Gene Symbol: Ptger3
Description: prostaglandin E receptor 3
Alias: EP3, EP3R, Rep3, rEP3a, rEP3b, prostaglandin E2 receptor EP3 subtype, PGE receptor, EP3 subtype, PGE2 receptor EP3 subtype, prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3), prostanoid EP3 receptor
Species: rat
Products:     Ptger3

Top Publications

  1. Irie A, Sugimoto Y, Namba T, Harazono A, Honda A, Watabe A, et al. Third isoform of the prostaglandin-E-receptor EP3 subtype with different C-terminal tail coupling to both stimulation and inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Eur J Biochem. 1993;217:313-8 pubmed
    A functional cDNA clone for a third isoform of the mouse prostaglandin-E-receptor EP3 subtype, derived by alternative RNA splicing, named the EP3 gamma receptor, was obtained in addition to those for the two other isoforms, EP3 alpha and ..
  2. Shoji Y, Takahashi M, Kitamura T, Watanabe K, Kawamori T, Maruyama T, et al. Downregulation of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 during colon cancer development. Gut. 2004;53:1151-8 pubmed
    ..Hypermethylation of the EP(3) receptor gene could occur and may contribute towards downregulating EP(3) expression to some extent in colon cancers. ..
  3. Tsuchiya H, Oka T, Nakamura K, Ichikawa A, Saper C, Sugimoto Y. Prostaglandin E2 attenuates preoptic expression of GABAA receptors via EP3 receptors. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11064-71 pubmed publisher
    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) has been shown to produce fever by acting on EP3 receptors within the preoptic area of the brain...
  4. Yokotani K, Nakamura K, Okada S. Prostanoid EP3 and TP receptors-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release from the isolated rat stomach. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;459:187-93 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the prostanoid EP(3) and TP receptors mediate the inhibition of gastric noradrenaline release; TP, but not EP(3), receptor-mediated inhibition is mediated by a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism in rats. ..
  5. Papay K, Kennedy T. Characterization of temporal and cell-specific changes in transcripts for prostaglandin E(2) receptors in pseudopregnant rat endometrium. Biol Reprod. 2000;62:1515-25 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results support a role for PGE(2) in the onset of receptivity and initiation of decidualization in the rat. ..
  6. Takayama K, Yuhki K, Ono K, Fujino T, Hara A, Yamada T, et al. Thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin F2alpha mediate inflammatory tachycardia. Nat Med. 2005;11:562-6 pubmed
    ..Our results show that inflammatory tachycardia is caused by a direct action on the heart of TXA(2) and PGF(2alpha) formed under systemic inflammatory conditions. ..
  7. Ni H, Shen J, Song Y, Cao M, Liu X, Huang J, et al. EP3, Prostaglandin E2 Receptor Subtype 3, Associated with Neuronal Apoptosis Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2016;36:971-980 pubmed publisher
    b>EP3 is prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype 3 and mediates the activation of several signaling pathways, changing in cAMP levels, calcium mobilization, and activation of phospholipase C...
  8. Iizuka Y, Kuwahara A, Karaki S. Role of PGE2 in the colonic motility: PGE2 generates and enhances spontaneous contractions of longitudinal smooth muscle in the rat colon. J Physiol Sci. 2014;64:85-96 pubmed publisher
    ..GCs) in vitro, and the GCs were almost completely abolished by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, piroxicam, and by an EP3 receptor antagonist, ONO-AE3-240, but enhanced by tetrodotoxin (TTX)...
  9. Kozłowska H, Baranowska Kuczko M, Schlicker E, Kozłowski M, Zakrzeska A, Grzęda E, et al. EP₃ receptor-mediated contraction of human pulmonary arteries and inhibition of neurogenic tachycardia in pithed rats. Pharmacol Rep. 2012;64:1526-36 pubmed
    ..EP(3) receptors (1) located postsynaptically strongly contract human pulmonary arteries and (2) located presynaptically on sympathetic nerve fibers supplying the heart of pithed rats strongly inhibit the neurogenic tachycardia. ..

