Gene Symbol: Prkce
Description: protein kinase C, epsilon
Alias: Pkce, protein kinase C epsilon type, nPKC-epsilon
Species: rat
Products:     Prkce

Top Publications

  1. Zhou Y, Li G, Zhao Z. State-dependent phosphorylation of epsilon-isozyme of protein kinase C in adult rat dorsal root ganglia after inflammation and nerve injury. J Neurochem. 2003;85:571-80 pubmed
    ..Inflammatory mediator-induced activation of PKCepsilon and subsequent sensitization of VR1 to noxious stimuli by PKCepsilon may be involved in nociceptor sensitization. ..
  2. Kuroda S, Tokunaga C, Kiyohara Y, Higuchi O, Konishi H, Mizuno K, et al. Protein-protein interaction of zinc finger LIM domains with protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:31029-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the LIM domain is one of the targets of PKC and that the LIM-PKC interaction may shed light on undefined roles of LIM domain-containing proteins. ..
  3. Lawrence K, Kabir A, Bellahcene M, Davidson S, Cao X, McCormick J, et al. Cardioprotection mediated by urocortin is dependent on PKCepsilon activation. FASEB J. 2005;19:831-3 pubmed
    ..This loss of cardioprotection by Ucn was also seen in whole hearts from PKCepsilon knockout mice. These findings indicate that the cardioprotective effect of Ucn is dependent upon PKCepsilon. ..
  4. Costa A, Garlid K. Intramitochondrial signaling: interactions among mitoKATP, PKCepsilon, ROS, and MPT. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;295:H874-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This feedback pathway may be responsible for the lasting protective effect of preconditioning, colloquially known as the memory effect...
  5. Cang C, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Zhao Z. PKCepsilon-dependent potentiation of TTX-resistant Nav1.8 current by neurokinin-1 receptor activation in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Mol Pain. 2009;5:33 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that activation of NK-1 receptor potentiates Na(v)1.8 sodium current via PKCepsilon-dependent signaling pathway, probably participating in the generation of inflammatory hyperalgesia. ..
  6. Heidkamp M, Bayer A, Scully B, Eble D, Samarel A. Activation of focal adhesion kinase by protein kinase C epsilon in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003;285:H1684-96 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the ET-induced signal transduction pathway resulting in downstream Y397pFAK is partially dependent on PKC epsilon, ROCK, cofilin, and assembled actin filaments, but not ERK1/2 or Src. ..
  7. Deuse T, Koyanagi T, Erben R, Hua X, Velden J, Ikeno F, et al. Sustained inhibition of epsilon protein kinase C inhibits vascular restenosis after balloon injury and stenting. Circulation. 2010;122:S170-8 pubmed publisher
    ..protein kinase C (?PKC) is involved in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) activation, but little is known about its function in vascular pathology. We aimed at assessing the role of ?PKC in the development of restenosis...
  8. Warwar N, Dov A, Abramovitch E, Wu R, Jmoudiak M, Haber E, et al. PKCepsilon mediates glucose-regulated insulin production in pancreatic beta-cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:1929-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently the enzyme may be involved in anterograde trafficking of the prohormone or in its processing within the TGN. ..
  9. Della Morte D, Raval A, Dave K, Lin H, Perez Pinzon M. Post-ischemic activation of protein kinase C ? protects the hippocampus from cerebral ischemic injury via alterations in cerebral blood flow. Neurosci Lett. 2011;487:158-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that ?PKC can protect the rat brain against ischemic damage by regulating CBF. Thus, ?PKC may be one of the treatment modalities against ischemic injury. ..

More Information


  1. Xu T, He G, Dobson K, England K, Rumsby M. Phosphorylation at Ser729 specifies a Golgi localisation for protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) in 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1986-95 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that Ser729 phosphorylation plays a role in determining PKCepsilon localisation in fibroblasts. ..
  2. Dave K, DeFazio R, Raval A, Torraco A, Saul I, Barrientos A, et al. Ischemic preconditioning targets the respiration of synaptic mitochondria via protein kinase C epsilon. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that, at 48 h of reperfusion after ischemic preconditioning, epsilonPKC is poised at synaptic mitochondria to respond to ischemia either by direct phosphorylation or activation of the epsilonPKC signaling pathway. ..
