Prl

Summary

Gene Symbol: Prl
Description: prolactin
Alias: Gha1, PRLB, PRLSD1, Prl1a1, Prol, RATPRLSD1, RNPROL, prolactin, growth hormone a1, prolactin family 1, subfamily a, member 1
Species: rat
Products:     Prl

Top Publications

  1. Lisboa P, Passos M, Dutra S, Bonomo I, Denolato A, Reis A, et al. Leptin and prolactin, but not corticosterone, modulate body weight and thyroid function in protein-malnourished lactating rats. Horm Metab Res. 2006;38:295-9 pubmed
    ..well as the higher serum T (3), higher deiodination, iodide and T (3) milk transfer, we measured maternal serum prolactin, leptin, TSH and corticosterone, which are hormones that could influence those parameters...
  2. Lkhider M, Castino R, Bouguyon E, Isidoro C, Ollivier Bousquet M. Cathepsin D released by lactating rat mammary epithelial cells is involved in prolactin cleavage under physiological conditions. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5155-64 pubmed
    The 16 kDa prolactin fragment arises from partial proteolysis of the native 23 kDa prolactin pituitary hormone...
  3. Castino R, Delpal S, Bouguyon E, Demoz M, Isidoro C, Ollivier Bousquet M. Prolactin promotes the secretion of active cathepsin D at the basal side of rat mammary acini. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4095-105 pubmed publisher
    ..is also found in the incubation medium of mammary acini in molecular forms that are proteolytically active on prolactin at a physiological pH...
  4. Ferraris J, Boutillon F, Bernadet M, Seilicovich A, Goffin V, Pisera D. Prolactin receptor antagonism in mouse anterior pituitary: effects on cell turnover and prolactin receptor expression. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E356-64 pubmed publisher
    Since anterior pituitary expresses prolactin receptors, prolactin secreted by lactotropes could exert autocrine or paracrine actions on anterior pituitary cells...
  5. Kelly M, Rubinstein M, Asa S, Zhang G, Saez C, Bunzow J, et al. Pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia and chronic hyperprolactinemia in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice. Neuron. 1997;19:103-13 pubmed
    ..Aged female D2 receptor -/- mice developed uterine adenomyosis in response to prolonged prolactin exposure...
  6. Ferraris J, Radl D, Zárate S, Jaita G, Eijo G, Zaldivar V, et al. N-terminal prolactin-derived fragments, vasoinhibins, are proapoptoptic and antiproliferative in the anterior pituitary. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21806 pubmed publisher
    ..At proestrus, concomitant with the maximum rate of apoptosis, a peak in circulating levels of prolactin is observed...
  7. Saiardi A, Bozzi Y, Baik J, Borrelli E. Antiproliferative role of dopamine: loss of D2 receptors causes hormonal dysfunction and pituitary hyperplasia. Neuron. 1997;19:115-26 pubmed
    ..In contrast, prolactin levels are six times higher in females than in males...
  8. Adán N, Guzmán Morales J, Ledesma Colunga M, Perales Canales S, Quintanar Stephano A, Lopez Barrera F, et al. Prolactin promotes cartilage survival and attenuates inflammation in inflammatory arthritis. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:3902-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The hormone prolactin (PRL) frequently increases in the circulation of patients with RA, but the role of hyperprolactinemia in disease ..
  9. Montgomery D. Prolactin production by immune cells. Lupus. 2001;10:665-75 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is a pituitary hormone and a cytokine that plays an important role in rodent and human immune responses, including autoimmune diseases...

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Esquifino A, Alvarez M, Cano P, Chacon F, Reyes Toso C, Cardinali D. 24-hour pattern of circulating prolactin and growth hormone levels and submaxillary lymph node immune responses in growing male rats subjected to social isolation. Endocrine. 2004;25:41-8 pubmed
    To assess the effect of social isolation of growing rats on 24-h rhythmicity of circulating prolactin and growth hormone (GH) levels and submaxillary lymph node immune responses, male Wistar rats were either individually caged or kept in ..
  2. Carreño P, Sacedon R, Jiménez E, Vicente A, Zapata A. Prolactin affects both survival and differentiation of T-cell progenitors. J Neuroimmunol. 2005;160:135-45 pubmed
    We have analysed the in vitro effects of prolactin on thymocyte development concluding that PRL favours the survival and differentiation of T-cell progenitors...
  3. Fell M, Anjum N, Dickinson K, Marshall K, Peltola L, Vickers S, et al. The distinct effects of subchronic antipsychotic drug treatment on macronutrient selection, body weight, adiposity, and metabolism in female rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007;194:221-31 pubmed
    ..insulin, glucose, nonesterified free fatty acid, total cholesterol, glycerol, triacylglycerol, leptin, and prolactin) were analyzed at the end of the study. Only olanzapine significantly increased body weight and food intake...
