Gene Symbol: Prkcb
Description: protein kinase C, beta
Alias: Pkcb, Prkcb1, protein kinase C beta type, PKC-beta, protein kinase C beta I, protein kinase C beta II, protein kinase C, beta 1
Species: rat
Products:     Prkcb

Top Publications

  1. Palaniyandi S, Ferreira J, Brum P, Mochly Rosen D. PKC?II inhibition attenuates myocardial infarction induced heart failure and is associated with a reduction of fibrosis and pro-inflammatory responses. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15:1769-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, sustained selective inhibition of PKC?II in a post-MI HF rat model improves cardiac function and is associated with inhibition of pathological myocardial remodelling. ..
  2. Soliman H, Gador A, Lu Y, Lin G, Bankar G, Macleod K. Diabetes-induced increased oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes is sustained by a positive feedback loop involving Rho kinase and PKC?2. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;303:H989-H1000 pubmed publisher
  3. Vallentin A, Mochly Rosen D. RBCK1, a protein kinase CbetaI (PKCbetaI)-interacting protein, regulates PKCbeta-dependent function. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:1650-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that RBCK1 binds PKCbetaI and is a key regulator of PKCbetaI function in cells and that, together with PKCbetaII, the three proteins are essential for developmental hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes. ..
  4. Keranen L, Dutil E, Newton A. Protein kinase C is regulated in vivo by three functionally distinct phosphorylations. Curr Biol. 1995;5:1394-1403 pubmed
    ..threonine at position 500 (T500) on the activation loop, and T641 and S660 on the carboxyl terminus of protein kinase C beta II are phosphorylated in vivo...
  5. Xia Z, Kuo K, Nagareddy P, Wang F, Guo Z, Guo T, et al. N-acetylcysteine attenuates PKCbeta2 overexpression and myocardial hypertrophy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;73:770-82 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that PKCbeta(2) overexpression represents a mechanism causing hyperglycemia-mediated myocardial hypertrophy, which can be prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. ..
  6. Bowling N, Walsh R, Song G, Estridge T, Sandusky G, Fouts R, et al. Increased protein kinase C activity and expression of Ca2+-sensitive isoforms in the failing human heart. Circulation. 1999;99:384-91 pubmed
    ..In failed human heart, PKC-beta1 and -beta2 expression and contribution to total PKC activity are significantly increased. This may signal a role for Ca2+-sensitive PKC isoforms in cardiac mechanisms involved in heart failure. ..
  7. Arikawa E, Ma R, Isshiki K, Luptak I, He Z, Yasuda Y, et al. Effects of insulin replacements, inhibitors of angiotensin, and PKCbeta's actions to normalize cardiac gene expression and fuel metabolism in diabetic rats. Diabetes. 2007;56:1410-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, PKCbeta or ACE inhibitors may ameliorate cardiac metabolism and function in diabetes partly by normalization of fuel metabolic gene expression directly in the myocardium. ..
  8. Nagareddy P, Soliman H, Lin G, Rajput P, Kumar U, McNeill J, et al. Selective inhibition of protein kinase C beta(2) attenuates inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated cardiovascular abnormalities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes. 2009;58:2355-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that inhibition of PKCbeta(2) may be a useful approach for correcting abnormal hemodynamics in diabetes by preventing iNOS mediated nitrosative stress. ..
  9. Inagaki K, Iwanaga Y, Sarai N, Onozawa Y, Takenaka H, Mochly Rosen D, et al. Tissue angiotensin II during progression or ventricular hypertrophy to heart failure in hypertensive rats; differential effects on PKC epsilon and PKC beta. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002;34:1377-85 pubmed
    ..At the LVF stage, however, PKC epsilon returned to the control level, whereas PKC beta I and beta II increased by 158% and 155%, respectively...

More Information


  1. Su T, Guo B, Kawakami Y, Sommer K, Chae K, Humphries L, et al. PKC-beta controls I kappa B kinase lipid raft recruitment and activation in response to BCR signaling. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:780-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these data define an essential role for PKC-beta in BCR survival signaling and highlight PKC-beta as a key therapeutic target for B-lineage malignancies. ..
  2. Rudkouskaya A, Chernoguz A, Haskew Layton R, Mongin A. Two conventional protein kinase C isoforms, alpha and beta I, are involved in the ATP-induced activation of volume-regulated anion channel and glutamate release in cultured astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2008;105:2260-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that ATP regulates VRAC activity and volume-sensitive excitatory amino acid release via cooperative activation of PKCalpha and betaI. ..
