Gene Symbol: Prox1
Description: prospero homeobox 1
Alias: prospero homeobox protein 1, prospero-related homeobox 1
Species: rat
Products:     Prox1

Top Publications

  1. Sosa Pineda B, Wigle J, Oliver G. Hepatocyte migration during liver development requires Prox1. Nat Genet. 2000;25:254-5 pubmed
    ..Here we report that Prox1 is required for hepatocyte migration...
  2. Johnson N, Dillard M, Baluk P, McDonald D, Harvey N, Frase S, et al. Lymphatic endothelial cell identity is reversible and its maintenance requires Prox1 activity. Genes Dev. 2008;22:3282-91 pubmed publisher
    The activity of the homeobox gene Prox1 is necessary and sufficient for venous blood endothelial cells (BECs) to acquire a lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) fate...
  3. Zinovieva R, Duncan M, Johnson T, Torres R, Polymeropoulos M, Tomarev S. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human homeobox gene Prox 1. Genomics. 1996;35:517-22 pubmed
    ..The Prox 1 gene was mapped to human chromosome 1q32.2-q32.3. ..
  4. Dyer M, Livesey F, Cepko C, Oliver G. Prox1 function controls progenitor cell proliferation and horizontal cell genesis in the mammalian retina. Nat Genet. 2003;34:53-8 pubmed
    ..We found that the homeodomain protein Prox1 regulates the exit of progenitor cells from the cell cycle in the embryonic mouse retina...
  5. Qin J, Gao D, Jiang Q, Zhou Q, Kong Y, Wang Y, et al. Prospero-related homeobox (Prox1) is a corepressor of human liver receptor homolog-1 and suppresses the transcription of the cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase gene. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:2424-39 pubmed
    ..In this report, we demonstrate Prox1, a prospero-related homeobox transcription factor, identified through a yeast two-hybrid screening, can directly ..
  6. Wigle J, Chowdhury K, Gruss P, Oliver G. Prox1 function is crucial for mouse lens-fibre elongation. Nat Genet. 1999;21:318-22 pubmed
    ..The expression pattern of the Prox1 homeobox gene suggests it has a role in a variety of embryonic tissues, including lens...
  7. Risebro C, Searles R, Melville A, Ehler E, Jina N, Shah S, et al. Prox1 maintains muscle structure and growth in the developing heart. Development. 2009;136:495-505 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that cardiac-specific inactivation of the murine homeobox transcription factor Prox1 results in the disruption of expression and localisation of sarcomeric proteins, gross myofibril disarray and ..
  8. Steffensen K, Holter E, Båvner A, Nilsson M, Pelto Huikko M, Tomarev S, et al. Functional conservation of interactions between a homeodomain cofactor and a mammalian FTZ-F1 homologue. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:613-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have identified and characterized the homeodomain protein Prox1 as a co-repressor for liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH1/NR5A2), a master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis in ..
  9. Song K, Li T, Chiang J. A Prospero-related homeodomain protein is a novel co-regulator of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha that regulates the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10081-8 pubmed
    b>Prox1, an early specific marker for developing liver and pancreas in foregut endoderm has recently been shown to interact with alpha-fetoprotein transcription factor and repress cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene transcription...

More Information


  1. Harvey N, Srinivasan R, Dillard M, Johnson N, Witte M, Boyd K, et al. Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity. Nat Genet. 2005;37:1072-81 pubmed
    ..We found that functional inactivation of a single allele of the homeobox gene Prox1 led to adult-onset obesity due to abnormal lymph leakage from mispatterned and ruptured lymphatic vessels...
  2. Wigle J, Harvey N, Detmar M, Lagutina I, Grosveld G, Gunn M, et al. An essential role for Prox1 in the induction of the lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype. EMBO J. 2002;21:1505-13 pubmed
    ..The homeobox gene Prox1 is expressed in a subpopulation of endothelial cells that, after budding from veins, gives rise to the mammalian ..