  3. Ono Y, Fujii T, Ogita K, Kikkawa U, Igarashi K, Nishizuka Y. The structure, expression, and properties of additional members of the protein kinase C family. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:6927-32 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis suggests that the new members of protein kinase C exist in the brain and some other tissues. ..
  4. Jaburek M, Costa A, Burton J, Costa C, Garlid K. Mitochondrial PKC epsilon and mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel copurify and coreconstitute to form a functioning signaling module in proteoliposomes. Circ Res. 2006;99:878-83 pubmed
    ..In addition, the activating effect of PKC agonists was reversed by exogenous protein phosphatase 2A. These results demonstrate persistent, functional association of mitochondrial PKC epsilon and mitoK(ATP). ..
  5. Ogbi M, Chew C, Pohl J, Stuchlik O, Ogbi S, Johnson J. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV as a marker of protein kinase Cepsilon function in neonatal cardiac myocytes: implications for cytochrome c oxidase activity. Biochem J. 2004;382:923-32 pubmed
    ..The in vitro phosphorylation of COIV reflects a novel approach for monitoring PKCepsilon function in NCMs. Furthermore, PKCepsilon probably interacts with COIV in NCM mitochondria to enhance electron-transport chain complex IV activity. ..
  6. Barnett M, Lin D, Akoyev V, Willard L, Takemoto D. Protein kinase C epsilon activates lens mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV during hypoxia. Exp Eye Res. 2008;86:226-34 pubmed
    ..Elevation of oxygen which occurs during vitreal detachment or liquification is associated with cataracts. We hypothesize that elevated oxygen could cause inhibition of PKCepsilon resulting in a loss of mitochondrial protection. ..
  7. Rybin V, Sabri A, Short J, Braz J, Molkentin J, Steinberg S. Cross-regulation of novel protein kinase C (PKC) isoform function in cardiomyocytes. Role of PKC epsilon in activation loop phosphorylations and PKC delta in hydrophobic motif phosphorylations. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:14555-64 pubmed
  8. Kim E, Raval A, DeFazio R, Perez Pinzon M. Ischemic preconditioning via epsilon protein kinase C activation requires cyclooxygenase-2 activation in vitro. Neuroscience. 2007;145:931-41 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a crucial role for the epsilonPKC-->ERK1/2-->COX-2 pathway in the induction of neuroprotection via ischemic preconditioning. ..
  9. Ogbi M, Johnson J. Protein kinase Cepsilon interacts with cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV and enhances cytochrome c oxidase activity in neonatal cardiac myocyte preconditioning. Biochem J. 2006;393:191-9 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose novel mechanisms of PKCepsilon-mediated PC involving enhanced energetics, decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production and the preservation of COIV levels. ..
  10. Baines C, Zhang J, Wang G, Zheng Y, Xiu J, Cardwell E, et al. Mitochondrial PKCepsilon and MAPK form signaling modules in the murine heart: enhanced mitochondrial PKCepsilon-MAPK interactions and differential MAPK activation in PKCepsilon-induced cardioprotection. Circ Res. 2002;90:390-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, formation of mitochondrial PKCepsilon-ERK modules appears to play a role in PKCepsilon-mediated cardioprotection, in part by the phosphorylation and inactivation of Bad. ..
  11. Budas G, Churchill E, Disatnik M, Sun L, Mochly Rosen D. Mitochondrial import of PKCepsilon is mediated by HSP90: a role in cardioprotection from ischaemia and reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;88:83-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that HSP90-mediated mitochondrial import of PKCepsilon plays an important role in the protection of the myocardium from IR injury. ..
  12. Gupta J, Gaikwad A, Tikoo K. Hepatic expression profiling shows involvement of PKC epsilon, DGK eta, Tnfaip, and Rho kinase in type 2 diabetic nephropathy rats. J Cell Biochem. 2010;111:944-54 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which shows the involvement of PKC epsilon, DGK eta, Tnfaip, and Rho kinase in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats and its association with diabetic nephropathy. ..
  13. Klevstig M, Marková I, Burianova J, Kazdova L, Pravenec M, Novakova O, et al. Role of FAT/CD36 in novel PKC isoform activation in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;357:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that reduced insulin resistance in SHR-4 rats with wild-type FAT/CD36 is associated with the insulin signaling pathway involving nPKCs. ..
