Pten

Summary

Gene Symbol: Pten
Description: phosphatase and tensin homolog
Alias: MMAC1, Mmac, TEP1, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN, mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten, protein tyrosine phosphatase and tensin-like protein
Species: rat
Products:     Pten

Top Publications

  1. Trotman L, Wang X, Alimonti A, Chen Z, Teruya Feldstein J, Yang H, et al. Ubiquitination regulates PTEN nuclear import and tumor suppression. Cell. 2007;128:141-56 pubmed
    The PTEN tumor suppressor is frequently affected in cancer cells, and inherited PTEN mutation causes cancer-susceptibility conditions such as Cowden syndrome...
  2. Schmitz M, Grignard G, Margue C, Dippel W, Capesius C, Mossong J, et al. Complete loss of PTEN expression as a possible early prognostic marker for prostate cancer metastasis. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:1284-92 pubmed
    ..PCR, together with immunohistochemistry, we have explored the growth factor and integrin dependent PI3-kinase/PTEN/Akt signalling pathway in prostate cell lines and tumour samples by analysing EGF-R, IGF1-R, ILK, beta3 integrin, ..
  3. Fraser M, Bayazitov I, Zakharenko S, Baker S. Phosphatase and tensin homolog, deleted on chromosome 10 deficiency in brain causes defects in synaptic structure, transmission and plasticity, and myelination abnormalities. Neuroscience. 2008;151:476-88 pubmed
    ..The tumor-suppressor phosphatase with tensin homology (PTEN) is the central negative regulator of the PI3K pathway...
  4. Takashima M, Parsons C, Ikejima K, Watanabe S, White E, Rippe R. The tumor suppressor protein PTEN inhibits rat hepatic stellate cell activation. J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:847-55 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome Ten (PTEN), a tumor suppressor phosphatase, has been shown to play a role in several ..
  5. Myers M, Stolarov J, Eng C, Li J, Wang S, Wigler M, et al. P-TEN, the tumor suppressor from human chromosome 10q23, is a dual-specificity phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9052-7 pubmed
  6. Mahimainathan L, Das F, Venkatesan B, Choudhury G. Mesangial cell hypertrophy by high glucose is mediated by downregulation of the tumor suppressor PTEN. Diabetes. 2006;55:2115-25 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of hypertrophy, however, is not known. Gene disruption of the tumor suppressor PTEN, a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway, in fruit flies and mice demonstrated its ..
  7. Maehama T, Dixon J. The tumor suppressor, PTEN/MMAC1, dephosphorylates the lipid second messenger, phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:13375-8 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that overexpression of PTEN, a putative tumor suppressor, reduced insulin-induced PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 production in human 293 cells without ..
  8. Jurado S, Benoist M, Lario A, Knafo S, Petrok C, Esteban J. PTEN is recruited to the postsynaptic terminal for NMDA receptor-dependent long-term depression. EMBO J. 2010;29:2827-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is an important regulator of phosphatidylinositol-(3,4,5,)-trisphosphate signalling, which controls cell growth and differentiation...
  9. Backman S, Stambolic V, Suzuki A, Haight J, Elia A, Pretorius J, et al. Deletion of Pten in mouse brain causes seizures, ataxia and defects in soma size resembling Lhermitte-Duclos disease. Nat Genet. 2001;29:396-403 pubmed
    Initially identified in high-grade gliomas, mutations in the PTEN tumor-suppressor are also found in many sporadic cancers and a few related autosomal dominant hamartoma syndromes...

More Information

Publications95

  1. Garofalo M, Di Leva G, Romano G, Nuovo G, Suh S, Ngankeu A, et al. miR-221&222 regulate TRAIL resistance and enhance tumorigenicity through PTEN and TIMP3 downregulation. Cancer Cell. 2009;16:498-509 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that miR-221&222, by targeting PTEN and TIMP3 tumor suppressors, induce TRAIL resistance and enhance cellular migration through the activation of the ..
  2. Kwon C, Luikart B, Powell C, Zhou J, Matheny S, Zhang W, et al. Pten regulates neuronal arborization and social interaction in mice. Neuron. 2006;50:377-88 pubmed
    CNS deletion of Pten in the mouse has revealed its roles in controlling cell size and number, thus providing compelling etiology for macrocephaly and Lhermitte-Duclos disease...