More Information


  1. Hanada R, Leibbrandt A, Hanada T, Kitaoka S, Furuyashiki T, Fujihara H, et al. Central control of fever and female body temperature by RANKL/RANK. Nature. 2009;462:505-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, RANKL activates brain regions involved in thermoregulation and induces fever via the COX2-PGE(2)/EP3R pathway...
  2. Waschbisch A, Fiebich B, Akundi R, Schmitz M, Hoozemans J, Candelario Jalil E, et al. Interleukin-1 beta-induced expression of the prostaglandin E-receptor subtype EP3 in U373 astrocytoma cells depends on protein kinase C and nuclear factor-kappaB. J Neurochem. 2006;96:680-93 pubmed
    ..PGE2 exerts its effects by binding to four different types of PGE2 receptors named EP1-EP4. EP3 has found to be expressed in neurons, whereas expression of EP3 in glial cells has not been reported in the brain ..
  3. Yamazaki K, Endo T, Kitajima Y, Manase K, Nagasawa K, Honnma H, et al. Elevation of both cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E2 receptor EP3 expressions in rat placenta after uterine artery ischemia-reperfusion. Placenta. 2006;27:395-401 pubmed
    ..COX-2 is reported to be involved in ischemic damage in many organs. There are 4 types of PGE2 receptor (EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4). It is well known that EP1 and EP3 is associated with vasoconstriction...
  4. Irie A, Segi E, Sugimoto Y, Ichikawa A, Negishi M. Mouse prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype mediates calcium signals via Gi in cDNA-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;204:303-9 pubmed
    We recently cloned the mouse prostaglandin (PG) E receptor EP3 subtype that is coupled to adenylate cyclase inhibition through Gi and identified three isoforms which are produced through alternative splicing...
  5. Bär K, Natura G, Telleria Diaz A, Teschner P, Vogel R, Vasquez E, et al. Changes in the effect of spinal prostaglandin E2 during inflammation: prostaglandin E (EP1-EP4) receptors in spinal nociceptive processing of input from the normal or inflamed knee joint. J Neurosci. 2004;24:642-51 pubmed limited, particularly under inflammatory conditions, through activation of an inhibitory splice variant of the EP3 receptor...
  6. Ma W, Eisenach J. Four PGE2 EP receptors are up-regulated in injured nerve following partial sciatic nerve ligation. Exp Neurol. 2003;183:581-92 pubmed
    ..We found that cell profiles immunoreactive (IR) for four EP receptors, EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, are dramatically increased in injured nerve 2 and 4 weeks after PSNL...
  7. Araki H, Ukawa H, Sugawa Y, Yagi K, Suzuki K, Takeuchi K. The roles of prostaglandin E receptor subtypes in the cytoprotective action of prostaglandin E2 in rat stomach. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000;14 Suppl 1:116-24 pubmed
    ..action of prostaglandin (PG) E2 using various EP receptor agonists in rats, and using knockout mice lacking EP1 or EP3 receptors. Male SD rats and C57BL/6 mice were used after an 18-h fast...
  8. Irie A, Sugimoto Y, Namba T, Asano T, Ichikawa A, Negishi M. The C-terminus of the prostaglandin-E-receptor EP3 subtype is essential for activation of GTP-binding protein. Eur J Biochem. 1994;224:161-6 pubmed
    Three isoforms of the mouse prostaglandin-E-receptor EP3 subtype (EP3), EP3 alpha, EP3 beta and EP3 gamma, with different C-termini, which are produced through alternative splicing, showed different efficiencies with respect to ..
  9. Tang L, Loutzenhiser K, Loutzenhiser R. Biphasic actions of prostaglandin E(2) on the renal afferent arteriole : role of EP(3) and EP(4) receptors. Circ Res. 2000;86:663-70 pubmed
    ..The vasoconstriction is mediated by an EP(3) receptor coupled to G(alphai) and appears to reflect a functional antagonism of the EP(4)-induced vasodilation. ..
  10. Aihara E, Nomura Y, Sasaki Y, Ise F, Kita K, Takeuchi K. Involvement of prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype in duodenal bicarbonate secretion in rats. Life Sci. 2007;80:2446-53 pubmed
    We investigated the involvement of prostaglandin E (PGE) receptor subtype EP3 in the regulatory mechanism of duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion in rats...
