeutic target for treatment of human stroke. ..
  3. Golijanin D, Tan J, Kazior A, Cohen E, Russo P, Dalbagni G, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 are overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:1024-31 pubmed
    ..Cyclooxygenase (COX) catalyzes the synthesis of PGH2, which is converted, in turn, by microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES-1) to PGE2...
  4. Jia Z, Wang H, Yang T. Mice lacking mPGES-1 are resistant to lithium-induced polyuria. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F1689-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was undertaken to assess lithium-induced polyuria in mice deficient in microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). A 2-wk administration of LiCl (4
  5. Hirata T, Narumiya S. Prostanoids as regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. Adv Immunol. 2012;116:143-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the role of prostanoids in regulating immunity, their involvement in immunopathology, and areas of insight that may lead to new therapeutic opportunities...
  6. Satoh K, Nagano Y, Shimomura C, Suzuki N, Saeki Y, Yokota H. Expression of prostaglandin E synthase mRNA is induced in beta-amyloid treated rat astrocytes. Neurosci Lett. 2000;283:221-3 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a possibly significant role of this enzyme in the progression of AD. ..
  7. Ivanov A, Pero R, Scheck A, Romanovsky A. Prostaglandin E(2)-synthesizing enzymes in fever: differential transcriptional regulation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002;283:R1104-17 pubmed
    ..transcriptional upregulation of the functionally coupled cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal (m) PGE synthase (PGES) in the liver and lungs. Phase II entailed robust upregulation of all enzymes of the major inflammatory pathway, i...
  8. Campean V, Theilig F, Paliege A, Breyer M, Bachmann S. Key enzymes for renal prostaglandin synthesis: site-specific expression in rodent kidney (rat, mouse). Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003;285:F19-32 pubmed
    ..rat and mouse kidneys for cellular and subcellular localization of COX-1 and -2 and microsomal-type PGE synthase (PGES), the rate-limiting biosynthetic enzyme in PGE2 synthesis...
  9. Lazarus M, Munday C, Eguchi N, Matsumoto S, Killian G, Kubata B, et al. Immunohistochemical localization of microsomal PGE synthase-1 and cyclooxygenases in male mouse reproductive organs. Endocrinology. 2002;143:2410-9 pubmed
    ..These results show that mPGES-1 is expressed coordinately with COX-1 and COX-2 and is involved in PGE(2) production in male genital organs. ..

More Information


  1. Majed B, Khalil R. Molecular mechanisms regulating the vascular prostacyclin pathways and their adaptation during pregnancy and in the newborn. Pharmacol Rev. 2012;64:540-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Careful examination of PGI(2) metabolism and the complex interplay with other prostanoids will help design specific modulators of the PGI(2)-dependent pathways for the management of pregnancy-related and neonatal vascular disorders. ..
  2. Ota Y, Imai T, Hasumura M, Cho Y, Takami S, Oyamada T, et al. Prostaglandin synthases influence thyroid follicular cell proliferation but not carcinogenesis in rats initiated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine. Toxicol Sci. 2012;127:339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..COX inhibitors suppressed goitrogenic activity of SDM, but they did not significantly affect microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-2 (mPGES-2) expression levels enhanced by SDM...
  3. Eschwege P, Ferlicot S, Droupy S, Ba N, Conti M, Loric S, et al. A histopathologic investigation of PGE(2) pathways as predictors of proliferation and invasion in urothelial carcinomas of the bladder. Eur Urol. 2003;44:435-41 pubmed
    ..We aimed to characterize cPLA(2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and prostaglandine E synthase (PGES) expression in human transitional carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder and correlate with the Ki-67 proliferating ..
  4. Rask K, Zhu Y, Wang W, Hedin L, Sundfeldt K. Ovarian epithelial cancer: a role for PGE2-synthesis and signalling in malignant transformation and progression. Mol Cancer. 2006;5:62 pubmed
    ..The expression and cell-specific localization of COX-1, COX-2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) and two of the receptors for PGE2, EP1 and EP2, were examined by immunoblotting (IB) and ..
  5. Jegerschöld C, Pawelzik S, Purhonen P, Bhakat P, Gheorghe K, Gyobu N, et al. Structural basis for induced formation of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11110-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (MPGES1) constitutes an inducible glutathione-dependent integral membrane protein that catalyzes the ..
  6. Bylund J, Annas A, Hellgren D, Bjurström S, Andersson H, Svanhagen A. Amide hydrolysis of a novel chemical series of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 inhibitors induces kidney toxicity in the rat. Drug Metab Dispos. 2013;41:634-41 pubmed publisher
    A novel microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1) inhibitor induced kidney injury at exposures representing less than 4 times the anticipated efficacious exposure in man during a 7-day toxicity study in rats...
  7. Slimane M, Ferlicot S, Conti M, Droupy S, Cosson C, Paradis V, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and prostaglandin E synthase after renal ischemia-reperfusion. Transplant Proc. 2002;34:2841-2 pubmed
  8. Elander N, Ungerbäck J, Olsson H, Uematsu S, Akira S, Soderkvist P. Genetic deletion of mPGES-1 accelerates intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min/+) mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;372:249-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that APC(Min/+) mice with genetic deletion of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), which catalyses the terminal conversion of PGH(2) into PGE(2), surprisingly develop more and ..