  14. Zisopoulou S, Asimaki O, Leondaritis G, Vasilaki A, Sakellaridis N, Pitsikas N, et al. PKC-epsilon activation is required for recognition memory in the rat. Behav Brain Res. 2013;253:280-9 pubmed publisher
  15. Das J, Pany S, Rahman G, Slater S. PKC epsilon has an alcohol-binding site in its second cysteine-rich regulatory domain. Biochem J. 2009;421:405-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results provide direct evidence for the presence of an allosteric alcohol-binding site on protein kinase C epsilon and underscore the role of His236 and Tyr238 residues in alcohol binding. ..
  16. Mohammadi K, Kometiani P, Xie Z, Askari A. Role of protein kinase C in the signal pathways that link Na+/K+-ATPase to ERK1/2. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:42050-6 pubmed
  17. Lu Z, Liu D, Hornia A, Devonish W, Pagano M, Foster D. Activation of protein kinase C triggers its ubiquitination and degradation. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:839-45 pubmed
    ..Moreover, a kinase-dead ATP-binding mutant of PKC alpha could not be depleted by TPA treatment. These data are consistent with a suicide model whereby activation of PKC triggers its own degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. ..
  18. Csukai M, Chen C, De Matteis M, Mochly Rosen D. The coatomer protein beta'-COP, a selective binding protein (RACK) for protein kinase Cepsilon. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:29200-6 pubmed
    ..A role for PKC in control of secretion has been previously suggested, but this is the first report of direct protein/protein interaction of PKCepsilon with a protein involved in vesicular trafficking. ..
  19. Piiper A, Elez R, You S, Kronenberger B, Loitsch S, Roche S, et al. Cholecystokinin stimulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase through activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, Yes, and protein kinase C. Signal amplification at the level of Raf by activation of protein kinase Cepsilon. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:7065-72 pubmed
  20. Robador P, Seyedi N, Chan N, Koda K, Levi R. Aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 activation by adenosine and histamine inhibits ischemic norepinephrine release in cardiac sympathetic neurons: mediation by protein kinase C?. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;343:97-105 pubmed publisher
  21. Petiti J, De Paul A, Gutierrez S, Palmeri C, Mukdsi J, Torres A. Activation of PKC epsilon induces lactotroph proliferation through ERK1/2 in response to phorbol ester. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;289:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These results thus establish that PKCepsilon plays an essential role in the lactotroph proliferation induced by PMA by triggering signals that involve ERK1/2 activation. ..
  22. Sharma G, Kakazu A, Bazan H. Protein kinase C alpha and epsilon differentially modulate hepatocyte growth factor-induced epithelial proliferation and migration. Exp Eye Res. 2007;85:289-97 pubmed
  23. Akita Y, Kawasaki H, Imajoh Ohmi S, Fukuda H, Ohno S, Hirano H, et al. Protein kinase C epsilon phosphorylates keratin 8 at Ser8 and Ser23 in GH4C1 cells stimulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone. FEBS J. 2007;274:3270-85 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that K8 is a physiological substrate for PKCepsilon, and the phosphorylation at Ser8 and Ser23 transduces, at least in part, TRH-PKCepsilon signaling in pituitary cells. ..
  24. Lin H, Della Morte D, Thompson J, Gresia V, Narayanan S, DeFazio R, et al. Differential effects of delta and epsilon protein kinase C in modulation of postischemic cerebral blood flow. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;737:63-9 pubmed publisher
  25. Ehre C, Zhu Y, Abdullah L, Olsen J, Nakayama K, Nakayama K, et al. nPKCepsilon, a P2Y2-R downstream effector in regulated mucin secretion from airway goblet cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C1445-54 pubmed
    ..The translocation of nPKCdelta observed in activated cells is likely not related to mucin secretion but to some other aspect of goblet cell biology...
  26. Duquesnes N, Derangeon M, Métrich M, Lucas A, Mateo P, Li L, et al. Epac stimulation induces rapid increases in connexin43 phosphorylation and function without preconditioning effect. Pflugers Arch. 2010;460:731-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Epac stimulation induces PKCepsilon activation and Cx43 phosphorylation with an increase in GJIC, but Epac activation does not induce preconditioning to ischemia in contrast with beta-adrenergic stimulation. ..
