Gene Symbol: Prlr
Description: prolactin receptor
Alias: RATPRLR, prolactin receptor, PRL-R, lactogen receptor
Species: rat
Products:     Prlr

Top Publications

  1. Kokay I, Petersen S, Grattan D. Identification of prolactin-sensitive GABA and kisspeptin neurons in regions of the rat hypothalamus involved in the control of fertility. Endocrinology. 2011;152:526-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We used dual-label in situ hybridization to investigate whether prolactin-receptor (PRLR) mRNA is expressed in GnRH neurons...
  2. Consiglio A, Bridges R. Circulating prolactin, MPOA prolactin receptor expression and maternal aggression in lactating rats. Behav Brain Res. 2009;197:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine if plasma prolactin (PRL) and prolactin receptor (PRL-R(L)) mRNA expression in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of lactating rats are altered in association ..
  3. Boutin J, Jolicoeur C, Okamura H, Gagnon J, Edery M, Shirota M, et al. Cloning and expression of the rat prolactin receptor, a member of the growth hormone/prolactin receptor gene family. Cell. 1988;53:69-77 pubmed
    The primary structure of the rat liver prolactin receptor has been deduced from a single complementary DNA clone...
  4. Pi X, Zhang B, Li J, Voogt J. Promoter usage and estrogen regulation of prolactin receptor gene in the brain of the female rat. Neuroendocrinology. 2003;77:187-97 pubmed
    Mechanisms underlying hormonal regulation of prolactin receptor (PRL-R) gene in the brain are unknown...
  5. Patel O, Zakrzewska E, Maple R, Baer L, Ronca A, Wade C, et al. Lipogenesis impaired in periparturient rats exposed to altered gravity is independent of prolactin and glucocorticoid secretion. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;104:847-58 pubmed publisher
    Perturbed prolactin (PRL) secretion and concomitant downregulation of PRL receptor (PRLR) in periparturient dams exposed to altered gravity are linked to aberrant lipogenesis and reduced neonatal survival...
  6. Bridges R, Hays L. Steroid-induced alterations in mRNA expression of the long form of the prolactin receptor in the medial preoptic area of female rats: Effects of exposure to a pregnancy-like regimen of progesterone and estradiol. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;140:10-6 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the dorsal MPOA may be one site of progesterone's action in facilitating prolactin-mediated maternal behavior. ..
  7. Kokay I, Grattan D. Expression of mRNA for prolactin receptor (long form) in dopamine and pro-opiomelanocortin neurones in the arcuate nucleus of non-pregnant and lactating rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2005;17:827-35 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether long-form prolactin receptor (PRL-R(L)) mRNA is present on TIDA neurones in nonpregnant and lactating rats...
  8. Parthasarathy C, Balasubramanian K. Differential effect of corticosterone deficiency on the expression of LH, prolactin and insulin receptors on rat Leydig cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;285:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that metyrapone-induced corticosterone deficiency impairs Leydig cell insulin and prolactin receptors, and their mRNA expression and the response of Leydig cells to LH/PRL/insulin on testosterone production. ..
  9. Nogami H, Hoshino R, Ogasawara K, Miyamoto S, Hisano S. Region-specific expression and hormonal regulation of the first exon variants of rat prolactin receptor mRNA in rat brain and anterior pituitary gland. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:583-93 pubmed
    Recent studies have revealed the occurrence of five first exon variants of the rat prolactin receptor mRNA, suggesting that multiple promoters direct prolactin receptor transcription in response to different regulatory factors...

More Information


  1. Pi X, Voogt J, Grattan D. Detection of prolactin receptor mRNA in the corpus striatum and substantia nigra of the rat. J Neurosci Res. 2002;67:551-8 pubmed
    The observation of prolactin modulation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system suggests the expression of prolactin receptor in the corpus striatum or substantia nigra...
  2. O Neal K, Yu Lee L. Differential signal transduction of the short, Nb2, and long prolactin receptors. Activation of interferon regulatory factor-1 and cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:26076-82 pubmed
    An Nb2 prolactin receptor (PRL-R) cDNA has been cloned from the PRL-dependent Nb2-11C cell line, and the protein-coding region is identical to that of the PRL-R isolated from the PRL-independent cell line Nb2-Sp...
  3. Robertson F, Harris J, Naylor M, Oakes S, Kindblom J, Dillner K, et al. Prostate development and carcinogenesis in prolactin receptor knockout mice. Endocrinology. 2003;144:3196-205 pubmed
    ..prostate development, gene expression, and simian virus 40 (SV40)T-induced prostate carcinogenesis in prolactin receptor knockout mice...