  4. Feher P, OLAH M, Bodnar I, Hechtl D, Bacskay I, Juhasz B, et al. Dephosphorylation/inactivation of tyrosine hydroxylase at the median eminence of the hypothalamus is required for suckling-induced prolactin and adrenocorticotrop hormone responses. Brain Res Bull. 2010;82:141-5 pubmed publisher
    ..DA) released from terminals of the hypothalamic neuroendocrine dopamine (NEDA) neurons plays a role not only in prolactin (PRL), but also in adrenocorticotrop hormone (ACTH) secretion, without having any influence on alpha-melanocyte-..
  5. Gangisetty O, Jabbar S, Wynne O, Sarkar D. MicroRNA-9 regulates fetal alcohol-induced changes in D2 receptor to promote prolactin production. J Endocrinol. 2017;235:1-14 pubmed publisher
    Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) is known to increase prolactin (PRL) secretion from the pituitary lactotropes. In this study, we determined whether microRNAs (miRs) are involved in FAE-induced alteration in PRL release...
  6. Hooghe R, Dogusan Z, Martens N, Velkeniers B, Hooghe Peters E. Effects of prolactin on signal transduction and gene expression: possible relevance for systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2001;10:719-27 pubmed
    Receptors for prolactin (PRL-R) are expressed in normal leukocytes from rat and man. PRL signals through PRL-R associated Janus tyrosine kinase (Jak)-2 and signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat)...
  7. Pu H, Liu T. Differential involvement of protein kinase C in basal versus acetylcholine-regulated prolactin secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells during aging. J Cell Biochem. 2002;86:268-76 pubmed
    Although it is well known that plasma concentration of prolactin (PRL) increases during aging in rats, how the anterior pituitary (AP) aging per se affects PRL secretion remains obscure...
  8. Ibarra F, Crambert S, Eklöf A, Lundquist A, Hansell P, Holtback U. Prolactin, a natriuretic hormone, interacting with the renal dopamine system. Kidney Int. 2005;68:1700-7 pubmed
    Although prolactin affects sodium and water transport across the plasma membrane and interacts with dopamine in the brain, its role in the kidney is unclear...
  9. Lotinun S, Limlomwongse L, Sirikulchayanonta V, Krishnamra N. Bone calcium turnover, formation, and resorption in bromocriptine- and prolactin-treated lactating rats. Endocrine. 2003;20:163-70 pubmed
    To evaluate the effect of endogenous prolactin (PRL) on bone metabolism, we studied bone calcium turnover by the (45)Ca kinetic method and bone formation and resorption by bone histomorphometry and biochemical markers in 13-wk-old ..
  10. Kawaminami M, Senda A, Etoh S, Miyaoka H, Kurusu S, Hashimoto I. Annexin 5 inhibits thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulated prolactin release in the primary culture of rat anterior pituitary cells. Endocr J. 2004;51:349-54 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, annexin 5 was shown to inhibit prolactin release in vitro...
  11. Kraidith K, Jantarajit W, Teerapornpuntakit J, Nakkrasae L, Krishnamra N, Charoenphandhu N. Direct stimulation of the transcellular and paracellular calcium transport in the rat cecum by prolactin. Pflugers Arch. 2009;458:993-1005 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is reported to stimulate calcium absorption in the rat's small intestine. However, little is known regarding its effects on the cecum, a part of the large intestine with the highest rate of intestinal calcium transport...
  12. Chen S, Bangaru M, Sneade L, Dunckley J, Ben Jonathan N, Kansra S. Epidermal growth factor receptor cross-talks with ligand-occupied estrogen receptor-alpha to modulate both lactotroph proliferation and prolactin gene expression. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E331-9 pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated that EGF phosphorylates S118 on estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and requires ERalpha to stimulate prolactin (PRL) release...
  13. Gilchrist C, Shull J. Epidermal growth factor induces prolactin mRNA in GH4C1 cells via a protein synthesis-dependent pathway. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1993;92:201-6 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) gene expression is regulated through a complex network of signal transduction pathways activated by various hormones and growth factors...
  14. Egli M, Bertram R, Sellix M, Freeman M. Rhythmic secretion of prolactin in rats: action of oxytocin coordinated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide of suprachiasmatic nucleus origin. Endocrinology. 2004;145:3386-94 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is secreted from lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland of rats in a unique pattern in response to uterine cervical stimulation (CS) during mating...
  15. Romano D, Magalon K, Pertuit M, Rasolonjanahary R, Barlier A, Enjalbert A, et al. Conditional overexpression of the wild-type Gs alpha as the gsp oncogene initiates chronic extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 activation and hormone hypersecretion in pituitary cell lines. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2973-83 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of the wild-type G(s)alpha protein as the gsp oncogene initiated chronic activation of endogenous prolactin synthesis and release, as well as chronic activation of ERK1/2-sensitive human prolactin and GH promoters.