  11. Taniguchi H, Anacker C, Suarez Mier G, Wang Q, Andreasson K. Function of prostaglandin E2 EP receptors in the acute outcome of rodent hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Neurosci Lett. 2011;504:185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the G-protein coupled EP receptors may be amenable to pharmacologic targeting in the acute setting of neonatal HIE. ..
  12. Jonakait G, Ni L. Prostaglandins compromise basal forebrain cholinergic neuron differentiation and survival: action at EP1/3 receptors results in AIF-induced death. Brain Res. 2009;1285:30-41 pubmed publisher
    ..microglial EP2 receptors inhibits the microglial production of the cholinergic differentiating cocktail, while action at neuronal EP3 receptors has a deleterious effect on cholinergic neurons causing neurite retraction and cell death.
  13. Jugus M, Jaworski J, Patra P, Jin J, Morrow D, Laping N, et al. Dual modulation of urinary bladder activity and urine flow by prostanoid EP3 receptors in the conscious rat. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;158:372-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the EP(3) receptor as a modulator of urinary bladder activity in the conscious rat, and in addition, indicate a role for EP(3) receptor activity in regulating urine flow. ..
  14. Kim J, Sheen M, Lee S, Jung J, Kwon H. Hypertonicity stimulates PGE2 signaling in the renal medulla by promoting EP3 and EP4 receptor expression. Kidney Int. 2009;75:278-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found that mRNA expression by the PGE(2)-activated G-protein-coupled receptors, EP3 and EP4 in the renal medulla was decreased by furosemide treatment, a procedure that reduces medullary ..
  15. Wei T, Geiser A, Qian H, Su C, Helvering L, Kulkarini N, et al. DNA microarray data integration by ortholog gene analysis reveals potential molecular mechanisms of estrogen-dependent growth of human uterine fibroids. BMC Womens Health. 2007;7:5 pubmed
    ..increased expression of the anti-apoptotic PCP4 gene and suppressed the expression of growth inhibitory receptors PTGER3 and TGFBR2...
  16. Takeuchi K, Takahashi N, Kato T, Abe T, Taniyama Y, Tsutsumi E, et al. Functional analysis and chromosomal gene assignment of rat kidney prostaglandin EP3 receptor. Kidney Int Suppl. 1996;55:S183-6 pubmed
    ..reported two isoformes of rat prostaglandin EP3 receptor with their different carboxyl-terminal tails (rEP3A and rEP3B receptors), which are derived by alternative RNA splicing, and both receptors have been shown to be localized to ..
  17. Fleming E, Athirakul K, Oliverio M, Key M, Goulet J, Koller B, et al. Urinary concentrating function in mice lacking EP3 receptors for prostaglandin E2. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:F955-61 pubmed
    ..To study the functions of one of these subtypes, the EP3 receptor, we generated EP3-deficient (-/-) mice by gene targeting...
  18. Yamaguchi T, Kubota T, Watanabe S, Yamamoto T. Activation of brain prostanoid EP3 receptors via arachidonic acid cascade during behavioral suppression induced by Delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol. J Neurochem. 2004;88:148-54 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the participation of the prostanoid EP3 receptor, the target of PGE2 in the brain, in behavioral suppression induced by Delta8-tetrahydrocannabinol (..
  19. Ito Y, Murai Y, Ishibashi H, Onoue H, Akaike N. The prostaglandin E series modulates high-voltage-activated calcium channels probably through the EP3 receptor in rat paratracheal ganglia. Neuropharmacology. 2000;39:181-90 pubmed
    ..STA2 (a stable analogue of thromboxane A2), 17-phenyl-trinor-PGE2 (an EP1-selective agonist) and sulprostone (an EP3-selective agonist) inhibited the HVA Ca2+ current (HVA ICa) dose-dependently, and the rank order of potency to ..
  20. Southall M, Vasko M. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes, EP3C and EP4, mediate the prostaglandin E2-induced cAMP production and sensitization of sensory neurons. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:16083-91 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that sensory neurons are capable of expressing multiple EP receptor subtypes but that only the EP3C and EP4 receptors mediate PGE(2)-induced sensitization of sensory neurons. ..