  4. Tanaka M, Hayashida Y, Iguchi T, Nakao N, Suzuki M, Nakai N, et al. Identification of a novel first exon of prolactin receptor gene expressed in the rat brain. Endocrinology. 2002;143:2080-4 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PRL-R gene expression in rat brain is controlled by the promoter for the E1(4) first exon. ..
  5. Möderscheim T, Gorba T, Pathipati P, Kokay I, Grattan D, Williams C, et al. Prolactin is involved in glial responses following a focal injury to the juvenile rat brain. Neuroscience. 2007;145:963-73 pubmed
    ..001). Initial prolactin and prolactin receptor staining on penumbral neurons progressively decreased whereas astrocytes remained strongly immunopositive...
  6. Carvalho Freitas M, Rodrigues Costa E, Nasello A, Palermo Neto J, Felicio L. In vitro macrophage activity: biphasic effect of prolactin and indirect evidence of dopaminergic modulation. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2008;15:131-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that macrophage functions are regulated by an endogenous dopaminergic tone. Our data also suggest that both PRL and dopamine exert their action by acting directly on the peritoneal macrophage. ..
  7. Miyoshi K, Shillingford J, Smith G, Grimm S, Wagner K, Oka T, et al. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 5 controls the proliferation and differentiation of mammary alveolar epithelium. J Cell Biol. 2001;155:531-42 pubmed
    ..We examined the specific contributions of the prolactin receptor (PrlR) and the signal transducers and activators of transcription 5a and 5b (referred to as Stat5) in the ..
  8. Brandebourg T, Bown J, Ben Jonathan N. Prolactin upregulates its receptors and inhibits lipolysis and leptin release in male rat adipose tissue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:408-13 pubmed
    ..We examined whether PRL affects the expression of its receptors (PRLR), lipolysis, and adipokine secretion in male rats...
  9. Herington A, Harrison D, Graystone J. Hepatic binding of human and bovine growth hormones and ovine prolactin in the dwarf "little" mouse. Endocrinology. 1983;112:2032-8 pubmed
    ..The failure of lit/lit mice to grow normally despite normal levels of GH receptor raises questions regarding the site and mechanism of the growth defect in the little mouse. ..
  10. Arumugam R, Fleenor D, Freemark M. Knockdown of prolactin receptors in a pancreatic beta cell line: effects on DNA synthesis, apoptosis, and gene expression. Endocrine. 2014;46:568-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We treated rat insulinoma cells with a PRL receptor (PRLR) siRNA to determine if PRLR signaling is required for beta cell DNA synthesis and cell survival and to identify ..
  11. Pi X, Voogt J. Sex difference and estrous cycle: expression of prolactin receptor mRNA in rat brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;103:130-9 pubmed
    The short and long forms of prolactin receptor (PRL-R) mRNA have been detected in the female rat brain...
  12. Aleksandrova M, Kushnareva N, Smirnova O. Prolactine receptor expression in kidney tissue of female rats with cholestasis: the effect of hyperprolactinemia. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2012;153:448-51 pubmed
    Immunohistochemistry with semiquantitative image analysis showed that prolactin receptor in distal renal tubules of female rats is most sensitive to the negative effects of both cholestasis and hyperprolactinemia...
  13. Ali S, Pellegrini I, Kelly P. A prolactin-dependent immune cell line (Nb2) expresses a mutant form of prolactin receptor. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:20110-7 pubmed
    ..The identification of a modified long form of PRL-R in the Nb2 cell line should help localize domains of the PRL-R involved in signal transduction and further the investigation of prolactin's role in immune cell proliferation. ..
  14. Bridges R, Scanlan V, Lee J, Byrnes E. Reproductive experience alters prolactin receptor expression in mammary and hepatic tissues in female rats. Biol Reprod. 2011;85:340-6 pubmed publisher
    ..tissues, that is, mammary tissue and liver, it was asked whether reproductive experience may also alter prolactin receptor (Prlr) gene expression in these tissues...
  15. Harris J, Stanford P, Sutherland K, Oakes S, Naylor M, Robertson F, et al. Socs2 and elf5 mediate prolactin-induced mammary gland development. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:1177-87 pubmed
    ..we constructed transcript profiles derived from transplanted mammary glands formed by recombination of prolactin receptor (Prlr) knockout or wild-type mammary epithelium with wild-type mammary stroma...