  3. Shin J, Min M, Larrieu Lahargue F, Canron X, Kunstfeld R, Nguyen L, et al. Prox1 promotes lineage-specific expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-3 in lymphatic endothelium: a role for FGF signaling in lymphangiogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:576-84 pubmed
    ..The homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is essential for development of the lymphatic system by specifying lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) fate...
  4. Baxter S, Cheung D, Bocangel P, Kim H, Herbert K, Douville J, et al. Regulation of the lymphatic endothelial cell cycle by the PROX1 homeodomain protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:201-12 pubmed publisher
    The homeobox transcription factor PROX1 is essential for the development and maintenance of lymphatic vasculature. How PROX1 regulates lymphatic endothelial cell fate remains undefined...
  5. Shimoda M, Takahashi M, Yoshimoto T, Kono T, Ikai I, Kubo H. A homeobox protein, prox1, is involved in the differentiation, proliferation, and prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:6005-11 pubmed
    It has been shown that a lymphatic differentiation master gene, prox1, also plays an essential role in fetal hepatocyte migration. Its expression is detected in embryonic hepatoblasts and in adult hepatocytes...
  6. Petrova T, Makinen T, Makela T, Saarela J, Virtanen I, Ferrell R, et al. Lymphatic endothelial reprogramming of vascular endothelial cells by the Prox-1 homeobox transcription factor. EMBO J. 2002;21:4593-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the data provide insights into the phenotypic diversity of endothelial cells and into the possibility of transcriptional reprogramming of differentiated endothelial cells...
  7. Duncan M, Cui W, Oh D, Tomarev S. Prox1 is differentially localized during lens development. Mech Dev. 2002;112:195-8 pubmed
    b>Prox1, the vertebrate cognate of Drosophila Prospero, is a homeodomain protein essential for the development of the lens, liver and lymphatic system...
  8. Welham S, Riley P, Wade A, Hubank M, Woolf A. Maternal diet programs embryonic kidney gene expression. Physiol Genomics. 2005;22:48-56 pubmed
    ..The human implication is that the maternal diet ingested between conception and 5- 6-wk gestation contributes to the variation in glomerular numbers that are known to occur between healthy and hypertensive populations. ..
  9. Rodriguez Niedenführ M, Papoutsi M, Christ B, Nicolaides K, von Kaisenberg C, Tomarev S, et al. Prox1 is a marker of ectodermal placodes, endodermal compartments, lymphatic endothelium and lymphangioblasts. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2001;204:399-406 pubmed
    ..Recently it has been shown that mice deficient for the homeobox transcription factor Prox1 are practically devoid of lymphatics...
  10. Takeda Y, Jetten A. Prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1) functions as a novel modulator of retinoic acid-related orphan receptors ?- and ?-mediated transactivation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:6992-7008 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we identify Prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1) as a novel co-repressor of the retinoic acid-related orphan receptors, ROR? and ROR?...
  11. Fritzsch B, Dillard M, Lavado A, Harvey N, Jahan I. Canal cristae growth and fiber extension to the outer hair cells of the mouse ear require Prox1 activity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9377 pubmed publisher
    The homeobox gene Prox1 is required for lens, retina, pancreas, liver, and lymphatic vasculature development and is expressed in inner ear supporting cells and neurons...
  12. Qin J, Zhai J, Hong R, Shan S, Kong Y, Wen Y, et al. Prospero-related homeobox protein (Prox1) inhibits hepatitis B virus replication through repressing multiple cis regulatory elements. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report that nuclear factor Prospero-related homeobox protein (Prox1) represses HBV antigen expression and genome replication in cultured hepatocytes...
  13. Chen X, Patel T, Simirskii V, Duncan M. PCNA interacts with Prox1 and represses its transcriptional activity. Mol Vis. 2008;14:2076-86 pubmed
    b>Prox1 is a transcription factor which can function either as a transcriptional activator, transcriptional repressor or a transcriptional corepressor...