  27. Høy M, Berggren P, Gromada J. Involvement of protein kinase C-epsilon in inositol hexakisphosphate-induced exocytosis in mouse pancreatic beta-cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35168-71 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that PKC-epsilon is involved in InsP6-induced exocytosis in pancreatic beta-cells. ..
  28. Amadesi S, Cottrell G, Divino L, Chapman K, Grady E, Bautista F, et al. Protease-activated receptor 2 sensitizes TRPV1 by protein kinase Cepsilon- and A-dependent mechanisms in rats and mice. J Physiol. 2006;575:555-71 pubmed
    ..Thus, PAR2 activates PKCepsilon and PKA in sensory neurons, and thereby sensitizes TRPV1 to cause thermal hyperalgesia. These mechanisms may underlie inflammatory pain, where multiple proteases are generated and released. ..
  29. Melling C, Thorp D, Milne K, Noble E. Myocardial Hsp70 phosphorylation and PKC-mediated cardioprotection following exercise. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2009;14:141-50 pubmed publisher
    ..However, exercise-induced phosphorylation of Hsp70 does not appear to be a mechanism by which PKC induces this cardioprotective effect. ..
  30. Lee J, Visser F, Lee J, Lee K, Soh J, Ho W, et al. Protein kinase C-dependent enhancement of activity of rat brain NCKX2 heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:39205-16 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that PKC-mediated activation of NCKX2 is sensitive to mutation of multiple PKC consensus sites via a mechanism that may involve several phosphorylation events. ..
  31. Costa A, Jakob R, Costa C, Andrukhiv K, West I, Garlid K. The mechanism by which the mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel opening and H2O2 inhibit the mitochondrial permeability transition. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20801-8 pubmed
    ..4 (+/-0.1) microm. On the basis of these results, we propose that two different PKCepsilon pools regulate this signaling pathway, one in association with mitoK(ATP) and the other in association with MPT. ..
  32. Li Z, McNulty D, Marler K, Lim L, Hall C, Annan R, et al. IQGAP1 promotes neurite outgrowth in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13871-8 pubmed
    ..Our data disclose that IQGAP1 is phosphorylated at multiple sites in intact cells and that phosphorylation of IQGAP1 will alter its ability to regulate the cytoskeleton of neuronal cells. ..
  33. Cabrera Poch N, Sánchez Ruiloba L, Rodríguez Martínez M, Iglesias T. Lipid raft disruption triggers protein kinase C and Src-dependent protein kinase D activation and Kidins220 phosphorylation in neuronal cells. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28592-602 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results reveal the importance of lipid rafts on PKD activation, translocation, and downstream signaling to its substrate Kidins220. ..
  34. Budas G, Costa H, Ferreira J, Teixeira da Silva Ferreira A, Perales J, Krieger J, et al. Identification of ?PKC targets during cardiac ischemic injury. Circ J. 2012;76:1476-85 pubmed
    ..Regulation of these metabolic pathways by ?PKC phosphorylation may lead to ?PKC-mediated cardioprotection induced by ??RACK. ..
  35. Vary T, Goodman S, Kilpatrick L, Lynch C. Nutrient regulation of PKCepsilon is mediated by leucine, not insulin, in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;289:E684-94 pubmed
  36. Zhang H, Darwanto A, Linkhart T, Sowers L, Zhang L. Maternal cocaine administration causes an epigenetic modification of protein kinase Cepsilon gene expression in fetal rat heart. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:1319-28 pubmed
  37. Miura T, Yano T, Naitoh K, Nishihara M, Miki T, Tanno M, et al. Delta-opioid receptor activation before ischemia reduces gap junction permeability in ischemic myocardium by PKC-epsilon-mediated phosphorylation of connexin 43. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H1425-31 pubmed
  38. Pan H, Zhang Y, Zhao Z. Involvement of lysophosphatidic acid in bone cancer pain by potentiation of TRPV1 via PKC? pathway in dorsal root ganglion neurons. Mol Pain. 2010;6:85 pubmed publisher
    ..LPA potentiates TRPV1 current via a PKC?-dependent pathway in DRG neurons of rats with bone cancer, which may be a novel peripheral mechanism underlying the induction of bone cancer pain. ..