  16. Lee S, Kunz J, Lin S, Yu Lee L. 16-kDa prolactin inhibits endothelial cell migration by down-regulating the Ras-Tiam1-Rac1-Pak1 signaling pathway. Cancer Res. 2007;67:11045-53 pubmed
    Angiogenesis plays a key role in promoting tumorigenesis and metastasis. The 16-kDa fragment of prolactin (16k PRL) is an NH(2)-terminal natural breakdown fragment of the intact 23-kDa prolactin and has been shown to have potent ..
  17. Jorgacevski J, Stenovec M, Kreft M, Bajić A, Rituper B, Vardjan N, et al. Hypotonicity and peptide discharge from a single vesicle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C624-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the release of the pituitary hormone prolactin by hypotonicity, because this hormone also contributes to osmoregulation...
  18. Maurer R, Erwin C, Donelson J. Analysis of 5' flanking sequences and intron-exon boundaries of the rat prolactin gene. J Biol Chem. 1981;256:10524-8 pubmed
  19. Prigent Tessier A, Barkai U, Tessier C, Cohen H, Gibori G. Characterization of a rat uterine cell line, U(III) cells: prolactin (PRL) expression and endogenous regulation of PRL-dependent genes; estrogen receptor beta, alpha(2)-macroglobulin, and decidual PRL involving the Jak2 and Stat5 pathway. Endocrinology. 2001;142:1242-50 pubmed
    Decidualization of endometrial stroma in the rat induces the expression and secretion of rat decidual PRL (rdPRL)...
  20. Jackson T, Koterwas D, Morgan M, Bradford A. Fibroblast growth factors regulate prolactin transcription via an atypical Rac-dependent signaling pathway. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1921-30 pubmed
    ..We have previously characterized FGF signal transduction and regulation of the tissue-specific rat prolactin (rPRL) promoter in GH4 pituitary cells...
  21. Leite C, Machado G, Dornelles R, Franci C. Actions of angiotensin II and dopamine in the medial preoptic area on prolactin secretion. Physiol Res. 2008;57:109-18 pubmed
    Dopamine (DA) is known as a primary regulator of prolactin secretion (PRL) and angiotensin II (Ang II) has been recognized as one brain inhibitory factor of this secretion...
  22. Vergara Castañeda E, Grattan D, Pasantes Morales H, Pérez Domínguez M, Cabrera Reyes E, Morales T, et al. Prolactin mediates neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons via its receptor. Brain Res. 2016;1636:193-199 pubmed publisher
    Recently it has been reported that prolactin (PRL) exerts a neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity in hippocampus in the rat in vivo models...
  23. Villalobos C, Núñez L, Faught W, Leaumont D, Boockfor F, Frawley L. Calcium dynamics and resting transcriptional activity regulates prolactin gene expression. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3548-54 pubmed
    ..Here we achieved concurrent, dynamic measurements of both intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and prolactin (PRL) gene promoter activity in single, living pituitary cells...
  24. Moon H, Han S, Shin J, Kang I, Kim T, Hong J, et al. Gestational exposure to nonylphenol causes precocious mammary gland development in female rat offspring. J Reprod Dev. 2007;53:333-44 pubmed
    ..The level of prolactin staining was only elevated in glands containing lobule areas (NP-exposed) compared with the control levels...
  25. Guillaumond F, Boyer B, Becquet D, Guillen S, Kuhn L, Garin J, et al. Chromatin remodeling as a mechanism for circadian prolactin transcription: rhythmic NONO and SFPQ recruitment to HLTF. FASEB J. 2011;25:2740-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the case for the prolactin (Prl) gene, the expression of which oscillates in individual lactotrope pituitary cells...
  26. Zimmerman D, Young W, Ebersold M, Scheithauer B, Kovacs K, Horvath E, et al. Congenital gigantism due to growth hormone-releasing hormone excess and pituitary hyperplasia with adenomatous transformation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993;76:216-22 pubmed
    ..Baseline plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-I, PRL, and immunoreactive GHRH were also markedly increased...
  27. Macotela Y, Aguilar M, Guzmán Morales J, Rivera J, Zermeño C, Lopez Barrera F, et al. Matrix metalloproteases from chondrocytes generate an antiangiogenic 16 kDa prolactin. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1790-800 pubmed
    The 16 kDa N-terminal fragment of prolactin (16K-prolactin) is a potent antiangiogenic factor...
  28. Oride A, Kanasaki H, Purwana I, Miyazaki K. Possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced prolactin gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;382:663-7 pubmed publisher
    ..signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in mediating the ability of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) to stimulate the prolactin gene has been well elucidated...
  29. Martyn A, Choleris E, Gillis D, Armstrong J, Amor T, McCluggage A, et al. Luman/CREB3 recruitment factor regulates glucocorticoid receptor activity and is essential for prolactin-mediated maternal instinct. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:5140-50 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Prolactin levels were significantly repressed in lactating LRF(-/-) dams, with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling ..