  21. Sennlaub F, Valamanesh F, Vazquez Tello A, el Asrar A, Checchin D, Brault S, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2 in human and experimental ischemic proliferative retinopathy. Circulation. 2003;108:198-204 pubmed
    ..prevented intravitreal neovascularization, whereas prostaglandin E2, mainly via its prostaglandin E receptor 3 (EP3), exacerbated neovascularization...
  22. Tran P, Gleason C, Poitout V, Robertson R. Prostaglandin E(2) mediates inhibition of insulin secretion by interleukin-1beta. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:31245-8 pubmed
    ..We also found that EP3, the PGE(2) receptor subtype whose post-receptor effect is to decrease adenylyl cyclase activity and, thereby, ..
  23. Kunikata T, Tanaka A, Miyazawa T, Kato S, Takeuchi K. 16,16-Dimethyl prostaglandin E2 inhibits indomethacin-induced small intestinal lesions through EP3 and EP4 receptors. Dig Dis Sci. 2002;47:894-904 pubmed
    ..These effects of dmPGE2 were mimicked by prostanoids (ONO-NT-012 and ONO-AE1-329), only specific to EP3 or EP4 receptors, although the intestinal motility was inhibited only by ONO-AE1-329...
  24. Zacharowski K, Olbrich A, Otto M, Hafner G, Thiemermann C. Effects of the prostanoid EP3-receptor agonists M&B 28767 and GR 63799X on infarct size caused by regional myocardial ischaemia in the anaesthetized rat. Br J Pharmacol. 1999;126:849-58 pubmed
    1. This study investigates the effects of two agonists of the prostanoid EP3-receptor (M&B 28767 and GR 63799X) on the infarct size caused by regional myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion in the anaesthetized rat. 2...
  25. Ahluwalia A, Perretti M. Anti-inflammatory effect of prostanoids in mouse and rat skin: evidence for a role of EP3-receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1994;268:1526-31 pubmed
    ..3 nmol potentiated the edema response to PAF. Sulprostone, which is selective for EP1 and EP3 PGE-receptors, produced a potent inhibition of the edema responses to both ZAS (80%) and PAF (60%)...
  26. Zhou J, Alvarez Elizondo M, Botvinick E, George S. Adenosine A(1) and prostaglandin E receptor 3 receptors mediate global airway contraction after local epithelial injury. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;48:299-305 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors (or removal of adenosine with adenosine deaminase), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 or prostaglandin E receptor 3 (EP3) receptors, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), or platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) all ..
  27. Kobayashi K, Murata T, Hori M, Ozaki H. Prostaglandin E2-prostanoid EP3 signal induces vascular contraction via nPKC and ROCK activation in rat mesenteric artery. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;660:375-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Among selective agonists for PGE2 receptors, only a prostanoid EP3 receptor agonist, ONO-AE-248 (0.3-30 ?M) induced contraction...
  28. Laes J, Ravoet M, Quan X, Van Vooren P, Szpirer J, Szpirer C. Improved radiation hybrid map of rat chromosome 2: colocalization of the genes encoding corticotropin-releasing hormone and IL6-receptor with quantitative trait loci regulating the inflammatory response. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2001;92:130-3 pubmed
    ..Our data show that they reside within regions that were genetically defined as QTLs controlling the inflammatory response. These genes are thus both functional and positional candidates. ..
  29. Takeuchi K, Abe T, Takahashi N, Abe K. Molecular cloning and intrarenal localization of rat prostaglandin E2 receptor EP3 subtype. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;194:885-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, a cDNA for rat EP3 (rEP3) receptor was cloned...
  30. Meisdalen K, Dajani O, Christoffersen T, Sandnes D. Prostaglandins enhance epidermal growth factor-induced DNA synthesis in hepatocytes by stimulation of E prostanoid 3 and F prostanoid receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007;322:1044-50 pubmed
    ..enhanced DNA synthesis and inhibited glucagon-stimulated cAMP accumulation, indicating that they all activated EP3 receptors...
  31. Waldner C, Heise G, Schror K, Heering P. COX-2 inhibition and prostaglandin receptors in experimental nephritis. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003;33:969-75 pubmed
    ..We investigated the expression of the three EP receptors EP2, EP3 and EP4 and the receptors for PGI2 (IP) and TxA2 (TP) in rats with passive Heymann nephritis (PHN)...