  3. Mahimainathan L, Choudhury G. Inactivation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor by the tumor suppressor PTEN provides a novel mechanism of action of the phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:15258-68 pubmed
    b>PTEN, mutated in a variety of human cancers, is a dual specificity protein phosphatase and also possesses D3-phosphoinositide phosphatase activity on phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-tris-phosphate (PIP(3)), a product of phosphatidylinositol 3-..
  4. Dong X, Yu L, Sun R, Cheng Y, Cao H, Yang K, et al. Inhibition of PTEN expression and activity by angiotensin II induces proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114:174-82 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) is a tumor suppressor and has been suggested recently to be involved in the regulation of cardiovascular diseases...
  5. Di Cristofano A, Pesce B, Cordon Cardo C, Pandolfi P. Pten is essential for embryonic development and tumour suppression. Nat Genet. 1998;19:348-55 pubmed
    The PTEN gene encodes a dual-specificity phosphatase mutated in a variety of human cancers...
  6. Franke T. PI3K/Akt: getting it right matters. Oncogene. 2008;27:6473-88 pubmed publisher
    ..An emphasis is placed on the involvement of Akt in human diseases ranging from cancer to metabolic dysfunction and mental disease. ..
  7. Butler M, Dasouki M, Zhou X, Talebizadeh Z, Brown M, Takahashi T, et al. Subset of individuals with autism spectrum disorders and extreme macrocephaly associated with germline PTEN tumour suppressor gene mutations. J Med Genet. 2005;42:318-21 pubmed
    ..as Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, Proteus syndrome, and Proteus-like conditions, are characterised by germline PTEN mutations, and may have neurobehavioural features resembling autism as well as overgrowth and macrocephaly...
  8. Li D, Sun H. TEP1, encoded by a candidate tumor suppressor locus, is a novel protein tyrosine phosphatase regulated by transforming growth factor beta. Cancer Res. 1997;57:2124-9 pubmed
    ..TEP1 protein is identical to the protein encoded by the candidate tumor suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1. Our functional studies of the TEP1 protein suggest that its tumor suppressor function may associate with its ..
  9. Ning K, Pei L, Liao M, Liu B, Zhang Y, Jiang W, et al. Dual neuroprotective signaling mediated by downregulating two distinct phosphatase activities of PTEN. J Neurosci. 2004;24:4052-60 pubmed
    The tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) is a lipid and protein phosphatase...
  10. Furgeson S, Simpson P, Park I, Vanputten V, Horita H, Kontos C, et al. Inactivation of the tumour suppressor, PTEN, in smooth muscle promotes a pro-inflammatory phenotype and enhances neointima formation. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;86:274-82 pubmed publisher
    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is implicated as a negative regulator of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation and injury-induced vascular remodelling...
  11. Vazquez F, Ramaswamy S, Nakamura N, Sellers W. Phosphorylation of the PTEN tail regulates protein stability and function. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5010-8 pubmed
    The PTEN gene is a tumor suppressor localized in the frequently altered chromosomal region 10q23...
  12. Christie K, Webber C, Martinez J, Singh B, Zochodne D. PTEN inhibition to facilitate intrinsic regenerative outgrowth of adult peripheral axons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:9306-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we investigated the role of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) during regeneration of peripheral neurons in adult ..
  13. Myers M, Pass I, Batty I, Van Der Kaay J, Stolarov J, Hemmings B, et al. The lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN is critical for its tumor supressor function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13513-8 pubmed
    ..Recently, a tumor suppressor from human chromosome 10q23, called PTEN or MMAC1, has been identified that shares homology with the protein tyrosine phosphatase family...
  14. Bian E, Huang C, Ma T, Tao H, Zhang H, Cheng C, et al. DNMT1-mediated PTEN hypermethylation confers hepatic stellate cell activation and liver fibrogenesis in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;264:13-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphatase and tension homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor, is a negative regulator of this process...
  15. Feng W, Wu H, Chan L, Zhang M. Par-3-mediated junctional localization of the lipid phosphatase PTEN is required for cell polarity establishment. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23440-9 pubmed publisher
    ..its second PDZ domain binds to phosphoinositides, and the third PDZ interacts with phosphoinositide phosphatase PTEN. However, the molecular basis of Par-3/PTEN interaction is still poorly understood...
