Gene Symbol: Ppp3r1
Description: protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha
Alias: calcineurin subunit B type 1, protein phospatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha isoform (calcineurin B, type I), protein phospatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha isoform,type 1, protein phosphatase 2B regulatory subunit 1, protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha isoform (calcineurin B, type I)
Species: rat
Products:     Ppp3r1

Top Publications

  1. Chang C, Neilson J, Bayle J, Gestwicki J, Kuo A, Stankunas K, et al. A field of myocardial-endocardial NFAT signaling underlies heart valve morphogenesis. Cell. 2004;118:649-63 pubmed
    ..This mechanism also operates in zebrafish, indicating a conserved role for calcineurin/NFAT signaling in vertebrate heart valve morphogenesis. ..
  2. Schomisch S, Murdock D, Hedayati N, Carino J, Lesnefsky E, Cmolik B. Cardioplegia prevents ischemia-induced transcriptional alterations of cytoprotective genes in rat hearts: a DNA microarray study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;130:1151 pubmed
    ..Exposing the transcriptional differences in cytoprotective genes during untreated and cardioplegia-treated ischemia provides valuable insight into an additional mechanism of cardioprotection induced by cardioplegia. ..
  3. Grammer J, Bleiziffer S, Monticelli F, Lange R, Bauernschmitt R. Calcineurin and matrix protein expression in cardiac hypertrophy: evidence for calcineurin B to control excessive hypertrophic signaling. Basic Res Cardiol. 2006;101:292-300 pubmed
    ..As expected, ANP mRNA expression was high in LVH patients. We propose a prominent role for CnB in controlling Cn activity in compensated LVH. At this stage of the disease, MMP and TIMP activities are balanced. ..
  4. Bodega G, Suarez I, Paniagua C, Vacas E, Fernandez B. Effect of ammonia, glutamine, and serum on calcineurin, p38MAPK-diP, GADD153/CHOP10, and CNTF in primary rat astrocyte cultures. Brain Res. 2007;1175:126-33 pubmed
  5. Jin L, Harrison S. Crystal structure of human calcineurin complexed with cyclosporin A and human cyclophilin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:13522-6 pubmed
    ..The hydrophobic interface buries two hydrogen bonds. The structure accounts clearly for the effects of mutations in Cn on CsA-resistance and for the way modifications of CsA alter immunosuppressive activity. ..
  6. Sanna B, Bueno O, Dai Y, Wilkins B, Molkentin J. Direct and indirect interactions between calcineurin-NFAT and MEK1-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways regulate cardiac gene expression and cellular growth. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:865-78 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that calcineurin-NFAT and MEK1-ERK1/2 pathways constitute a codependent signaling module in cardiomyocytes that coordinately regulates the growth response through two distinct mechanisms. ..
  7. Dave V, Childs T, Xu Y, Ikegami M, Besnard V, Maeda Y, et al. Calcineurin/Nfat signaling is required for perinatal lung maturation and function. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:2597-609 pubmed
    ..The calcineurin/Nfat pathway controls the morphologic maturation of lungs prior to birth and regulates expression of genes involved in surfactant homeostasis that are critical for adaptation to air breathing...
  8. Heineke J, Auger Messier M, Correll R, Xu J, Benard M, Yuan W, et al. CIB1 is a regulator of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Nat Med. 2010;16:872-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CIB1 functions as a previously undescribed regulator of cardiac hypertrophy through its ability to regulate the association of calcineurin with the sarcolemma and its activation. ..
  9. Diedrichs H, Chi M, Boelck B, Mehlhorn U, Mehlhorm U, Schwinger R. Increased regulatory activity of the calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2004;6:3-9 pubmed