  32. Kitanaka J, Hashimoto H, Gotoh M, Kondo K, Sakata K, Hirasawa Y, et al. Expression pattern of messenger RNAs for prostanoid receptors in glial cell cultures. Brain Res. 1996;707:282-7 pubmed
    Expression level of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for prostanoid EP3, FP, and TP receptors was investigated in cultured rat astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia, as well as in meningeal fibroblasts, rat glioma C6 cells, rat ..
  33. Kato S, Aihara E, Yoshii K, Takeuchi K. Dual action of prostaglandin E2 on gastric acid secretion through different EP-receptor subtypes in the rat. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;289:G64-9 pubmed
    ..The former effect may be brought about by suppression at both parietal and enterochromaffin-like cells, whereas the latter effect may be mediated by histamine released from enterochromaffin-like cells. ..
  34. El Nefiawy N, Abdel Hakim K, Kanayama N, Terao T. Role of prostaglandin E2 receptor subtypes in ovarian follicle growth in the rat in vivo. Correlation with interleukin-8 and neutrophils. Histol Histopathol. 2005;20:825-31 pubmed publisher
    This study was conducted to elucidate the role of three of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor subtype (EP2, EP3, and EP4) agonists in the process of follicular growth...
  35. Theilig F, Debiec H, Nafz B, Ronco P, Nusing R, Seyberth H, et al. Renal cortical regulation of COX-1 and functionally related products in early renovascular hypertension (rat). Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291:F987-94 pubmed
    ..We suggest that in 2K1C, COX-1 and PGES expression may fail to oppose the effects of renovascular hypertension through reduced prostaglandin signaling in late distal tubule and cortical collecting duct. ..
  36. Slawik H, Volk B, Fiebich B, Hull M. Microglial expression of prostaglandin EP3 receptor in excitotoxic lesions in the rat striatum. Neurochem Int. 2004;45:653-60 pubmed
    ..The PGE2 receptor EP3 is the most abundantly expressed PGE2 receptor subtype in the brain...
  37. Ushikubi F, Segi E, Sugimoto Y, Murata T, Matsuoka T, Kobayashi T, et al. Impaired febrile response in mice lacking the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3. Nature. 1998;395:281-4 pubmed
    ..PGE2 acts by interacting with four subtypes of PGE receptor, the EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors. Here we generate mice lacking each of these receptors by homologous recombination...
  38. Myren M, Olesen J, Gupta S. Prostaglandin E2 receptor expression in the rat trigeminal-vascular system and other brain structures involved in pain. Neurosci Lett. 2012;506:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, all four receptors are located in areas implicated in migraine supporting the possible involvement of PGE(2) in this disease. ..
  39. Mitsui R. Immunohistochemical characteristics of submucosal Dogiel type II neurons in rat colon. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;340:257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoreactivity for the EP3 receptor (EP3R), a receptor for prostaglandin E2, has been detected in 51% of submucosal neurons including type II neurons...
  40. Zhou N, Polozov A, O CONNELL M, Burgeson J, Yu P, Zeller W, et al. 1,7-Disubstituted oxyindoles are potent and selective EP(3) receptor antagonists. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2010;20:2658-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These agents also featured low CYP inhibition and good activity in the functional rat platelet aggregation assay. ..
  41. Oldfield S, Grubb B, Donaldson L. Identification of a prostaglandin E2 receptor splice variant and its expression in rat tissues. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2001;63:165-73 pubmed
    ..There are four known EP receptor genes that are transcribed to generate EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors...
  42. Su X, Leon L, Wu C, Morrow D, Jaworski J, Hieble J, et al. Modulation of bladder function by prostaglandin EP3 receptors in the central nervous system. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F984-94 pubmed publisher
    Prostaglandin EP3 receptors in the central nervous system (CNS) may exert an excitatory effect on urinary bladder function via modulation of bladder afferent pathways...
  43. O Rielly D, Loomis C. Spinal prostaglandins facilitate exaggerated A- and C-fiber-mediated reflex responses and are critical to the development of allodynia early after L5-L6 spinal nerve ligation. Anesthesiology. 2007;106:795-805 pubmed
    ..These results provide further evidence that spinal prostaglandins, derived primarily from COX-1, are critical in the exaggeration of A- and C-fiber input and allodynia, 24 h after SNL. ..