  16. Norimatsu Y, Moriya T, Kobayashi T, Sakurai T, Shimizu K, Tsukayama C, et al. Immunohistochemical expression of PTEN and beta-catenin for endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia in Japanese women. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2007;11:103-8 pubmed
    b>PTEN and beta-catenin are the most common genes for which genetic abnormalities are found in endometrioid adenocarcinoma (type I) and even in their precursors...
  17. Oinuma I, Ito Y, Katoh H, Negishi M. Semaphorin 4D/Plexin-B1 stimulates PTEN activity through R-Ras GTPase-activating protein activity, inducing growth cone collapse in hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:28200-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate level is critically regulated by PI3K and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted chromosome ten)...
  18. Busa T, Chabrol B, Perret O, Longy M, Philip N. Novel PTEN germline mutation in a family with mild phenotype: difficulties in genetic counseling. Gene. 2013;512:194-7 pubmed publisher
    PTEN gene (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten, MIM 601628) is a tumor suppressor gene implicated in PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS) including Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome and Proteus-like ..
  19. Kim M, Cardiff R, Desai N, Banach Petrosky W, Parsons R, Shen M, et al. Cooperativity of Nkx3.1 and Pten loss of function in a mouse model of prostate carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:2884-9 pubmed
    ..Loss of function of Nkx3.1 in mice cooperates with loss of function of the Pten tumor suppressor gene in cancer progression...
  20. Huang S, Sung C, Chen W, Chen C, Feng C, Yang S, et al. Involvement of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 in rodent model of neuropathic pain. J Neuroinflammation. 2015;12:59 pubmed publisher
    ..Many cancer research studies have extensively examined the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) pathway...
  21. Yang Q, Yang K, Li A. microRNA-21 protects against ischemia-reperfusion and hypoxia-reperfusion-induced cardiocyte apoptosis via the phosphatase and tensin homolog/Akt-dependent mechanism. Mol Med Rep. 2014;9:2213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..of miR-21 upregulated the Akt signaling activity via suppressing the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and the increased activity of Akt signaling further inhibited apoptosis partially by increasing the ratio of B-..
  22. Park C, Park M, Kwak H, Lee H, Kim M, Lee S, et al. Ionizing radiation enhances matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion and invasion of glioma cells through Src/epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated p38/Akt and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways. Cancer Res. 2006;66:8511-9 pubmed
    ..activity, mRNA transcription, and protein secretion along with the invasiveness of glioma cells lacking functional PTEN (U87, U251, U373, and C6) but not those harboring wild-type (WT)-PTEN (LN18 and LN428)...
  23. Anai S, Goodison S, Shiverick K, Iczkowski K, Tanaka M, Rosser C. Combination of PTEN gene therapy and radiation inhibits the growth of human prostate cancer xenografts. Hum Gene Ther. 2006;17:975-84 pubmed
    ..In this study, we evaluated whether the combination of the overexpression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a protein known to inhibit Bcl-2 expression, and radiation therapy would inhibit proliferation of Bcl-2-..
  24. Sun J, Zhou W, Ma D, Yang Y. Endothelial cells promote neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation associated with VEGF activated Notch and Pten signaling. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2345-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Pathway mapping showed an enrichment of genes in the Notch and Pten pathways...
  25. Shay K, Hagen T. Age-associated impairment of Akt phosphorylation in primary rat hepatocytes is remediated by alpha-lipoic acid through PI3 kinase, PTEN, and PP2A. Biogerontology. 2009;10:443-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, two phosphatases that antagonize Akt, PTEN and PP2A, were both partially inhibited by LA...
  26. Kaarbø M, Klokk T, Saatcioglu F. Androgen signaling and its interactions with other signaling pathways in prostate cancer. Bioessays. 2007;29:1227-38 pubmed
    ..This complex network of interactions is providing a deeper insight into prostate carcinogenesis and may form the basis for novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. ..
  27. Song M, Carracedo A, Salmena L, Song S, Egia A, Malumbres M, et al. Nuclear PTEN regulates the APC-CDH1 tumor-suppressive complex in a phosphatase-independent manner. Cell. 2011;144:187-99 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN is a frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene that opposes the PI3K/AKT pathway through dephosphorylation of phosphoinositide-3,4,5-triphosphate...
  28. Zhang Q, Wu D, Han D, Zhang G. Critical role of PTEN in the coupling between PI3K/Akt and JNK1/2 signaling in ischemic brain injury. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:495-505 pubmed
    ..On the contrary, activation of the protein kinase Akt, which is controlled by the opposing actions of PI3K and PTEN, contributes to enhanced resistance to apoptosis through multiple mechanisms...