  39. Braun M, LaRosée P, Simonis G, Borst M, Strasser R. Regulation of protein kinase C isozymes in volume overload cardiac hypertrophy. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004;262:135-43 pubmed
    ..This study characterizes in the left and right ventricle a differential regulation of the dominant PKC-isozymes in volume-overload cardiac hypertrophy both at the protein and at the mRNA-level. ..
  40. Castrillo A, Pennington D, Otto F, Parker P, Owen M, Bosca L. Protein kinase Cepsilon is required for macrophage activation and defense against bacterial infection. J Exp Med. 2001;194:1231-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that in the absence of PKCepsilon, host defense against bacterial infection is severely compromised, resulting in an increased incidence of mortality. ..
  41. Gao J, Guo J, Li H, Bai S, Li H, Wu B, et al. Involvement of dopamine D2 receptors activation in ischemic post-conditioning-induced cardioprotection through promoting PKC-? particulate translocation in isolated rat hearts. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;379:267-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In the cytosolic fraction, the changes of the PKC-? translocation were opposite to the particulate fraction. These findings suggest that DR2 activation provides cardioprotection via promoting PC-induced translocation of PKC-?. ..
  42. Newton A. Protein kinase C: poised to signal. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..This review introduces the PKC family and then focuses on recent advances in understanding the cellular regulation of its diacylglycerol-regulated members. ..
  43. Obis T, Besalduch N, Hurtado E, Nadal L, Santafe M, Garcia N, et al. The novel protein kinase C epsilon isoform at the adult neuromuscular synapse: location, regulation by synaptic activity-dependent muscle contraction through TrkB signaling and coupling to ACh release. Mol Brain. 2015;8:8 pubmed publisher
  44. Hao Z, Pan S, Shen Y, Ge J. Exercise preconditioning-induced early and late phase of cardioprotection is associated with protein kinase C epsilon translocation. Circ J. 2014;78:1636-45 pubmed
  45. Pan T, Neo K, Hu L, Yong Q, Bian J. H2S preconditioning-induced PKC activation regulates intracellular calcium handling in rat cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;294:C169-77 pubmed
    ..Such PKC activation, in turn, protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion insults at least partly by ameliorating intracellular Ca(2+) handling. ..
  46. Lesscher H, McMahon T, Lasek A, Chou W, Connolly J, Kharazia V, et al. Amygdala protein kinase C epsilon regulates corticotropin-releasing factor and anxiety-like behavior. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:323-33 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with a novel mechanism of PKCepsilon control over anxiety-like behavior through regulation of CRF in the amygdala. ..
  47. Morris Blanco K, Cohan C, Neumann J, Sick T, Perez Pinzon M. Protein kinase C epsilon regulates mitochondrial pools of Nampt and NAD following resveratrol and ischemic preconditioning in the rat cortex. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2014;34:1024-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that PKC? is critical to increase or maintain mitochondrial Nampt and NAD after pathways of ischemic neuroprotection in the brain. ..
  48. Kang M, Chung K. PKC-? mediates multiple endothelin-1 actions on systolic Ca2+ and contractility in ventricular myocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;423:600-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This report provides direct evidence that PKC-? is activated early and robustly following ET-1 stimulation and thus mediates multiple intracellular changes underlying the acute actions of ET-1 on myocardium. ..
  49. Kang C, Qin J, Osei W, Hu K. Regulation of protein kinase C-epsilon and its age-dependence. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;482:1201-1206 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point out a novel mechanism in regulating PKC function in mitochondria. ..
  50. Shumilla J, Liron T, Mochly Rosen D, Kendig J, Sweitzer S. Ethanol withdrawal-associated allodynia and hyperalgesia: age-dependent regulation by protein kinase C epsilon and gamma isoenzymes. J Pain. 2005;6:535-49 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate developmental differences in neonatal nociceptive responses after withdrawal from acute EtOH and implicate a role for specific PKC isozymes in EtOH withdrawal-associated allodynia and hyperalgesia...
  51. De Paul A, Gutierrez S, Sabatino M, Mukdsi J, Palmeri C, Soaje M, et al. Epidermal growth factor induces a sexually dimorphic proliferative response of lactotroph cells through protein kinase C-ERK1/2-Pit-1?in vitro. Exp Physiol. 2011;96:226-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a sexually dimorphic response of lactotroph cells to the proliferative effects of EGF, with the PKC?/ERK1/2 Pit-1 pathway being involved in this action. ..