  16. Somers W, Ultsch M, de Vos A, Kossiakoff A. The X-ray structure of a growth hormone-prolactin receptor complex. Nature. 1994;372:478-81 pubmed
    ..We present here the crystal structure of the 1:1 complex of hGH bound to the extracellular domain of the hPRLR. Comparisons with the hGH-hGHR complex reveal how hGH can bind to the two distinctly different receptor binding surfaces. ..
  17. Kline J, Roehrs H, Clevenger C. Functional characterization of the intermediate isoform of the human prolactin receptor. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:35461-8 pubmed
    Prolactin-dependent signaling occurs as the result of ligand-induced dimerization of the prolactin receptor (PRLr)...
  18. Helman D, Staten N, Grosclaude J, Daniel N, Nespoulous C, Djiane J, et al. Novel recombinant analogues of bovine placental lactogen. G133K and G133R provide a tool to understand the difference between the action of prolactin and growth hormone receptors. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:16067-74 pubmed
    ..receptor (GHR) or with human (h) GHR, to Nb2 rat lymphoma cells, or to rabbit mammary gland membranes prolactin receptor (PRLR), revealed only small or no reduction in binding capacity...
  19. Shillingford J, Miyoshi K, Flagella M, Shull G, Hennighausen L. Mouse mammary epithelial cells express the Na-K-Cl cotransporter, NKCC1: characterization, localization, and involvement in ductal development and morphogenesis. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:1309-21 pubmed
  20. Augustine R, Kokay I, Andrews Z, Ladyman S, Grattan D. Quantitation of prolactin receptor mRNA in the maternal rat brain during pregnancy and lactation. J Mol Endocrinol. 2003;31:221-32 pubmed
    b>Prolactin receptor (PRL-R) expression in the brain is increased in lactating rats compared with non-pregnant animals...
  21. Shirota M, Banville D, Ali S, Jolicoeur C, Boutin J, Edery M, et al. Expression of two forms of prolactin receptor in rat ovary and liver. Mol Endocrinol. 1990;4:1136-43 pubmed
    ..5-kb mRNA is obtained with the probe specific to the short form. The predicted size of the mature form of the long PRL receptor (PRL-R2) is 591 amino acid residues.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  22. Bogorad R, Ostroukhova T, Orlova A, Rubtsov P, Smirnova O. Prolactin receptors in rat cholangiocytes: regulation of level and isoform ratio is sex independent. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2006;71:178-84 pubmed
    The presence of prolactin receptor and peculiarities of its isoform expression in bile duct cells (cholangiocytes) differentially isolated from rat liver under different conditions were investigated in the present study...
  23. Crambert S, Sjöberg A, Eklöf A, Ibarra F, Holtback U. Prolactin and dopamine 1-like receptor interaction in renal proximal tubular cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010;299:F49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results further emphasize the central role of the renal dopamine system in the interactive regulation of renal tubular salt balance. ..
  24. Lindeman G, Wittlin S, Lada H, Naylor M, Santamaria M, Zhang J, et al. SOCS1 deficiency results in accelerated mammary gland development and rescues lactation in prolactin receptor-deficient mice. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1631-6 pubmed
    ..Significantly, the lactogenic defect in prolactin receptor heterozygous females could be rescued by deletion of a single SOCS1 allele...
  25. Kobayashi M, Suzuki M, Saito T, Tanaka M. Developmental changes in the expression levels of alternative first exons of prolactin receptor gene in rat brain. Endocr Res. 2007;32:143-51 pubmed
    One of the alternative first exons, E1(4), of the rat prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene was identified 5.4 kb downstream of exon 2 by sequence analysis of a rat genomic clone...
  26. Rojas Durán F, Pascual Mathey L, Serrano K, Aranda Abreu G, Manzo J, Soto Cid A, et al. Correlation of prolactin levels and PRL-receptor expression with Stat and Mapk cell signaling in the prostate of long-term sexually active rats. Physiol Behav. 2015;138:188-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These responses seem to underlie the required physiological need to produce the quantity and quality of prostatic semen to ensure the appropriate environment for sperm to reach and fertilize the ovum. ..
  27. Patel O, Maple R, Baer L, Ronca A, Wade C, Plaut K. Tissue-specific variation in expression of prolactin receptor gene subtypes in hypergravity-exposed rats. J Gravit Physiol. 2007;14:P129-30 pubmed
    Prolactin (PRL) effects are mediated by membrane receptors (PRLR) of which the long (PRLR-L) and short form (PRLR-S) predominate...
  28. Vergara Castañeda E, Grattan D, Pasantes Morales H, Pérez Domínguez M, Cabrera Reyes E, Morales T, et al. Prolactin mediates neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons via its receptor. Brain Res. 2016;1636:193-199 pubmed publisher
    ..using primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons, and to determine whether this effect is mediated via the prolactin receptor (PRLR)...