  30. Halkein J, Tabruyn S, Ricke Hoch M, Haghikia A, Nguyen N, Scherr M, et al. MicroRNA-146a is a therapeutic target and biomarker for peripartum cardiomyopathy. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Although PPCM is driven in part by the 16-kDa N-terminal prolactin fragment (16K PRL), the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood...
  31. Leung K, Doyle N, Ballesteros M, Sjogren K, Watts C, Low T, et al. Estrogen inhibits GH signaling by suppressing GH-induced JAK2 phosphorylation, an effect mediated by SOCS-2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1016-21 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, estrogen inhibits GH signaling, an action mediated by SOCS-2. This paper provides evidence for regulatory interaction between a sex steroid and the GHJAKSTAT pathway, in which SOCS-2 plays a central mechanistic role. ..
  32. Gonzalez C, Corbacho A, Eiserich J, Garcia C, Lopez Barrera F, Morales Tlalpan V, et al. 16K-prolactin inhibits activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, intracellular calcium mobilization, and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Endocrinology. 2004;145:5714-22 pubmed
    ..The N-terminal 16-kDa fragment of prolactin (16K-PRL) acts on endothelial cells to inhibit angiogenesis both in vivo and in vitro...
  33. Rodriguez T, Biscarde E, Muniz R, Amoedo M, Ramalho M. Prolactin secretion in hypothyroid endotoxemic rats: involvement of L-arginine and nitric oxide synthase. Shock. 2005;23:448-52 pubmed
    ..methyl ester (L-NAME), a NOS inhibitor, and L-arginine (L-Arg), the substrate for NO synthesis, on prolactin (PRL) secretion, through the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in thyroidectomized (TX) ..
  34. Mena F, Navarro N, Castilla A, Morales T, Fiordelisio T, Cárabez A, et al. Prolactin released in vitro from the pituitary of lactating, pregnant, and steroid-treated female or male rats stimulates prolactin secretion from pituitary lactotropes of male rats. Neuroendocrinology. 2010;91:77-93 pubmed publisher
    ..regions of the anterior pituitary (AP) gland of lactating rats promoted the in vitro dose-related release of prolactin (PRL) from pituitary glands of male rats...
  35. Herrera Covarrubias D, Tecamachaltzi Silvaran M, Barradas Moctezuma M, Rosales Raya J, Manzo J, Garcia L, et al. Effect of copulation on potentially precancerous prostate lesions, serum testosterone and prolactin levels in rats. Exp Oncol. 2016;38:73-9 pubmed
    ..trial all the males were sacrificed for prostate histo-logy (H&E) and hormone analysis (testosterone and prolactin). Males from the group Control + No sex expressed normal histo-logy...
  36. Schweppe R, Melton A, Brodsky K, Aveline L, Resing K, Ahn N, et al. Purification and mass spectrometric identification of GA-binding protein (GABP) as the functional pituitary Ets factor binding to the basal transcription element of the prolactin promoter. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:16863-72 pubmed
    The Ets-binding site within the basal transcription element (BTE) of the rat prolactin (rPRL) promoter is critical for both basal and growth factor-regulated rPRL gene expression...
  37. Tentler J, Bradford A, Schweppe R, Gutierrez Hartmann A. Selective repression of rat prolactin gene by stable expression of dominant-negative Ets in GH4 pituitary cells. Endocrine. 2003;20:3-12 pubmed
    Members of the Ets family of transcription factors are key regulators controlling prolactin (PRL) gene expression...
  38. Leite C, Ribeiro A, Szawka R, Anselmo Franci J. Activity of hypothalamic dopaminergic neurones during the day of oestrus: involvement in prolactin secretion. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:1052-60 pubmed publisher
    A secretory surge of prolactin occurs on the afternoon of oestrus in cycling rats. Pituitary prolactin is inhibited by dopamine...
  39. Cao J, Patisaul H, Petersen S. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation in lactotropes and gonadotropes interferes with estradiol-dependent and -independent preprolactin, glycoprotein alpha and luteinizing hormone beta gene expression. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;333:151-9 pubmed publisher
    ..TCDD abrogated estradiol (E(2))-induced prolactin (Prl) expression in vivo and in vitro; conversely, E(2) blocked TCDD upregulation of luteinizing hormone beta (..
  40. Tong Y, Zhou J, Mizutani J, Fukuoka H, Ren S, Gutierrez Hartmann A, et al. CEBPD suppresses prolactin expression and prolactinoma cell proliferation. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1880-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased prolactin (PRL) levels may be due to enhanced PRL expression or proliferation of PRL-secreting cells...
  41. Thongchote K, Charoenphandhu N, Krishnamra N. High physiological prolactin induced by pituitary transplantation decreases BMD and BMC in the femoral metaphysis, but not in the diaphysis of adult female rats. J Physiol Sci. 2008;58:39-45 pubmed publisher
    High physiological prolactin (PRL) stimulated intestinal calcium absorption and renal calcium uptake in mammals...