  52. Zhang Y, Venugopal S, He S, Liu P, Wu J, Zern M. Ethanol induces apoptosis in hepatocytes by a pathway involving novel protein kinase C isoforms. Cell Signal. 2007;19:2339-50 pubmed
    ..These results provide a newly-described mechanism by which ethanol induces apoptosis via activation of nPKC isoforms in hepatocytes. ..
  53. Mikule K, Sunpaweravong S, Gatlin J, Pfenninger K. Eicosanoid activation of protein kinase C epsilon: involvement in growth cone repellent signaling. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:21168-77 pubmed
  54. Lange Asschenfeldt C, Raval A, Dave K, Mochly Rosen D, Sick T, Perez Pinzon M. Epsilon protein kinase C mediated ischemic tolerance requires activation of the extracellular regulated kinase pathway in the organotypic hippocampal slice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2004;24:636-45 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrate that epsilonPKC activation after IPC/PPC is essential for neuroprotection against oxygen/glucose deprivation in organotypic slice cultures and that the ERK pathway is downstream to epsilonPKC. ..
  55. DeFazio R, Raval A, Lin H, Dave K, Della Morte D, Perez Pinzon M. GABA synapses mediate neuroprotection after ischemic and epsilonPKC preconditioning in rat hippocampal slice cultures. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009;29:375-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that neuroprotection conferred by preconditioning depends on functional modifications of GABA synapses. ..
  56. Hong C, Hsueh Y. CASK associates with glutamate receptor interacting protein and signaling molecules. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;351:771-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our study suggests that the CASK protein complex not only functions as a scaffold but also recruits signaling molecules and may contribute to signal transduction. ..
  57. Dong S, Teng Z, Lu F, Zhao Y, Li H, Ren H, et al. Post-conditioning protects cardiomyocytes from apoptosis via PKC(epsilon)-interacting with calcium-sensing receptors to inhibit endo(sarco)plasmic reticulum-mitochondria crosstalk. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;341:195-206 pubmed publisher
  58. Petiti J, Gutierrez S, Mukdsi J, De Paul A, Torres A. Specific subcellular targeting of PKCalpha and PKCepsilon in normal and tumoral lactotroph cells by PMA-mitogenic stimulus. J Mol Histol. 2009;40:417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support the notion that specific PKC isozymes may exert spatially defined effects by virtue of their directed translocation to distinct intracellular sites. ..
  59. Gu Y, Wang C, Li G, Huang L. EXPRESS: F-actin links Epac-PKC signaling to purinergic P2X3 receptors sensitization in dorsal root ganglia following inflammation. Mol Pain. 2016;12: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, after inflammation, an Epac-PKC dependent increase in F-actin in dorsal root ganglion neurons enhances the membrane expression of P2X3Rs to bring about sensitization of P2X3Rs and abnormal pain behaviors. ..
  60. Wang B, Ouyang J, Liu Y, Zheng H, Wei L, Yang J, et al. [Effect of thyroid hormone on protein kinase C signal pathway in cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts of rats in vitro]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2004;20:38-41 pubmed
    ..The influence of thyroid hormone on the PKC signal pathway in cardiac myocyte may be involved in many pathophysiological progress of myocardium. ..
  61. Cheng Y, Dai D, Dai Y. Testis dysfunction by isoproterenol is mediated by upregulating endothelin receptor A, leptin and protein kinase Cvarepsilon and is attenuated by an endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213. Reprod Toxicol. 2010;29:421-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Over-expression of ET(A) and leptin accounting for the testis dysfunction is likely to be mediated by pPKCvarepsilon in the ISO treated rats. The upregulated ET pathway appears to be critical in pathologies of the testis...
  62. Brennan S, Jackson R, Patel M, Sims M, Hudman D, Norman R, et al. Early opening of sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive potassium channels is not a key step in PKC-mediated cardioprotection. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;79:42-53 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, channel opening was actually delayed. We conclude that sarcolemmal KATP channel opening is a consequence of ATP depletion, not a primary mechanism of ATP preservation in these cells. ..