  29. Jia L, Ji S, Maillet J, Zhang X. PTEN suppression promotes neurite development exclusively in differentiating PC12 cells via PI3-kinase and MAP kinase signaling. J Cell Biochem. 2010;111:1390-400 pubmed publisher
    As a dual-specificity phosphatase catalyzing the dephosphorylation of phosphatidylinositols and protein substrates, PTEN is critically involved in the nervous system development...
  30. Horie Y, Suzuki A, Kataoka E, Sasaki T, Hamada K, Sasaki J, et al. Hepatocyte-specific Pten deficiency results in steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinomas. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:1774-83 pubmed
    b>PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene mutated in many human cancers, and its expression is reduced or absent in almost half of hepatoma patients...
  31. Choi Y, Lee J, Hong K, Lee K. 17 Beta-estradiol prevents focal cerebral ischemic damages via activation of Akt and CREB in association with reduced PTEN phosphorylation in rats. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2004;18:547-57 pubmed
    ..protein in the ischemic area, whereas the elevated the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome10 (PTEN) phosphorylation was significantly reduced with decreased Bax protein and cytochrome c release...
  32. Li B, Sun H. MiR-26a promotes neurite outgrowth by repressing PTEN expression. Mol Med Rep. 2013;8:676-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was identified as a direct target of miR-26a in this process via a luciferase reporter assay...
  33. Das Gupta S, Sae Tan S, Wahler J, So J, Bak M, Cheng L, et al. Dietary γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture Inhibits Estrogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis by Modulating Estrogen Metabolism, Antioxidant Response, and PPARγ. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015;8:807-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment with γ-TmT increased expression of PPARγ and its downstream genes, PTEN and p27, whereas the cell proliferation marker, PCNA, was significantly reduced in γ-TmT-treated mammary tumors...
  34. da Silva W, dos Santos R, Moraes K. Mir-351-5p contributes to the establishment of a pro-inflammatory environment in the H9c2 cell line by repressing PTEN expression. Mol Cell Biochem. 2016;411:363-71 pubmed publisher
    ..of the pro-inflammatory environment in the H9c2 cardiac cell line, focusing on miRNA elements that modulate PTEN expression...
  35. Schwartzbauer G, Robbins J. The tumor suppressor gene PTEN can regulate cardiac hypertrophy and survival. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:35786-93 pubmed
    ..transcript that has not been previously linked to hypertrophy, we found that protein levels of the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome ten) were increased in the absence of increased messenger RNA ..
  36. Goswami R, Singh D, Phillips G, Kilkus J, Dawson G. Ceramide regulation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase PTEN in rafts isolated from neurotumor cell lines. J Neurosci Res. 2005;81:541-50 pubmed
    ..Here we present evidence that ceramide recruits the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10) into membrane microdomains (rafts), where it could act ..
  37. Dey N, Ghosh Choudhury N, Kasinath B, Choudhury G. TGF?-stimulated microRNA-21 utilizes PTEN to orchestrate AKT/mTORC1 signaling for mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix expansion. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42316 pubmed publisher
    ..Using 3'UTR-driven luciferase reporter, we identified the tumor suppressor protein PTEN as a target of TGF?-stimulated miR-21 in glomerular mesangial cells...
  38. Backman S, Ghazarian D, So K, Sanchez O, Wagner K, Hennighausen L, et al. Early onset of neoplasia in the prostate and skin of mice with tissue-specific deletion of Pten. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1725-30 pubmed
    b>PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene mutated in various advanced human neoplasias, including glioblastomas and prostate, breast, endometrial, and kidney cancers...
  39. Yang X, Qin Y, Shao S, Yu Y, Zhang C, Dong H, et al. MicroRNA-214 Inhibits Left Ventricular Remodeling in an Acute Myocardial Infarction Rat Model by Suppressing Cellular Apoptosis via the Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN). Int Heart J. 2016;57:247-50 pubmed publisher
    ..anti-miR-214, or Ad-GFP had been delivered into rats hearts 4 days prior, while a phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) inhibitor was administered via intra-peritoneal injection 30 minutes prior to AMI...