  42. Aguilar E, Fernandez Fernandez R, Tena Sempere M, Pinilla L. Effects of peptide YY(3-36) on PRL secretion: pituitary and extra-pituitary actions in the rat. Peptides. 2004;25:1147-52 pubmed
    ..Present studies were undertaken to analyze the potential effects of PYY(3-36) in the control of prolactin (PRL) secretion in the rat...
  43. Bao L, Tessier C, Prigent Tessier A, Li F, Buzzio O, Callegari E, et al. Decidual prolactin silences the expression of genes detrimental to pregnancy. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2326-34 pubmed
    Although the main role of prolactin (PRL) in pregnant rodents is to sustain progesterone production by the corpus luteum, progesterone treatment of PRL or PRL receptor (PRL-R) null mice is unable to prevent fetal loss...
  44. Schernthaner G, Prager R, Punzengruber C, Luger A. Severe hyperprolactinaemia is associated with decreased insulin binding in vitro and insulin resistance in vivo. Diabetologia. 1985;28:138-42 pubmed
    ..Insulin binding to monocytes and erythrocytes was significantly decreased in the patients with an excess of prolactin. Scatchard analysis of binding data indicated that a decrease in the number of receptors rather than in receptor ..
  45. Kelleher S, Lonnerdal B. Mammary gland copper transport is stimulated by prolactin through alterations in Ctr1 and Atp7A localization. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;291:R1181-91 pubmed
    ..Whereas the regulation of milk composition by the lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) has been documented, the specific contribution of PRL to this process is largely unknown...
  46. Leclerc G, Boockfor F. Pulses of prolactin promoter activity depend on a noncanonical E-box that can bind the circadian proteins CLOCK and BMAL1. Endocrinology. 2005;146:2782-90 pubmed
    Recent findings from our laboratory and those of others demonstrated that prolactin gene expression (PRL-GE) oscillates in single living mammotropes, but little information is available on the molecular processes that contribute to this ..
  47. Consiglio A, Bridges R. Circulating prolactin, MPOA prolactin receptor expression and maternal aggression in lactating rats. Behav Brain Res. 2009;197:97-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine if plasma prolactin (PRL) and prolactin receptor (PRL-R(L)) mRNA expression in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of lactating rats are ..
  48. Lacerte A, Lee E, Reynaud R, Canaff L, de Guise C, Devost D, et al. Activin inhibits pituitary prolactin expression and cell growth through Smads, Pit-1 and menin. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:1558-69 pubmed
    Activin, a member of the TGFbeta superfamily, is a negative regulator of cell growth and prolactin (PRL) production in pituitary lactotrope cells...
  49. Scorticati C, Perazzo J, Rettori V, McCann S, De Laurentiis A. Role of ammonia and nitric oxide in the decrease in plasma prolactin levels in prehepatic portal hypertensive male rats. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2006;13:152-9 pubmed
    ..is known about neuroendocrine changes that occur in portal-systemic hepatic encephalopathy, we studied plasma prolactin (PRL) levels and the involvement of hyperammonemia, nitric oxide (NO) and dopaminergic and adrenergic systems in ..
  50. Tejadilla D, Cerbon M, Morales T. Prolactin reduces the damaging effects of excitotoxicity in the dorsal hippocampus of the female rat independently of ovarian hormones. Neuroscience. 2010;169:1178-85 pubmed publisher
    ..rats in diestrus phase, and hypothesize that pronounced fluctuations of hormones, such as ovarian steroids and prolactin (PRL), have a role in the neuroprotection of the dorsal hippocampus during lactation...
  51. Araujo Lopes R, Crampton J, Aquino N, Miranda R, Kokay I, Reis A, et al. Prolactin regulates kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus to suppress LH secretion in female rats. Endocrinology. 2014;155:1010-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is known to suppress LH secretion. Kisspeptin neurons regulate LH secretion and express PRL receptors. We investigated whether PRL acts on kisspeptin neurons to suppress LH secretion in lactating (Lac) and virgin rats...
  52. Liu J, Baker R, Sun C, Sundmark V, Elsholtz H. Activation of Go-coupled dopamine D2 receptors inhibits ERK1/ERK2 in pituitary cells. A key step in the transcriptional suppression of the prolactin gene. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35819-25 pubmed
    In pituitary lactotrophs the prolactin gene is stimulated by neuropeptides and estrogen and is suppressed by dopamine via D2-type receptors...
  53. Strizzi L, Mancino M, Bianco C, Raafat A, Gonzales M, Booth B, et al. Netrin-1 can affect morphogenesis and differentiation of the mouse mammary gland. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Netrin-1 may facilitate functional differentiation of mammary epithelial cells and possibly affect the expression of Nanog and/or Cripto-1 in multipotent cells that may reside in the mammary gland. ..
  54. Harper C, Featherstone K, Semprini S, Friedrichsen S, McNeilly J, Paszek P, et al. Dynamic organisation of prolactin gene expression in living pituitary tissue. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:424-30 pubmed publisher
    ..cells or intact pituitary tissue from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic rats in which a large prolactin genomic fragment directed expression of luciferase or destabilised enhanced green fluorescent protein (d2EGFP)...