  63. Sen A, Hongpaisan J, Wang D, Nelson T, Alkon D. Protein Kinase C? (PKC?) Promotes Synaptogenesis through Membrane Accumulation of the Postsynaptic Density Protein PSD-95. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:16462-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PKC? promotes synaptogenesis by activating PSD-95 phosphorylation directly through JNK1 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II and also by inducing expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin. ..
  64. Fenton R, Komatsu S, Ikebe M, Shea L, Dobson J. Adenoprotection of the heart involves phospholipase C-induced activation and translocation of PKC-epsilon to RACK2 in adult rat and mouse. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H718-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, A(1)R stimulation of the heart is associated with PLC-initiated PKC-epsilon translocation and association with RACK2. ..
  65. Sánchez Bautista S, de Godos A, Rodríguez Alfaro J, Torrecillas A, Corbalan Garcia S, Gomez Fernandez J. Interaction of the C2 domain from protein kinase C(epsilon) with model membranes. Biochemistry. 2007;46:3183-92 pubmed
    ..All these results clearly illustrate the electrostatic interaction that takes place between this C2 domain and membranes which contain POPA in the absence of Ca2+...
  66. Chen M, Xiong F, Zhang L. Promoter methylation of Egr-1 site contributes to fetal hypoxia-mediated PKC? gene repression in the developing heart. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013;304:R683-9 pubmed publisher
  67. Kashihara T, Nakayama K, Ishikawa T. Distinct roles of protein kinase C isoforms in myogenic constriction of rat posterior cerebral arteries. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008;108:446-54 pubmed
  68. McGettrick A, Brint E, Palsson McDermott E, Rowe D, Golenbock D, Gay N, et al. Trif-related adapter molecule is phosphorylated by PKC{epsilon} during Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9196-201 pubmed
    ..We have therefore uncovered a key process in Toll-like receptor 4 signaling, identifying TRAM as the target for PKCepsilon. ..
  69. Suzuki K, Kawakami F, Sasaki H, Maruyama H, Ohtsuki K. Biochemical characterization of tau protein and its associated syndapin 1 and protein kinase Cepsilon for their functional regulation in rat brain. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:188-97 pubmed publisher
  70. Li D, Yang C, Chen Y, Tian J, Liu L, Dai Q, et al. Identification of a PKCepsilon-dependent regulation of myocardial contraction by epicatechin-3-gallate. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H345-53 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings indicate that ECG can regulate myocardial contractility via a novel PKCepsilon-dependent signaling pathway. ..
  71. Saurin A, Durgan J, Cameron A, Faisal A, Marber M, Parker P. The regulated assembly of a PKCepsilon complex controls the completion of cytokinesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:891-901 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore identifies a new regulatory mechanism that controls exit from cytokinesis, which has implications for carcinogenesis. ..
  72. Yu Q, Nguyen T, Ogbi M, Caldwell R, Johnson J. Differential loss of cytochrome-c oxidase subunits in ischemia-reperfusion injury: exacerbation of COI subunit loss by PKC-epsilon inhibition. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H2637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that additional measures to protect CO subunits when coadministered with PC may improve its cardioprotection against I/R injury...
  73. Ono Y, Fujii T, Ogita K, Kikkawa U, Igarashi K, Nishizuka Y. Identification of three additional members of rat protein kinase C family: delta-, epsilon- and zeta-subspecies. FEBS Lett. 1987;226:125-8 pubmed
    ..The diverse heterogeneity of the enzyme seems to be an important factor in determining the mode of response of many tissues and cell types to a variety of external stimuli. ..
  74. Yu H, Yang Z, Pan S, Yang Y, Tian J, Wang L, et al. Hypoxic preconditioning promotes the translocation of protein kinase C ε binding with caveolin-3 at cell membrane not mitochondrial in rat heart. Cell Cycle. 2015;14:3557-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This regulatory mechanism may play an important role in cardioprotection. ..
  75. Doble B, Ping P, Fandrich R, Cattini P, Kardami E. Protein kinase C-epsilon mediates phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation of connexin-43. Cell Commun Adhes. 2001;8:253-6 pubmed
    ..Selective inhibition of PKCE significantly decreased baseline levels of Cx43 phosphorylation and the PMA-induced accumulation of > or = 45 ..
  76. Huang X, Walker J. Myofilament anchoring of protein kinase C-epsilon in cardiac myocytes. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1971-8 pubmed
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