  40. Hu Y, Wu Y, Yan Z. [A study of the effect of PTEN on cardiac hypertrophy]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2003;19:230-2 pubmed
    To investigate the role of tumor suppressor PTEN in cardiac hypertrophy, the expression of PTEN mRNA in left ventricle of abdominal aorta constricted-induced cardiac hypertrophic rats which treated with and without captopril was analyzed...
  41. Canetti C, Serezani C, Atrasz R, White E, Aronoff D, Peters Golden M. Activation of phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome 10 mediates the inhibition of FcgammaR phagocytosis by prostaglandin E2 in alveolar macrophages. J Immunol. 2007;179:8350-6 pubmed
    ..By specifically inhibiting the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in AMs, we attenuated the inhibitory effects of both PGE2 and a specific Epac-1 agonist (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) on ..
  42. Stambolic V, Suzuki A, de la Pompa J, Brothers G, Mirtsos C, Sasaki T, et al. Negative regulation of PKB/Akt-dependent cell survival by the tumor suppressor PTEN. Cell. 1998;95:29-39 pubmed
    b>PTEN is a tumor suppressor with sequence homology to protein tyrosine phosphatases and the cytoskeletal protein tensin. mPTEN-mutant mouse embryos display regions of increased proliferation...
  43. Kurose K, Bando K, Fukino K, Sugisaki Y, Araki T, Emi M. Somatic mutations of the PTEN/MMAC1 gene in fifteen Japanese endometrial cancers: evidence for inactivation of both alleles. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1998;89:842-8 pubmed
    ..Mutations in PTEN/MMAC1, a gene recently isolated from the 10q23 region, are responsible for two dominantly inherited neoplastic syndromes,..
  44. Shinde V, Sizova O, Lin J, Lavail M, Gorbatyuk M. ER stress in retinal degeneration in S334ter Rho rats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33266 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, two major cross-talking pathways, the UPR and mitochondrial MPTP occur in S334ter-4 Rho retina concomitantly and eventually promote the death of the photoreceptor cells. ..
  45. Chakrabarty S, Nagamani M. Peripubertal hyperinsulinemia upregulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/akt pathway in rat ovaries. Reprod Sci. 2008;15:274-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway was unaffected. Peripubertal hyperinsulinemia upregulates the PI3-K/Akt pathway in rat ovaries. Ovarian insulin sensitivity in hyperinsulinemic patients with PCOS is potentially retained by this mechanism. ..
  46. Kapucuoglu N, Aktepe F, Kaya H, Bircan S, Karahan N, Ciris M. Immunohistochemical expression of PTEN in normal, hyperplastic and malignant endometrium and its correlation with hormone receptors, bcl-2, bax, and apoptotic index. Pathol Res Pract. 2007;203:153-62 pubmed
    b>PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene that is frequently mutated in type I endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs), and is involved in the control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis...
  47. Gil A, Andrés Pons A, Fernandez E, Valiente M, Torres J, Cervera J, et al. Nuclear localization of PTEN by a Ran-dependent mechanism enhances apoptosis: Involvement of an N-terminal nuclear localization domain and multiple nuclear exclusion motifs. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:4002-13 pubmed
    The targeting of the tumor suppressor PTEN protein to distinct subcellular compartments is a major regulatory mechanism of PTEN function, by controlling its access to substrates and effector proteins...
  48. Tan L, Chen X, Wang W, Zhang J, Li S, Zhao Y, et al. Pharmacological inhibition of PTEN attenuates cognitive deficits caused by neonatal repeated exposures to isoflurane via inhibition of NR2B-mediated tau phosphorylation in rats. Neuropharmacology. 2017;114:135-145 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous study has indicated the involvement of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in isoflurane-induced decrease of self-renewal capacity in hippocampal neural precursor cells...
  49. Zhu G, Chai J, Ma L, Duan H, Zhang H. Downregulated microRNA-32 expression induced by high glucose inhibits cell cycle progression via PTEN upregulation and Akt inactivation in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;433:526-31 pubmed publisher
    ..targets the 3'-untranslated region of the mRNA encoding phosphatase and tensin homologs deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a negative regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway...
  50. Kim J, Duan X, Liu C, Jang M, Guo J, Pow Anpongkul N, et al. DISC1 regulates new neuron development in the adult brain via modulation of AKT-mTOR signaling through KIAA1212. Neuron. 2009;63:761-73 pubmed publisher
  51. Wang Y, Liu R, Guo B, Xiao Y, Shi M, Pi M, et al. [Down-regulation of PTEN expression in kidney and its role in development of diabetic nephropathy in rats]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2011;63:325-32 pubmed
    ..related to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is negatively regulated by phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN)...