More Information


  1. Hisamitsu T, Nakamura T, Wakabayashi S. Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 directly binds to calcineurin A and activates downstream NFAT signaling, leading to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3265-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In cardiomyocytes, such signaling can be a pathway of NHE1-dependent hypertrophy. ..
  2. Kudla J, Xu Q, Harter K, Gruissem W, Luan S. Genes for calcineurin B-like proteins in Arabidopsis are differentially regulated by stress signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:4718-23 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that AtCBL1 may act as a regulatory subunit of a plant calcineurin-like activity mediating calcium signaling under certain stress conditions. ..
  3. Chang C, Mukai H, Kuno T, Tanaka C. cDNA cloning of an alternatively spliced isoform of the regulatory subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase (calcineurin B alpha 2). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1217:174-80 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by Southern blot analysis suggest that CNB alpha 2 is specifically expressed in the testis, and its expression is developmentally regulated. ..
  4. Abe T, Takagi N, Nakano M, Furuya M, Takeo S. Altered Bad localization and interaction between Bad and Bcl-xL in the hippocampus after transient global ischemia. Brain Res. 2004;1009:159-68 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that changes in localization and complex formation by Bad are, at least in part, involved in the vulnerability of cells after transient global ischemia. ..
  5. Wu P, Zhao Y, Haidacher S, Wang E, Parsley M, Gao J, et al. Detection of structural and metabolic changes in traumatically injured hippocampus by quantitative differential proteomics. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30:775-88 pubmed publisher
    ..IPA indicated a common integrative signaling node, calcineurin B1 (CANB1, CaNB?, or PPP3R1), which was downregulated by TBI...
  6. Ye Q, Feng Y, Yin Y, Faucher F, Currie M, Rahman M, et al. Structural basis of calcineurin activation by calmodulin. Cell Signal. 2013;25:2661-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the structural basis of calcineurin activation by CaM is through displacement of the disordered fragment of AID which otherwise impedes active site access. ..
  7. Guo J, Mi S, Li J, Liu W, Yin Y, Wei Q. Calcineurin B subunit acts as a potential agent for preventing cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;370:163-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a novel function for CnB protein in cardiac stress response and suggest a possible application of CnB in coronary disease therapy. ..
  8. Kao S, Wu H, Xie J, Chang C, Ranish J, Graef I, et al. Calcineurin/NFAT signaling is required for neuregulin-regulated Schwann cell differentiation. Science. 2009;323:651-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate that calcineurin and NFAT are essential for neuregulin and ErbB signaling, neural crest diversification, and differentiation of Schwann cells. ..
  9. Tang W, Arnett D, Devereux R, Panagiotou D, Province M, Miller M, et al. Identification of a novel 5-base pair deletion in calcineurin B (PPP3R1) promoter region and its association with left ventricular hypertrophy. Am Heart J. 2005;150:845-51 pubmed
    ..The 5-base pair deletion within the CnB gene may cause excessive LV growth beyond the level appropriate for cardiac workload when exposed to severe hypertension or may be in linkage disequilibrium with the causal mutation. ..
  10. Mammucari C, Tommasi di Vignano A, Sharov A, Neilson J, Havrda M, Roop D, et al. Integration of Notch 1 and calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathways in keratinocyte growth and differentiation control. Dev Cell. 2005;8:665-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, an important interconnection exists between Notch 1 and Calcineurin-NFAT pathways in keratinocyte growth/differentiation control. ..
  11. Wilkins B, Molkentin J. Calcium-calcineurin signaling in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;322:1178-91 pubmed
    ..Finally, we will discuss emerging theories as to the mechanisms whereby alterations in intracellular calcium handling might stimulate calcineurin within the context of a contractile cell continually experiencing calcium flux. ..
  12. Perrino B, Wilson A, Ellison P, Clapp L. Substrate selectivity and sensitivity to inhibition by FK506 and cyclosporin A of calcineurin heterodimers composed of the alpha or beta catalytic subunit. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:3540-8 pubmed
    ..These findings also indicate that the alpha and beta catalytic subunit isoforms give rise to substrate-dependent differences in sensitivity toward FKBP12/FK506. ..