  3. Rigor R, Hawkins B, Miller D. Activation of PKC isoform beta(I) at the blood-brain barrier rapidly decreases P-glycoprotein activity and enhances drug delivery to the brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2010;30:1373-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting PKCbeta(I) at the BBB may prove to be an effective strategy for enhancing the delivery of small molecule therapeutics to the brain. ..
  4. Gäreskog M, Wentzel P. Altered protein kinase C activation associated with rat embryonic dysmorphogenesis. Pediatr Res. 2004;56:849-57 pubmed
    ..We conclude that diabetic rat embryopathy may be associated with increased activity and enhanced tissue distribution of several PKC isoforms in early organogenesis. ..
  5. Corsini E, Racchi M, Lucchi L, Donetti E, Bedoni M, Viviani B, et al. Skin immunosenescence: decreased receptor for activated C kinase-1 expression correlates with defective tumour necrosis factor-alpha production in epidermal cells. Br J Dermatol. 2009;160:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..RACK-1 preferentially interacts with PKC beta. Despite a similar total skin content of this isoform, the reduced expression of RACK-1 was associated with a ..
  6. Tokuyama H, Kim S, Zhang Y, Langham R, Cox A, Gow R, et al. Protein kinase C ? inhibition ameliorates experimental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. Nephrology (Carlton). 2011;16:649-55 pubmed publisher
  7. Lallemend F, Hadjab S, Hans G, Moonen G, Lefebvre P, Malgrange B. Activation of protein kinase CbetaI constitutes a new neurotrophic pathway for deafferented spiral ganglion neurons. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:4511-25 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the data indicate that PKCbetaI activation represents a key factor for the protection of the integrity of neural elements in the cochlea. ..
  8. Sentex E, Wang X, Liu X, Lukas A, Dhalla N. Expression of protein kinase C isoforms in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure due to volume overload. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;84:227-38 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that an increase in PKC isoform content neither plays an important role during the development of cardiac hypertrophy nor participates in the phase leading to heart failure owing to volume overload. ..
  9. Asghar M, Hussain T, Lokhandwala M. Overexpression of PKC-betaI and -delta contributes to higher PKC activity in the proximal tubules of old Fischer 344 rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2003;285:F1100-7 pubmed
  10. Kaneto H, Suzuma K, Sharma A, Bonner Weir S, King G, Weir G. Involvement of protein kinase C beta 2 in c-myc induction by high glucose in pancreatic beta-cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:3680-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that at least some of the reduction of insulin gene transcription found in the diabetic state is mediated by PKC beta2 regulation of c-myc expression. ..
  11. Huang Y, Liao C, Lin J, Jow G, Wang H, Wu J. Antofine-induced connexin43 gap junction disassembly in rat astrocytes involves protein kinase C?. Neurotoxicology. 2013;35:169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that antofine induces Cx43 gap junction disassembly by the PKC? signaling pathway. Inhibition of GJIC by antofine may undermine the neuroprotective effect of astrocytes in CNS. ..
  12. Sutton R, Sprang S. Structure of the protein kinase Cbeta phospholipid-binding C2 domain complexed with Ca2+. Structure. 1998;6:1395-405 pubmed
    ..Ca2+-mediated interactions between the two domains could contribute to enzyme activation as well as to the creation of a positively charged phosphatidylserine-binding site. ..
  13. Orr J, Newton A. Requirement for negative charge on "activation loop" of protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:27715-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that signal processing by protein kinase C cannot occur until the enzyme is first phosphorylated by a protein kinase C kinase. ..
  14. Ono Y, Kikkawa U, Ogita K, Fujii T, Kurokawa T, Asaoka Y, et al. Expression and properties of two types of protein kinase C: alternative splicing from a single gene. Science. 1987;236:1116-20 pubmed
    ..Partial analysis of the genomic structure confirmed that these two subspecies of protein kinase C resulted indeed from alternative splicing of a single gene. ..
  15. Kim Y, Park S, Kim M, Lee S, Baik E, Moon C, et al. Role of PKCbetaII and PKCdelta in blood-brain barrier permeability during aglycemic hypoxia. Neurosci Lett. 2010;468:254-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PKCbetaII and PKCdelta counter-regulate BBB permeability during aglycemic hypoxia. ..