  55. Pijl H, Koppeschaar H, Willekens F, Frolich M, Meinders A. The influence of serotonergic neurotransmission on pituitary hormone release in obese and non-obese females. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1993;128:319-24 pubmed
    ..We found the basal concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone to be significantly lower in obese subjects than in the normal controls...
  56. Byrnes E, Bridges R. Reproductive experience and expression of dopamine D(2) receptor mRNA: a possible mechanism for reduced prolactin secretion in primiparous rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:773-8 pubmed
    Reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and lactation) leads to reduced levels of circulating prolactin in both women and rats...
  57. Shirakawa H, Rochman M, Furusawa T, Kuehn M, Horigome S, Haketa K, et al. The nucleosomal binding protein NSBP1 is highly expressed in the placenta and modulates the expression of differentiation markers in placental Rcho-1 cells. J Cell Biochem. 2009;106:651-8 pubmed publisher
    ..protein levels, by either siRNA treatment or by overexpression, alters the expression of several members of the prolactin gene family without affecting the levels of several transcription factors involved in placental differentiation...
  58. Williams V, DeGuzman A, Dang H, Kawaminami M, Ho T, Carter D, et al. Common and specific effects of the two major forms of prolactin in the rat testis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293:E1795-803 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) has both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on testicular function, a finding we hypothesized may be related in some part to the form of the hormone present or administered...
  59. Oride A, Kanasaki H, Mutiara S, Purwana I, Miyazaki K. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and induction of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) by perifused thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation in rat pituitary GH3 cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;296:78-86 pubmed publisher
    ..ERK was phosphorylated again with each subsequent pulse. Pulsatile TRH did not induce MKP-1. Prolactin promoter activity following continuous, static TRH stimulation was higher than that following perifused TRH ..
  60. Bose S, Boockfor F. Episodes of prolactin gene expression in GH3 cells are dependent on selective promoter binding of multiple circadian elements. Endocrinology. 2010;151:2287-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) gene expression in mammotropes occurs in pulses, but the mechanism(s) underlying this dynamic process remains obscure...
  61. Lemini M, Ruiz Herrera X, Ledesma Colunga M, Díaz Lezama N, De Los Ríos E, López Barrera F, et al. Prolactin anterior pituitary expression and circulating levels are reduced in obese and diabetic rats: role of TGF-β and TNF-α. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015;308:R792-9 pubmed publisher
    The levels of the hormone prolactin (PRL) are reduced in the circulation of patients with Type 2 diabetes and in obese children, and lower systemic PRL levels correlate with an increased prevalence of diabetes and a higher risk of ..
  62. Cooke N, Coit D, Weiner R, Baxter J, Martial J. Structure of cloned DNA complementary to rat prolactin messenger RNA. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:6502-10 pubmed
  63. Machado L, Reis A, Coimbra C. Evidence of angiotensin II involvement in prolactin secretion in response to hemorrhage in adrenodemedullated and guanethidine-treated rats. Eur J Endocrinol. 2002;146:439-46 pubmed
    The present experiments were designed to investigate the influence of the renin--angiotensin system (RAS) on prolactin secretion in response to hemorrhage (1.2 ml/100 g body weight (bw)/2 min)...
  64. Helena C, McKee D, Bertram R, Walker A, Freeman M. The rhythmic secretion of mating-induced prolactin secretion is controlled by prolactin acting centrally. Endocrinology. 2009;150:3245-51 pubmed publisher
    Artificial copulomimetic cervical stimulation (CS) induces an immediate release of oxytocin (OT) and prolactin (PRL) followed by a daily PRL rhythm characterized by nocturnal and diurnal surges...
  65. Pickett C, Manning N, Akita Y, Gutierrez Hartmann A. Role of specific protein kinase C isozymes in mediating epidermal growth factor, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and phorbol ester regulation of the rat prolactin promoter in GH4/GH4C1 pituitary cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2840-52 pubmed
    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and TRH both produce enhanced prolactin (PRL) gene transcription and PRL secretion in GH4 rat pituitary tumor cell lines. These agents also activate protein kinase C (PKC) in these cells...
  66. Mravec B, Bodnar I, Tillinger A, Uhereczky G, Kvetnansky R, Palkovits M, et al. Prolactin response to formalin is related to the acute nociceptive response and it is attenuated by combined application of different stressors. Neuroendocrinology. 2007;86:69-76 pubmed
    ..In the present studies, the effect of the above-mentioned stressors has been investigated on formalin-induced prolactin (PRL) and corticosterone secretion...
  67. Ahonen T, Härkönen P, Rui H, Nevalainen M. PRL signal transduction in the epithelial compartment of rat prostate maintained as long-term organ cultures in vitro. Endocrinology. 2002;143:228-38 pubmed
    Using long-term organ cultures of rat prostate tissue explants, we previously demonstrated that PRL both stimulates proliferation and acts as an androgen-independent suppressor of apoptosis in prostate epithelial cells, leading to ..