  52. Crackower M, Oudit G, Kozieradzki I, Sarao R, Sun H, Sasaki T, et al. Regulation of myocardial contractility and cell size by distinct PI3K-PTEN signaling pathways. Cell. 2002;110:737-49 pubmed
    The PTEN/PI3K signaling pathway regulates a vast array of fundamental cellular responses...
  53. Yang J, Zuo X, Bai W, Niu P, Tian L, Gao A. PTEN methylation involved in benzene-induced hematotoxicity. Exp Mol Pathol. 2014;96:300-6 pubmed publisher
    It is well known that benzene is a hematotoxic carcinogen. PTEN promoter methylation is a representative example of transcriptional silencing of tumor suppressor genes...
  54. Zhu Y, Hoell P, Ahlemeyer B, Krieglstein J. PTEN: a crucial mediator of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Apoptosis. 2006;11:197-207 pubmed
    The highly frequent mutation of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in various cancers has attracted much attention to study its role in tumorigenesis...
  55. Stavarache M, Musatov S, McGill M, Vernov M, Kaplitt M. The tumor suppressor PTEN regulates motor responses to striatal dopamine in normal and Parkinsonian animals. Neurobiol Dis. 2015;82:487-494 pubmed publisher
    Phosphatase and Tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a dual lipid-protein phosphatase known primarily as a growth preventing tumor suppressor...
  56. Hong Q, Yu S, Geng X, Duan L, Zheng W, Fan M, et al. High Concentrations of Uric Acid Inhibit Endothelial Cell Migration via miR-663 Which Regulates Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog by Targeting Transforming Growth Factor-β1. Microcirculation. 2015;22:306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..have demonstrated that the miR-663 target gene and TGF-β1, promoted endothelial cell migration by inhibiting PTEN deleted on chromosome 10...
  57. Zou H, Ding Y, Wang K, Xiong E, Peng W, Du F, et al. MicroRNA-29A/PTEN pathway modulates neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Neuroscience. 2015;291:289-300 pubmed publisher
    b>PTEN serves as an intrinsic brake on neurite outgrowth, but the regulatory mechanism that governs its action is not clear. In the present study, miR-29a was found to increase neurite outgrowth by decreasing PTEN expression...
  58. Dihal A, van der Woude H, Hendriksen P, Charif H, Dekker L, Ijsselstijn L, et al. Transcriptome and proteome profiling of colon mucosa from quercetin fed F344 rats point to tumor preventive mechanisms, increased mitochondrial fatty acid degradation and decreased glycolysis. Proteomics. 2008;8:45-61 pubmed
    ..In addition, quercetin enhanced expression of tumor suppressor genes, including Pten, Tp53, and Msh2, and of cell cycle inhibitors, including Mutyh...
  59. Humtsoe J, Liu M, Malik A, Wary K. Lipid phosphate phosphatase 3 stabilization of beta-catenin induces endothelial cell migration and formation of branching point structures. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:1593-606 pubmed publisher
    ..ECs, LPP3 induced expression of fibronectin via beta-catenin/LEF-1 signaling in a phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN)-dependent manner. In confluent ECs, depletion of p120-catenin restored LPP3-mediated beta-catenin/LEF-1 signaling...
  60. Chang C, Mulholland D, Valamehr B, Mosessian S, Sellers W, Wu H. PTEN nuclear localization is regulated by oxidative stress and mediates p53-dependent tumor suppression. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3281-9 pubmed publisher
    The tumor suppressor gene PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) is frequently mutated or deleted in various human cancers...
  61. Groszer M, Erickson R, Scripture Adams D, Lesche R, Trumpp A, Zack J, et al. Negative regulation of neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation by the Pten tumor suppressor gene in vivo. Science. 2001;294:2186-9 pubmed
    The mechanisms controlling neural stem cell proliferation are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the PTEN tumor suppressor plays an important role in regulating neural stem/progenitor cells in vivo and in vitro...
  62. He L, Fan C, Gillis A, Feng X, Sanatani M, Hotte S, et al. Co-existence of high levels of the PTEN protein with enhanced Akt activation in renal cell carcinoma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1772:1134-42 pubmed
    ..While PI3 kinase (PI3K) produces PIP3, PTEN dephosphorylates the 3-position phosphate from PIP3, thereby directly inhibiting Akt activation...