  16. Ono Y, Kurokawa T, Kawahara K, Nishimura O, Marumoto R, Igarashi K, et al. Cloning of rat brain protein kinase C complementary DNA. FEBS Lett. 1986;203:111-5 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide sequence of this cDNA clone revealed the primary structure of the carboxyl-terminal region as having 224 amino acids, with significant sequence homology with cyclic AMP-dependent and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases. ..
  17. Loganathan R, Novikova L, Boulatnikov I, Smirnova I. Exercise-induced cardiac performance in autoimmune (type 1) diabetes is associated with a decrease in myocardial diacylglycerol. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2012;113:817-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Exercise-induced benefits on cardiac performance in diabetes may be mediated by prevention of an increase in myocardial DAG levels. ..
  18. Park K, Li Q, Rask Madsen C, Mima A, Mizutani K, Winnay J, et al. Serine phosphorylation sites on IRS2 activated by angiotensin II and protein kinase C to induce selective insulin resistance in endothelial cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3227-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, AngII or PKC? activation can phosphorylate Ser303 and Ser675 in IRS2 to inhibit insulin-induced p-Tyr911 and its anti-atherogenic actions (p-Akt/eNOS) in endothelial cells. ..
  19. Youngren J. Regulation of insulin receptor function. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:873-91 pubmed
    ..The impact of these processes on the conformational changes and phosphorylation events required for full signaling activity, as well as the role of these mechanisms in human disease, is reviewed in this article. ..
  20. Jackson R, Brennan S, Fielding P, Sims M, Challiss R, Adlam D, et al. Distinct and complementary roles for α and β isoenzymes of PKC in mediating vasoconstrictor responses to acutely elevated glucose. Br J Pharmacol. 2016;173:870-87 pubmed publisher
  21. Cogram P, Hynes A, Dunlevy L, Greene N, Copp A. Specific isoforms of protein kinase C are essential for prevention of folate-resistant neural tube defects by inositol. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:7-14 pubmed
    ..Hindgut cell proliferation was stimulated specifically by inositol, an effect that required activation of PKCbetaI. Our findings reveal an essential role of specific PKC isoforms in mediating the prevention of mouse NTDs by inositol. ..
  22. Chichger H, Vang A, O Connell K, Zhang P, Mende U, Harrington E, et al. PKC δ and βII regulate angiotensin II-mediated fibrosis through p38: a mechanism of RV fibrosis in pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;308:L827-36 pubmed publisher
  23. Xiao D, Pak J, Wang X, Sato T, Huang F, Chen H, et al. Phosphorylation of HMG-I by protein kinase C attenuates its binding affinity to the promoter regions of protein kinase C gamma and neurogranin/RC3 genes. J Neurochem. 2000;74:392-9 pubmed
    ..The current results suggest that phosphorylation of the mammalian HMG-I by PKC alone or in combination with cdc2 kinase provides an effective mechanism for the regulation of HMG-I function. ..
  24. Borowski P, Resch K, Schmitz H, Heiland M. A synthetic peptide derived from the non-structural protein 3 of hepatitis C virus serves as a specific substrate for PKC. Biol Chem. 2000;381:19-27 pubmed
    ..The data presented here show that[Phe1499]HCV(1487-1500) can serve as a convenient tool for investigations of PKC activity also in the presence of other kinases in tissues or in crude cell extracts. ..
  25. Yao S, Wise G. In vivo expression of classic PKC isoforms in the rat dental follicle as related to tooth eruption. Connect Tissue Res. 2004;45:216-21 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that PKC isoforms may be involved in the regulation of tooth eruption. ..
  26. Chen S, Anderson P, Li L, Sjogren H, Wang P, Li S. Functional association of cytokine-induced SH2 protein and protein kinase C in activated T cells. Int Immunol. 2003;15:403-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CIS regulates PKC activation, and that this may be important for the activation of both the AP-1 and NF-kappaB pathways in TCR signaling. ..
  27. Chiba T, Fujita S, Kubota H, Inoue D, Mizuno A, Komatsu T, et al. Identification of fasting-induced genes in the rat hypothalamus: relationship with neuroprotection. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1119:216-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, the increased expressions of the genes identified in the present study may have protective effects against neural damage that could otherwise result in cell death. ..
  28. Ozaki N, Miura Y, Yamada T, Kato Y, Oiso Y. RasGRP3 mediates phorbol ester-induced, protein kinase C-independent exocytosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:765-71 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that RasGRP3 is implicated in phorbol ester-induced, PKC-independent exocytosis. ..