  68. Ben Jonathan N, Chen S, Dunckley J, LaPensee C, Kansra S. Estrogen receptor-alpha mediates the epidermal growth factor-stimulated prolactin expression and release in lactotrophs. Endocrinology. 2009;150:795-802 pubmed publisher
    ..In the pituitary lactotrophs, both EGF and E2 stimulate prolactin (PRL) release, but the nature of interactions between ErbB and ERalpha signaling is unknown...
  69. Sosa L, Gutierrez S, Petiti J, Palmeri C, Mascanfroni I, Soaje M, et al. 17?-Estradiol modulates the prolactin secretion induced by TRH through membrane estrogen receptors via PI3K/Akt in female rat anterior pituitary cell culture. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E1189-97 pubmed publisher
    Considering that estradiol is a major modulator of prolactin (PRL) secretion, the aim of the present study was to analyze the role of membrane estradiol receptor-? (mER?) in the regulatory effect of this hormone on the PRL secretion ..
  70. Wilson D, Emanuele N, Jurgens J, Kelley M. Prolactin message in brain and pituitary of adult male rats is identical: PCR cloning and sequencing of hypothalamic prolactin cDNA from intact and hypophysectomized adult male rats. Endocrinology. 1992;131:2488-90 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL), or a PRL-like molecule has been identified in the central nervous system and other tissues by numerous investigators...
  71. Alexander T, Handa R, McGivern R. Inhibition of prolactin secretion from the male rat anterior pituitary by cryptic sequences of prothyrotropin releasing hormone, ProTRH178-199 and ProTRH186-199. Endocrine. 2002;19:313-8 pubmed
    ..of the cryptic peptides, prothyrotropin- releasing hormone(178-199) (ProTRH(178-199)) and ProTRH(186-199), on prolactin (PRL) release from the anterior pituitary...
  72. Olsen H, Hedengran Faulds M, Saharinen P, Silvennoinen O, Haldosén L. Effects of hyperactive Janus kinase 2 signaling in mammary epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:139-44 pubmed
    b>Prolactin, the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) are important for mammary gland development and have also been implicated in development and growth of breast tumors...
  73. Goldstein J, Perello M, Nillni E. PreproThyrotropin-releasing hormone 178-199 affects tyrosine hydroxylase biosynthesis in hypothalamic neurons: a possible role for pituitary prolactin regulation. J Mol Neurosci. 2007;31:69-82 pubmed
    ..Among these non-TRH sequences, we found previously that preproTRH178-199 could regulate the secretion of prolactin in suckled rats by their pups...
  74. Toda K, Yamamoto D, Fumoto M, Ikeshita N, Herningtyas E, Iida K, et al. Involvement of mPOU (Brn-5), a class VI POU protein, in the gene expression of Pit-1 as well as PRL. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;280:20-9 pubmed
    b>PRL is mainly expressed in the pituitary and its gene expression is regulated by a variety of transcription factors including Pit-1...
  75. Giacomini D, Paez Pereda M, Stalla J, Stalla G, Arzt E. Molecular interaction of BMP-4, TGF-beta, and estrogens in lactotrophs: impact on the PRL promoter. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:1102-14 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP-4), and TGF-beta has a strong impact on hormone secretion, gene transcription, and cellular growth of prolactin (PRL)-producing cells. In contrast to TGF-beta, BMP-4 induces the secretion of PRL in GH3 cells...
  76. Cooke N, Baxter J. Structural analysis of the prolactin gene suggests a separate origin for its 5' end. Nature. 1982;297:603-6 pubmed
  77. Muldoon M, Mackey R, Sutton Tyrrell K, Flory J, Pollock B, Manuck S. Lower central serotonergic responsivity is associated with preclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis. Stroke. 2007;38:2228-33 pubmed
    ..Central serotonergic responsivity was measured as the rise in serum prolactin concentration (area under the curve) over 2...
  78. Zorad S, Golda V, Fickova M, Macho L, Pinterova L, Jurcovicova J. Terguride treatment attenuated prolactin release and enhanced insulin receptor affinity and GLUT 4 content in obese spontaneously hypertensive female, but not male rats. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;967:490-9 pubmed
    ..serum insulin, insulin receptors in epididymal fat tissue, and GLUT 4 content in muscle, as well as serum prolactin, were studied in obese and lean spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) of both sexes...
  79. Passos M, Passos M, Oliveira E, Trotta P, Nogueira Neto J, Bonomo I, et al. Maternal prolactin inhibition during lactation is associated to renal dysfunction in their adult rat offspring. Horm Metab Res. 2011;43:636-41 pubmed publisher
    ..At 180 days, higher proteinuria (+36%) and serum creatinine levels (+20%) were detected. Our data suggest that prolactin inhibition during late lactation programs renal function damage in adult offspring that develops gradually, ..