  63. Manning B, Logsdon M, Lipovsky A, Abbott D, Kwiatkowski D, Cantley L. Feedback inhibition of Akt signaling limits the growth of tumors lacking Tsc2. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1773-8 pubmed
    The PTEN and TSC2 tumor suppressors inhibit mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and are defective in distinct hamartoma syndromes...
  64. Ji S, Zhang Y, Van Cleemput J, Jiang W, Liao M, Li L, et al. Disruption of PTEN coupling with 5-HT2C receptors suppresses behavioral responses induced by drugs of abuse. Nat Med. 2006;12:324-9 pubmed
    The widespread distribution of the tumor suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) in the adult brain suggests its role in a broad range of brain functions...
  65. Zhang X, Piccini A, Myers M, Van Aelst L, Tonks N. Functional analysis of the protein phosphatase activity of PTEN. Biochem J. 2012;444:457-64 pubmed publisher
    In vitro, the tumour suppressor PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) displays intrinsic phosphatase activity towards both protein and lipid substrates...
  66. Xu M, Wang G, Zhou H, Cai J, Li P, Zhou M, et al. TGF-?1-miR-200a-PTEN induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis of pancreatic stellate cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017;431:161-168 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, overexpression of miR-200a promotes the expression of PTEN and decreases the expression of matrix proteins and attenuates phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR...
  67. Lynch E, Ostermeyer E, Lee M, Arena J, Ji H, Dann J, et al. Inherited mutations in PTEN that are associated with breast cancer, cowden disease, and juvenile polyposis. Am J Hum Genet. 1997;61:1254-60 pubmed
    b>PTEN, a protein tyrosine phosphatase with homology to tensin, is a tumor-suppressor gene on chromosome 10q23. Somatic mutations in PTEN occur in multiple tumors, most markedly glioblastomas...
  68. Lv J, Wang L, Zhang J, Lin R, Wang L, Sun W, et al. Long noncoding RNA H19-derived miR-675 aggravates restenosis by targeting PTEN. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018;497:1154-1161 pubmed publisher
    ..We further validated that PTEN is the target gene of miR-675 as demonstrated by luciferase assay...
  69. Gimm O, Perren A, Weng L, Marsh D, Yeh J, Ziebold U, et al. Differential nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of PTEN in normal thyroid tissue, and benign and malignant epithelial thyroid tumors. Am J Pathol. 2000;156:1693-700 pubmed
    Germline mutations in PTEN (MMAC1/TEP1) are found in patients with Cowden syndrome, a familial cancer syndrome which is characterized by a high risk of breast and thyroid neoplasia...
  70. Tsujiuchi T, Sasaki Y, Tsutsumi M, Konishi Y. Absence of PTEN/MMAC1 gene mutations in lung adenocarcinomas induced by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine in rats. Cancer Lett. 2001;162:207-11 pubmed
    Mutations of the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten/mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1 (PTEN/MMAC1) gene were investigated in lung adenocarcinomas induced by N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (BHP) in rats...
  71. Delgado Esteban M, Martin Zanca D, Andres Martin L, Almeida A, Bolanos J. Inhibition of PTEN by peroxynitrite activates the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt neuroprotective signaling pathway. J Neurochem. 2007;102:194-205 pubmed
    ..Akt-Ser(473) phosphorylation was associated with an increased proportion of oxidized phosphoinositide phosphatase, PTEN, in neurons...
  72. Wong H, Lemoine N. Pancreatic cancer: molecular pathogenesis and new therapeutic targets. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;6:412-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review describes some of the important developments and targeted agents for pancreatic cancer that have been tested in clinical trials. ..
  73. Betchen S, Musatov S, Roberts J, Pena J, Kaplitt M. PTEN inhibits adrenomedullin expression and function in brain tumor cells. J Neurooncol. 2006;79:117-23 pubmed
    ..Since reduced activity of the anti-oncogene PTEN seems to also correlate with higher tumor grade, this suggests an inverse association between PTEN activity and ..
  74. Wang Z, Li N, Wang B, Lin J. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression in rats is accelerated by splenic regulation of liver PTEN/AKT. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2015;21:232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum lipids were measured; liver histology, phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) gene expression, and the ratio of pAkt/Akt were determined...