  29. Corsini E, Giani A, Lucchi L, Peano S, Viviani B, Galli C, et al. Resistance to acute silicosis in senescent rats: role of alveolar macrophages. Chem Res Toxicol. 2003;16:1520-7 pubmed
  30. Orman R, Stewart M. Hemispheric differences in protein kinase C betaII levels in the rat amygdala: baseline asymmetry and lateralized changes associated with cue and context in a classical fear conditioning paradigm. Neuroscience. 2007;144:797-807 pubmed
    ..We conclude that fear conditioning causes hemisphere and input specific increases in PKC betaII in the rat LA/BLA. ..
  31. Malmersjö S, Di Palma S, Diao J, Lai Y, Pfuetzner R, Wang A, et al. Phosphorylation of residues inside the SNARE complex suppresses secretory vesicle fusion. EMBO J. 2016;35:1810-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We took a proteomics approach using a PKCB knockout mast cell model and found that the key mast cell secretory protein VAMP8 becomes phosphorylated by PKC at ..
  32. Liu Y, Jin J, Qiao S, Lei S, Liao S, Ge Z, et al. Inhibition of PKCβ2 overexpression ameliorates myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic rats via restoring caveolin-3/Akt signaling. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015;129:331-44 pubmed publisher
    ..PKCβ2 inhibition with RBX protects diabetic hearts from myocardial I/R injury through Cav-3-dependent activation of Akt. ..
  33. Patel N, Yamamoto M, Illingworth P, Mancu D, Mebert K, Chappell D, et al. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase mediates protein kinase C beta II mRNA destabilization in rat A10 smooth muscle cell cultures exposed to high glucose. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;403:111-20 pubmed
    ..High-glucose-induced mRNA destabilization is specific for PKC beta II mRNA, while PKC beta I and other PKC mRNA are not affected...
  34. van Baal J, de Widt J, Divecha N, van Blitterswijk W. Translocation of diacylglycerol kinase theta from cytosol to plasma membrane in response to activation of G protein-coupled receptors and protein kinase C. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9870-8 pubmed
    ..Our data are consistent with the concept that hormone-induced PKC activation regulates the intracellular localization of DGK, which may be important in the negative regulation of PKCepsilon and/or PKCeta activity. ..
  35. Zhang L, Ma J, Gu Y, Lin S. Effects of blocking the renin-angiotensin system on expression and translocation of protein kinase C isoforms in the kidney of diabetic rats. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2006;104:e103-11 pubmed
    ..The renin-angiotensin system was implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy by regulating the activation of PKC isoforms. ..
  36. Nakamura J. Protein kinase CbetaI interacts with the beta1-adrenergic signaling pathway to attenuate lipolysis in rat adipocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1781:277-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that PKCbetaI interacts with beta1-AR signaling and attenuates lipolysis in rat adipocytes. ..
  37. Omiyi D, Brue R, Taormina P, Harvey M, Atkinson N, Young L. Protein kinase C betaII peptide inhibitor exerts cardioprotective effects in rat cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;314:542-51 pubmed
    ..01). These results suggest that the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor attenuates PMN-induced post-I/R cardiac contractile dysfunction by increasing endothelial NO release and by inhibiting superoxide release from PMNs. ..
  38. Morgan E, Mace O, Affleck J, Kellett G. Apical GLUT2 and Cav1.3: regulation of rat intestinal glucose and calcium absorption. J Physiol. 2007;580:593-604 pubmed
    ..The integration of glucose and Ca(2+) absorption represents a complex nutrient-sensing system, which allows both absorptive pathways to be regulated rapidly and precisely to match dietary intake. ..
  39. Amemiya T, Kambe T, Fukumori R, Kubo T. Role of protein kinase C beta in phorbol ester-induced c-fos gene expression in neurons of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rat brains. Brain Res. 2005;1040:129-36 pubmed
    ..In neuronal cultures of SHR brain, it appears that the PMA-induced c-fos gene expression is also enhanced via PKCbeta. ..
  40. Goel A, Zhang Y, Anderson L, Rahimian R. Gender difference in rat aorta vasodilation after acute exposure to high glucose: involvement of protein kinase C beta and superoxide but not of Rho kinase. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;76:351-60 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the gender difference in the impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation after acute exposure to high glucose in rat aorta is possibly due to differences in PKCbeta2 expression. ..