  14. Galeeva A, Treuter E, Tomarev S, Pelto Huikko M. A prospero-related homeobox gene Prox-1 is expressed during postnatal brain development as well as in the adult rodent brain. Neuroscience. 2007;146:604-16 pubmed
    ..The prominent but limited distribution of Prox-1 in the brain suggests its potentially important role during postnatal brain development and in adult CNS, which remains to be ascertained in future studies. ..
  15. Yamazaki T, Yoshimatsu Y, Morishita Y, Miyazono K, Watabe T. COUP-TFII regulates the functions of Prox1 in lymphatic endothelial cells through direct interaction. Genes Cells. 2009;14:425-34 pubmed publisher
    During embryonic lymphatic development, Prox1 homeobox transcription factor is expressed in a subset of venous blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) in which COUP-TFII orphan nuclear receptor is highly expressed...
  16. McCloskey D, Hintz T, Pierce J, Scharfman H. Stereological methods reveal the robust size and stability of ectopic hilar granule cells after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the adult rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2006;24:2203-10 pubmed
    ..The results provide new insight into the potential role of ectopic hilar granule cells in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. ..
  17. Flister M, Wilber A, Hall K, Iwata C, Miyazono K, Nisato R, et al. Inflammation induces lymphangiogenesis through up-regulation of VEGFR-3 mediated by NF-kappaB and Prox1. Blood. 2010;115:418-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2 primary mediators of lymphangiogenesis are vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) and Prox1. The key factors that regulate inflammation-induced transcription are members of the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-..
  18. Dudas J, Papoutsi M, Hecht M, Elmaouhoub A, Saile B, Christ B, et al. The homeobox transcription factor Prox1 is highly conserved in embryonic hepatoblasts and in adult and transformed hepatocytes, but is absent from bile duct epithelium. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2004;208:359-66 pubmed
    b>Prox1 is a transcription factor with two highly conserved domains, a homeobox and a prospero domain. It has been shown that Prox1 knock-out mice die during early embryonic stages and display a rudimentary liver...
  19. Tateya T, Imayoshi I, Tateya I, Ito J, Kageyama R. Cooperative functions of Hes/Hey genes in auditory hair cell and supporting cell development. Dev Biol. 2011;352:329-40 pubmed publisher
  20. László V, Dezso K, Baghy K, Papp V, Kovalszky I, Safrany G, et al. Triiodothyronine accelerates differentiation of rat liver progenitor cells into hepatocytes. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008;130:1005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..positive for hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 and start to express hepatocyte specific connexin 32, alpha1 integrin, Prox1, cytochrom P450s, and form CD 26 positive bile canaliculi...
  21. Hong Y, Harvey N, Noh Y, Schacht V, Hirakawa S, Detmar M, et al. Prox1 is a master control gene in the program specifying lymphatic endothelial cell fate. Dev Dyn. 2002;225:351-7 pubmed of the first indications that lymphangiogenesis has begun is the polarized expression of the homeobox gene Prox1 in a subpopulation of venous endothelial cells...
  22. Dudas J, Elmaouhoub A, Mansuroglu T, Batusic D, Tron K, Saile B, et al. Prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1) is a stable hepatocyte marker during liver development, injury and regeneration, and is absent from "oval cells". Histochem Cell Biol. 2006;126:549-62 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to analyse the changes of Prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1) gene expression in rat liver under different experimental conditions of liver injury, regeneration and acute phase reaction, and to correlate it with ..
  23. Papoutsi M, Dudas J, Becker J, Tripodi M, Opitz L, Ramadori G, et al. Gene regulation by homeobox transcription factor Prox1 in murine hepatoblasts. Cell Tissue Res. 2007;330:209-20 pubmed
    The homeobox transcription factor Prox1 is expressed in embryonic hepatoblasts and remains expressed in adult hepatocytes. Prox1-null mice show severe deficiencies in liver development, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown...
  24. Lee S, Kang J, Yoo J, Ganesan S, Cook S, Aguilar B, et al. Prox1 physically and functionally interacts with COUP-TFII to specify lymphatic endothelial cell fate. Blood. 2009;113:1856-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 functions to reprogram venous ECs to lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs)...