  75. Dourdin N, Schade B, Lesurf R, Hallett M, Munn R, Cardiff R, et al. Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 deficiency accelerates tumor induction in a mouse model of ErbB-2 mammary tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2008;68:2122-31 pubmed publisher
    Loss of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and amplification or elevated expression of ErbB-2 are both involved in human breast cancer...
  76. Podsypanina K, Ellenson L, Nemes A, Gu J, Tamura M, Yamada K, et al. Mutation of Pten/Mmac1 in mice causes neoplasia in multiple organ systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:1563-8 pubmed
    Pten/Mmac1+/- heterozygous mice exhibited neoplasms in multiple organs including the endometrium, liver, prostate, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, and thymus...
  77. Engelman J, Luo J, Cantley L. The evolution of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases as regulators of growth and metabolism. Nat Rev Genet. 2006;7:606-19 pubmed
    ..In light of the recent advances in our understanding of the function of PI3Ks in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cancer, we discuss the exciting therapeutic opportunities for targeting this pathway to treat these diseases. ..
  78. Sumita T, Ono H, Suzuki T, Sakai G, Inukai K, Katagiri H, et al. Mediobasal hypothalamic PTEN modulates hepatic insulin resistance independently of food intake in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;307:E47-60 pubmed publisher
    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3,4,5-triphosphate and antagonizes PI 3-kinase...
  79. Xiao Y, Yeong Chit Chia J, Gajewski J, Sio Seng Lio D, Mulhern T, Zhu H, et al. PTEN catalysis of phospholipid dephosphorylation reaction follows a two-step mechanism in which the conserved aspartate-92 does not function as the general acid--mechanistic analysis of a familial Cowden disease-associated PTEN mutation. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1434-45 pubmed
    b>PTEN exerts its tumour suppressor function by dephosphorylating the phospholipid second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3))...
  80. Han Z, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Wei A, Zhou J, Li Q, et al. MiR-21/PTEN Axis Promotes Skin Wound Healing by Dendritic Cells Enhancement. J Cell Biochem. 2017;118:3511-3519 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the rat model of skin wounds was established. The expression of miR-21, PTEN and related molecules of wound tissues or cells was determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, ..
  81. Huang P, Zhou Z, Wang H, Wei Q, Zhang L, Zhou X, et al. Effect of the IGF-1/PTEN/Akt/FoxO signaling pathway on the development and healing of water immersion and restraint stress-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Int J Mol Med. 2012;30:650-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To confirm whether the IGF-1/PTEN/Akt/FoxO signaling pathway is effective in protecting against gastric ulcers, our current study was conducted to ..
  82. Lee S, Zhao H, Maier C, Steinberg G. The protective effect of early hypothermia on PTEN phosphorylation correlates with free radical inhibition in rat stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009;29:1589-600 pubmed publisher
    ..component preserved by hypothermia is phosphorylated phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (p-PTEN), which suggests that p-PTEN may have a central role in neuroprotection...
  83. Kyrylenko S, Roschier M, Korhonen P, Salminen A. Regulation of PTEN expression in neuronal apoptosis. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1999;73:198-202 pubmed
    b>PTEN phosphatase is a tumor suppressor gene that dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol phosphates. PTEN restrains the function of a major antiapoptotic and survival pathway involving phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt kinase...
  84. Frisk T, Foukakis T, Dwight T, Lundberg J, Höög A, Wallin G, et al. Silencing of the PTEN tumor-suppressor gene in anaplastic thyroid cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2002;35:74-80 pubmed
    Germline mutations in the tumor-suppressor gene PTEN (MMAC1, TEP1) are found in Cowden syndrome, which predisposes to hamartomas, breast cancer, trichilemmomas, and thyroid tumors of follicular epithelium...
  85. Ratnacaram C, Teletin M, Jiang M, Meng X, Chambon P, Metzger D. Temporally controlled ablation of PTEN in adult mouse prostate epithelium generates a model of invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2521-6 pubmed publisher
    ..carcinogenesis is initiated through Cre-ER(T2)-mediated somatic biallelic ablation of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN after puberty, closely mimics the course of human cancer formation...
  86. Fu X, He Y, Wang X, Peng D, Chen X, Li X, et al. Overexpression of miR-21 in stem cells improves ovarian structure and function in rats with chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage by targeting PDCD4 and PTEN to inhibit granulosa cell apoptosis. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017;8:187 pubmed publisher
    ..The apoptosis rate and the mRNA and protein expression of target genes PTEN and PDCD4 were detected in MSCs...