  9. Gobeil F, Zhu T, Brault S, Geha A, Vazquez Tello A, Fortier A, et al. Nitric oxide signaling via nuclearized endothelial nitric-oxide synthase modulates expression of the immediate early genes iNOS and mPGES-1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16058-67 pubmed
    ..of the immediate early genes iNOS (inducible nitric-oxide synthase (NOS)) and mPGES-1 (microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1)...
  10. Hayakawa T, Fujiwara Y, Hamaguchi M, Sugawa T, Okuyama M, Sasaki E, et al. Roles of cyclooxygenase 2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 in rat acid reflux oesophagitis. Gut. 2006;55:450-6 pubmed
    Although prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1) are known to play a role in various inflammatory events, their roles in the pathogenesis of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease ..
  11. Giannico G, Mendez M, LaPointe M. Regulation of the membrane-localized prostaglandin E synthases mPGES-1 and mPGES-2 in cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288:H165-74 pubmed
    ..Thus differences in activity of mPGES-1 and COX-2 or coupling of COX-2 with mPGES-1 may contribute to differences in PGE(2) production by myocytes and fibroblasts. ..
  12. Brenneis C, Coste O, Altenrath K, Angioni C, Schmidt H, Schuh C, et al. Anti-inflammatory role of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in a model of neuroinflammation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:2331-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data suggest a role of mPGES-1-derived PGE(2) in resolution of neuroinflammation. ..
  13. Silva Bastos L, Pinheiro de Oliveira A, Magnus Schlachetzki J, Fiebich B. Minocycline reduces prostaglandin E synthase expression and 8-isoprostane formation in LPS-activated primary rat microglia. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2011;33:576-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, minocycline (3-100 µM) inhibited the production of 8-iso-PGF(2?). This study warrants the conduction of in vivo studies to evaluate the pharmacological relevance of these findings. ..
  14. Rummel C, Matsumura K, Luheshi G. Circulating IL-6 contributes to peripheral LPS-induced mPGES-1 expression in the rat brain. Brain Res Bull. 2011;86:319-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have clearly shown that circulating IL-6 can directly induce mPGES-1 linked to STAT3-activation in the brain but not peripheral tissues of rats during localised peripheral inflammation. ..
  15. Gao C, Fu Y, Li Y, Zhang X, Zhang L, Yu F, et al. Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1-Derived PGE2 Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Calcification. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2016;36:108-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In accordance, downregulation of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES)-1 in VSMCs, mPGES-1(-/-) aorta with high-Pi stimulation and mPGES-1(-/-) chronic renal failure ..
  16. Kim B, Lee J, Yang M, Jou I, Joe E. Retinoic acid enhances prostaglandin E2 production through increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 in rat brain microglia. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:1353-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The results collectively suggest that ATRA modulates microglial responses to inflammatory stimulators, particularly at the late phase, via enhancement of COX-2 expression and PGE(2) production. ..
  17. Puxeddu E, Mitsutake N, Knauf J, Moretti S, Kim H, Seta K, et al. Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 is induced by conditional expression of RET/PTC in thyroid PCCL3 cells through the activation of the MEK-ERK pathway. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52131-8 pubmed
    ..As enzymes involved in prostanoid biosynthesis can be targeted with pharmacological inhibitors, these findings may have therapeutic implications. ..
  18. Guay J, Bateman K, Gordon R, Mancini J, Riendeau D. Carrageenan-induced paw edema in rat elicits a predominant prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) response in the central nervous system associated with the induction of microsomal PGE2 synthase-1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:24866-72 pubmed
    ..The data also indicate that the up-regulation of mPGES-1 contributes to COX-2-mediated PGE(2) production in the CNS during peripheral inflammation. ..
  19. Mancini J, Blood K, Guay J, Gordon R, Claveau D, Chan C, et al. Cloning, expression, and up-regulation of inducible rat prostaglandin e synthase during lipopolysaccharide-induced pyresis and adjuvant-induced arthritis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:4469-75 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that PGE synthase is up-regulated in vivo after LPS or adjuvant administration and suggest that this is a key enzyme involved in the formation of PGE(2) in COX-2-mediated inflammatory and pyretic responses. ..
  20. Chishima F, Hayakawa S, Yamamoto T, Sugitani M, Karasaki Suzuki M, Sugita K, et al. Expression of inducible microsomal prostaglandin E synthase in local lesions of endometriosis patients. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2007;57:218-26 pubmed
    Recently, an inducible microsomal human prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) was identified. This enzyme converts the cyclooxygenase (COX) product, prostaglandin (PG) H(2), to PGE(2), an eicosanoid linked to carcinogenesis...