  29. Stocco C, Djiane J, Gibori G. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) and prolactin signaling: PGF(2alpha)-mediated inhibition of prolactin receptor expression in the Corpus luteum. Endocrinology. 2003;144:3301-5 pubmed
    ..The results further suggest that PGF(2alpha)-mediated stimulation of 20alphaHSD is independent from PGF(2alpha) inhibition of PRL signaling in luteal cell. ..
  30. Longhi S, Blank V, Roguin L, Cristodero M, Retegui L. Relative localization of the prolactin receptor binding sites for lactogenic hormones. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2001;11:324-8 pubmed
    ..According to the MAb effects, PRLR from Nb2 cells would locate both hGH and oPRL close to R7B4 epitope, whereas hPL would bind far from the MAb ..
  31. Deng A, Jackson C, Hoebee B, Rapp J. Mapping of rat chromosome 2 markers generated from chromosome-sorted DNA. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:731-5 pubmed
    ..Combining new and existing markers, the marker density for the 30-cM region approaches, on average, one marker per 1.1 cM. ..
  32. Clevenger C, Medaglia M. The protein tyrosine kinase P59fyn is associated with prolactin (PRL) receptor and is activated by PRL stimulation of T-lymphocytes. Mol Endocrinol. 1994;8:674-81 pubmed
    ..Little is known, however, of the signal transduction mechanisms of the PRL receptor (PRLR) within T-cells...
  33. Asai S, Ohta R, Fujikawa T, Sakai R, Shirota M, Ogata M, et al. Gastric ulceration and expression of prolactin receptor in the brain in Hatano high- and low-avoidance rats. Endocrine. 2006;30:161-6 pubmed
    ..differences in gastric ulceration under stress may be involved in peripheral prolactin secretion and central prolactin receptor expression...
  34. Bogorad R, Smyslova V, Smirnov A, Rubtsov P, Smirnova O. [The ratio of prolactin receptor isoforms in rat hepatocytes: the effect of obstructive cholestasis]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2002;36:91-3 pubmed
  35. Zhang R, Buczko E, Tsai Morris C, Hu Z, Dufau M. Isolation and characterization of two novel rat ovarian lactogen receptor cDNA species. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;168:415-22 pubmed
    Two novel lactogen receptor cDNA clones (2.1 and 1.2 kb) were isolated from a rat ovarian cDNA library. Nucleotide sequence of the 2.1 kb clone codes for a 610 aa receptor (nonglycosylated mol. wgt...
  36. Jomain J, Tallet E, Broutin I, Hoos S, van Agthoven J, Ducruix A, et al. Structural and thermodynamic bases for the design of pure prolactin receptor antagonists: X-ray structure of Del1-9-G129R-hPRL. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33118-31 pubmed
  37. Prigent Tessier A, Barkai U, Tessier C, Cohen H, Gibori G. Characterization of a rat uterine cell line, U(III) cells: prolactin (PRL) expression and endogenous regulation of PRL-dependent genes; estrogen receptor beta, alpha(2)-macroglobulin, and decidual PRL involving the Jak2 and Stat5 pathway. Endocrinology. 2001;142:1242-50 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we have shown for the first time that decidual PRL may act locally to activate the Jak2/Stat5 pathway and up-regulate important genes involved in decidual growth and placentation. ..
  38. Fujikawa T, Tamura K, Kawase T, Mori Y, Sakai R, Sakuma K, et al. Prolactin receptor knockdown in the rat paraventricular nucleus by a morpholino-antisense oligonucleotide causes hypocalcemia and stress gastric erosion. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3471-80 pubmed
    ..This leads to an elevated expression of the long form of PRLR (PRLR-L) first in the hypothalamus and the choroid plexus...
  39. Corbacho A, Macotela Y, Nava G, Eiserich J, Cross C, Martinez de la Escalera G, et al. Cytokine induction of prolactin receptors mediates prolactin inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in pulmonary fibroblasts. FEBS Lett. 2003;544:171-5 pubmed
    ..These results reveal previously unrecognized mechanisms by which PRL and PRL receptors may play significant modulatory roles during immune-inflammatory processes. ..
  40. Deng A, Dene H, Rapp J. Mapping of a quantitative trait locus for blood pressure on rat chromosome 2. J Clin Invest. 1994;94:431-6 pubmed
    ..The LOD score for existence of this blood pressure QTL based on the combined populations (n = 330) was 5.66 and accounted for 9.2% of the total variance and 26% of the genetic variance. ..