  41. Hwang H, Robinson D, Stevenson T, Wu H, Kampert S, Pagani F, et al. PKCβII modulation of myocyte contractile performance. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;53:176-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation of both signaling targets also was resistant to acute inhibition by LY. These later results provide evidence PKCβ(II) modulates contractile function via intermediate downstream pathway(s) in cardiac myocytes. ..
  42. Tracy S, van der Geer P, Hunter T. The receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase, RPTP alpha, is phosphorylated by protein kinase C on two serines close to the inner face of the plasma membrane. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:10587-94 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that activation of PKC by cytokines modulates RPTP alpha function in several different ways. ..
  43. Itoh S, Ding B, Shishido T, Lerner Marmarosh N, Wang N, Maekawa N, et al. Role of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase-mediated prorenin-converting enzyme in ischemic and diabetic myocardium. Circulation. 2006;113:1787-98 pubmed
  44. Tain Y, Chen C, Lee C, Kao Y, Sheen J, Yu H, et al. Melatonin regulates L-arginine transport and NADPH oxidase in young rats with bile duct ligation: role of protein kinase C. Pediatr Res. 2013;73:395-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Melatonin inhibits PKC-? to increase cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT-1)-mediated L-arginine uptake in BDL liver, whereas it inhibits PKC-? to reduce NADPH-dependent superoxide production. ..
  45. Suzuma K, Takahara N, Suzuma I, Isshiki K, Ueki K, Leitges M, et al. Characterization of protein kinase C beta isoform's action on retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation, and retinal neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:721-6 pubmed
    ..dramatic increase in the angiogenic response to oxygen-induced retinal ischemia in transgenic mice overexpressing PKC beta 2 isoform and a significant decrease in retinal neovascularization in PKC beta isoform null mice...
  46. Gaudreault N, Perrin R, Guo M, Clanton C, Wu M, Yuan S. Counter regulatory effects of PKCbetaII and PKCdelta on coronary endothelial permeability. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:1527-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Imbalanced PKC(betaII)/PKCdelta expression and activity may contribute to endothelial hyperpermeability and coronary dysfunction in diabetes. ..
  47. Chen D, Gould C, Garza R, Gao T, Hampton R, Newton A. Amplitude control of protein kinase C by RINCK, a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33776-87 pubmed
    ..Our data reveal a novel mechanism that provides amplitude control in PKC signaling through ubiquitination catalyzed by RINCK, an E3 ligase that specifically recognizes the C1 domain of PKC isoforms. ..
  48. Smolock A, Mishra G, Eguchi K, Eguchi S, Scalia R. Protein kinase C upregulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and leukocyte-endothelium interactions in hyperglycemia via activation of endothelial expressed calpain. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results uncover the role of ?-calpain in the endothelial dysfunction of PKC. Calpain may represent a novel molecular target for the treatment of PKC-associated diabetic vascular disease. ..
  49. Wang W, Yeh S, Chang Y, Hsiao S, Lian W, Lin C, et al. PICK1, an anchoring protein that specifically targets protein kinase Calpha to mitochondria selectively upon serum stimulation in NIH 3T3 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:37705-12 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate a previously unidentified role for PICK1 in anchoring PKCalpha to mitochondria in a ligand-specific manner. ..
  50. Chang J, Wendt T, Qu W, Kong L, Zou Y, Schmidt A, et al. Oxygen deprivation triggers upregulation of early growth response-1 by the receptor for advanced glycation end products. Circ Res. 2008;102:905-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify RAGE as a master regulator of tissue stress elicited by hypoxia and highlight this receptor as a central therapeutic target to suppress the tissue injury-provoking effects of oxygen deprivation. ..
  51. Newton A. Protein kinase C: poised to signal. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..This review introduces the PKC family and then focuses on recent advances in understanding the cellular regulation of its diacylglycerol-regulated members. ..
  52. Zhang J, Anastasiadis P, Liu Y, Thompson E, Fields A. Protein kinase C (PKC) betaII induces cell invasion through a Ras/Mek-, PKC iota/Rac 1-dependent signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:22118-23 pubmed
    ..This pathway provides a plausible mechanism by which PKCbetaII promotes colon carcinogenesis. ..
  53. Gould C, Kannan N, Taylor S, Newton A. The chaperones Hsp90 and Cdc37 mediate the maturation and stabilization of protein kinase C through a conserved PXXP motif in the C-terminal tail. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4921-35 pubmed publisher