  21. de Oliveira A, Candelario Jalil E, Bhatia H, Lieb K, Hull M, Fiebich B. Regulation of prostaglandin E2 synthase expression in activated primary rat microglia: evidence for uncoupled regulation of mPGES-1 and COX-2. Glia. 2008;56:844-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The final step of its synthesis is regulated by enzymes termed prostaglandin E2 synthases (PGES). Three PGES are known, cytosolic (c)PGES, membrane-associated (m)PGES-1 and mPGES-2...
  22. Brenneis C, Maier T, Schmidt R, Hofacker A, Zulauf L, Jakobsson P, et al. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis by SC-560 is independent of cyclooxygenase 1 inhibition. FASEB J. 2006;20:1352-60 pubmed
    ..Taken together our data demonstrate that SC-560 acts at least in some cell types as an unselective COX inhibitor despite its selectivity toward COX-1 under cell-free conditions. ..
  23. Pham H, Shafer L, Slice L. CREB-dependent cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 expression is mediated by protein kinase C and calcium. J Cell Biochem. 2006;98:1653-66 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate a coordinated induction of COX-2 and mPGES-1 by PDB/TG that proceeds through PKC/ERK and Ca2+ signaling cascades, resulting in increased PGE2 production. ..
  24. Jang T, Min S, Bae J, Jung K, Lee J, Kim J, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase 2, microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1, and EP receptors is increased in rat oesophageal squamous cell dysplasia and Barrett's metaplasia induced by duodenal contents reflux. Gut. 2004;53:27-33 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we examined the expression pattern of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), COX-2, and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1), as well as EP receptor subtypes in rat oesophageal lesions induced by duodenal contents ..
  25. Candelario Jalil E, de Oliveira A, Gräf S, Bhatia H, Hull M, Munoz E, et al. Resveratrol potently reduces prostaglandin E2 production and free radical formation in lipopolysaccharide-activated primary rat microglia. J Neuroinflammation. 2007;4:25 pubmed
    ..Protein levels of COX-1, COX-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) were studied by Western blotting after 24 h of incubation with LPS...
  26. Jabbour H, Milne S, Williams A, Anderson R, Boddy S. Expression of COX-2 and PGE synthase and synthesis of PGE(2)in endometrial adenocarcinoma: a possible autocrine/paracrine regulation of neoplastic cell function via EP2/EP4 receptors. Br J Cancer. 2001;85:1023-31 pubmed
    ..COX-2 and microsomal glutathione-dependent prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) expression and PGE(2)synthesis were localised to the neoplastic epithelial cells and endothelial ..
  27. Parazzoli S, Harmon J, VALLERIE S, Zhang T, Zhou H, Robertson R. Cyclooxygenase-2, not microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, is the mechanism for interleukin-1?-induced prostaglandin E2 production and inhibition of insulin secretion in pancreatic islets. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:32246-53 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-1? inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion equally in both WT and mPGES-1(-/-) islets, indicating that COX-2, not mPGES-1, mediates IL-1?-induced PGE(2) production and subsequent inhibition of insulin secretion. ..
  28. Shi Y, Cui L, Dai G, Chen J, Pan H, Song L, et al. Elevated prostaglandin E2 level via cPLA2--COX-2--mPGES-1 pathway involved in bladder carcinogenesis induced by terephthalic acid-calculi in Wistar rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006;74:309-15 pubmed
    ..PGE2 may be a biomarker for the development of bladder TCC. cPLA2 and mPGES-1 may be targets for development of novel chemoprevention strategies for bladder TCC. ..
  29. Appleton C, Pitelka V, Henry J, Beier F. Global analyses of gene expression in early experimental osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:1854-68 pubmed
  30. Vazquez Tello A, Fan L, Hou X, Joyal J, Mancini J, Quiniou C, et al. Intracellular-specific colocalization of prostaglandin E2 synthases and cyclooxygenases in the brain. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;287:R1155-63 pubmed
    ..We aimed to determine whether microsomal and cytosolic PGES (mPGES-1 and cPGES) colocalize and coordinate activity with either COX-1 or COX-2 in brain tissue, particularly ..
  31. Wu Y, Su L, Wang H, Jeff Lin C, Hsu W, Chou T, et al. Co-overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 adversely affects the postoperative survival in non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2010;5:1167-74 pubmed publisher
    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES)-1 have been found to be overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
  32. Claveau D, Sirinyan M, Guay J, Gordon R, Chan C, Bureau Y, et al. Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 is a major terminal synthase that is selectively up-regulated during cyclooxygenase-2-dependent prostaglandin E2 production in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model. J Immunol. 2003;170:4738-44 pubmed
    ..model, we have determined the temporal expression of the inducible PGE synthase (mPGES-1), mPGES-2, the cytosolic PGES (cPGES/p23), and prostacyclin synthase, and compared with that of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2...
  33. Mehrotra S, Morimiya A, Agarwal B, Konger R, Badve S. Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 in breast cancer: a potential target for therapy. J Pathol. 2006;208:356-63 pubmed
    ..The latter action is believed to be important for the development of adverse cardio-vascular events. Microsomal PGES (mPGES-1) is an enzyme downstream to COX-2 and affects PGE(2) production only...