  44. Hinton A, Grigsby P, Pitzer B, Brockman D, Ittenbach R, Hinton R, et al. Hormonal regulation of prostaglandin E2 receptors: localization and expression in rat cervical tissue. Reprod Sci. 2010;17:136-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Hormonal manipulation resulted in differences in cellular localization of EP1 and EP3 in cervical epithelial cells, suggesting a specific role in that cell...
  45. Sugimoto Y, Negishi M, Hayashi Y, Namba T, Honda A, Watabe A, et al. Two isoforms of the EP3 receptor with different carboxyl-terminal domains. Identical ligand binding properties and different coupling properties with Gi proteins. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:2712-8 pubmed
    Functional cDNA clones for two isoforms of the mouse prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype derived from alternative RNA splicing were obtained...
  46. Ayabe S, Murata T, Maruyama T, Hori M, Ozaki H. Prostaglandin E2 induces contraction of liver myofibroblasts by activating EP3 and FP prostanoid receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;156:835-45 pubmed publisher
  47. Mitsui R. Immunohistochemical analysis of substance P-containing neurons in rat small intestine. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;343:331-41 pubmed publisher
    ..myenteric neurons, including type II neurons, show immunoreactive for the prostaglandin E2 receptor EP3 receptor (EP3R). Thus, SP/NF-200/calretinin/NK1R/EP3R is the common chemical profile of type II neurons in the rat small intestine...
  48. Neuschäfer Rube F, Hanecke K, Blaschke V, Jungermann K, Püschel G. The C-terminal domain of the Gs-coupled EP4 receptor confers agonist-dependent coupling control to Gi but no coupling to Gs in a receptor hybrid with the Gi-coupled EP3 receptor. FEBS Lett. 1997;401:185-90 pubmed
    ..EP1R are coupled to Gq, EP2 and EP4R to Gs and EP3R to Gi. Different C-terminal splice variants of the bovine EP3R are coupled to different G-proteins...
  49. Yoshida Y, Matsumura H, Nakajima T, Mandai M, Urakami T, Kuroda K, et al. Prostaglandin E (EP) receptor subtypes and sleep: promotion by EP4 and inhibition by EP1/EP2. Neuroreport. 2000;11:2127-31 pubmed
  50. Ishida K, Matsumoto T, Taguchi K, Kamata K, Kobayashi T. Protein kinase C delta contributes to increase in EP3 agonist-induced contraction in mesenteric arteries from type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Pflugers Arch. 2012;463:593-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the vasoconstrictor effects of PGE(2) and of sulprostone (EP1-/EP3-receptor agonist) in rings cut from superior mesenteric arteries isolated from GK rats (37-44 weeks old)...
  51. Su X, Lashinger E, Leon L, HOFFMAN B, Hieble J, Gardner S, et al. An excitatory role for peripheral EP3 receptors in bladder afferent function. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F585-94 pubmed publisher
    The excitatory roles of EP3 receptors at the peripheral afferent nerve innervating the rat urinary bladder have been evaluated by using the selective EP3 antagonist (2E)-3-[1-[(2,4-dichlorophenyl)methyl]-5-fluoro-3-methyl-1H-indol-7-yl]-..
  52. Gu R, Jin Y, Zhai Y, Yang L, Zhang C, Li W, et al. PGE2 inhibits basolateral 50 pS potassium channels in the thick ascending limb of the rat kidney. Kidney Int. 2008;74:478-85 pubmed publisher
    ..PGE(2)'s effect was mimicked by the selective EP1- and EP3-receptor agonist, sulprostone, but was prevented by inhibiting protein kinase-C with calphostin-C...
  53. Takeuchi K, Takahashi N, Abe T, Abe K. Two isoforms of the rat kidney EP3 receptor derived by alternative RNA splicing: intrarenal expression co-localization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;199:834-40 pubmed
    Two different clones, named rEP3A (approximately 2.2 kb) and rEP3B (approximately 5.2 kb), were isolated from a rat kidney cDNA library by a homology screening approach...