  80. Pearce S, Dieguez C, Gualillo O, Symonds M, Stephenson T. Differential effects of age and sex on the postnatal responsiveness of brown adipose tissue to prolactin administration in rats. Exp Physiol. 2003;88:527-31 pubmed
    Previous studies have shown that prolactin administration to pregnant rats results in offspring with enhanced abundance of the brown adipose tissue-specific uncoupling protein (UCP) 1...
  81. Jaroenporn S, Nagaoka K, Kasahara C, Ohta R, Watanabe G, Taya K. Physiological roles of prolactin in the adrenocortical response to acute restraint stress. Endocr J. 2007;54:703-11 pubmed
    ..the different hormonal responses to stress in the endocrine milieu with different circulating levels of prolactin (PRL) and examined the direct effects of PRL on adrenal steroidogenic responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone (..
  82. Brelje T, Bhagroo N, Stout L, Sorenson R. Prolactin and oleic acid synergistically stimulate β-cell proliferation and growth in rat islets. Islets. 2017;9:e1330234 pubmed publisher
    Islet adaptation to pregnancy is largely influenced by prolactin and placental lactogens. In addition serum lipids are significantly increased...
  83. Borges B, Antunes Rodrigues J, Castro M, Bittencourt J, Elias C, Elias L. Expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and the desensitization of pituitary-adrenal axis and hypophagia in the endotoxin tolerance. Horm Behav. 2007;52:508-19 pubmed
    ..Animals with a single exposure to LPS showed increased plasma levels of ACTH, CORT, PRL, TNF-alpha and also CRF mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus...
  84. Zhao W, Ren S. Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) is mainly expressed in rat pituitary gonadotroph cells and possibly regulates prolactin (PRL) secretion in a juxtacrine manner. J Neuroendocrinol. 2011;23:1252-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro, this interaction has been shown to control prolactin (PRL) secretion from pituitary tumour cells...
  85. Ferraris J, Z rate S, Jaita G, Boutillon F, Bernadet M, Auffret J, et al. Prolactin induces apoptosis of lactotropes in female rodents. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97383 pubmed publisher
    ..In rats, the prolactin (PRL) surge that occurs at proestrus coincides with the highest apoptotic rate...
  86. Sasso C, Santiano F, Lopez Fontana C, Pistone Creydt V, Ezquer M, Hapon M, et al. Effects of parity and serum prolactin levels on the incidence and regression of DMBA-induced tumors in OFA hr/hr rats. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:210424 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is a key player in the development of mammary cancer. We studied the effects of parity or hyperprolactinemia on mammary carcinogenesis in OFA hr/hr treated with 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene...
  87. Farrow K, Bradford A, Tentler J, Gutierrez Hartmann A. Structural and functional analysis of the differential effects of c-Jun and v-Jun on prolactin gene expression. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:2479-90 pubmed
    ..Previously, we have demonstrated that whereas c-Jun inhibits pituitary-specific rat prolactin (rPRL) promoter activity, expression of v-Jun stimulates the rPRL promoter in GH4 pituitary cells...
  88. Donadio M, Kunrath A, Corezola K, Franci C, Anselmo Franci J, Lucion A, et al. Effects of acute stress on the day of proestrus on sexual behavior and ovulation in female rats: participation of the angiotensinergic system. Physiol Behav. 2007;92:591-600 pubmed
    ..Plasma levels of luteinizing hormone, progesterone, prolactin and corticosterone were measured...
  89. Jimenez Ortega V, Barquilla P, Pagano E, Fernández Mateos P, Esquifino A, Cardinali D. Melatonin supplementation decreases prolactin synthesis and release in rat adenohypophysis: correlation with anterior pituitary redox state and circadian clock mechanisms. Chronobiol Int. 2012;29:1021-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Since there is evidence that prolactin (PRL) is, among the endocrine signals, a major mediator of seasonal adaptations, the authors aimed to examine ..
  90. Shaw Bruha C, Pennington K, Shull J. Identification in the rat prolactin gene of sequences homologous to the distal promoter of the human prolactin gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1442:304-13 pubmed
    ..the present study was to test the hypothesis that a second, more distal, promoter exists upstream from the rat prolactin (PRL) gene (rPrl) that is homologous to that identified upstream from the human prolactin gene (hPrl)...
  91. Fujinaka Y, Takane K, Yamashita H, Vasavada R. Lactogens promote beta cell survival through JAK2/STAT5 activation and Bcl-XL upregulation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30707-17 pubmed
    ..This study explores the role of lactogenic hormones, prolactin (PRL) and placental lactogen (PL), in beta cell survival...
  92. Sengupta A, Sarkar D. Estrogen inhibits D2S receptor-regulated Gi3 and Gs protein interactions to stimulate prolactin production and cell proliferation in lactotropic cells. J Endocrinol. 2012;214:67-78 pubmed publisher
    The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is known to inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and the proliferation of lactotropes in the pituitary gland...