Gene Symbol: Ppard
Description: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
Alias: Pparb, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor beta, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor, delta
Species: rat
Products:     Ppard

Top Publications

  1. Barak Y, Liao D, He W, Ong E, Nelson M, Olefsky J, et al. Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta on placentation, adiposity, and colorectal cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:303-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these observations reveal specific roles for PPARdelta in embryo development and adipocyte physiology, but not cancer. ..
  2. Cohen G, Riahi Y, Shamni O, Guichardant M, Chatgilialoglu C, Ferreri C, et al. Role of lipid peroxidation and PPAR-? in amplifying glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Diabetes. 2011;60:2830-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated glucose levels augment the release of AA and LA from phospholipids and their peroxidation to 4-HNE in ?-cells. This molecule is an endogenous ligand for PPAR-?, which amplifies insulin secretion in ?-cells. ..
  3. Constantin D, Constantin Teodosiu D, Layfield R, Tsintzas K, Bennett A, Greenhaff P. PPARdelta agonism induces a change in fuel metabolism and activation of an atrophy programme, but does not impair mitochondrial function in rat skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2007;583:381-90 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, GW610742 initiated a muscle atrophy programme, possibly via changes in the Akt1/FOXO/MAFbx and MuRF1 signalling pathway. ..
  4. Huang C, Liu I, Cheng J. Increase of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene expression in the lungs of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2007;20:69-74 pubmed
    ..The obtained results suggest that increase of plasma glucose is responsible for the higher gene expression of PPARdelta in the lung of STZ-diabetic rats. ..
  5. Winzell M, Wulff E, Olsen G, Sauerberg P, Gotfredsen C, Ahren B. Improved insulin sensitivity and islet function after PPARdelta activation in diabetic db/db mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;626:297-305 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that activation of PPARdelta improves glucose metabolism and may therefore potentially be target for treatment of type 2 diabetes. ..
  6. Peters J, Lee S, Li W, Ward J, Gavrilova O, Everett C, et al. Growth, adipose, brain, and skin alterations resulting from targeted disruption of the mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta(delta). Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5119-28 pubmed
    ..These results are the first to provide in vivo evidence of significant roles for PPARbeta in development, myelination of the corpus callosum, lipid metabolism, and epidermal cell proliferation. ..
  7. Ravnskjaer K, Frigerio F, Boergesen M, Nielsen T, Maechler P, Mandrup S. PPARdelta is a fatty acid sensor that enhances mitochondrial oxidation in insulin-secreting cells and protects against fatty acid-induced dysfunction. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:1370-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As maintenance of mitochondrial metabolism is essential to preserve beta-cell function, these data indicate that dietary or pharmacological activation of PPARdelta and RXR may be beneficial in the prevention of beta-cell dysfunction. ..
  8. Escher P, Braissant O, Basu Modak S, Michalik L, Wahli W, Desvergne B. Rat PPARs: quantitative analysis in adult rat tissues and regulation in fasting and refeeding. Endocrinology. 2001;142:4195-202 pubmed
    ..Finally, PPAR gamma 2 mRNA levels are decreased by 50% during fasting in both white and brown adipose tissue. In conclusion, fasting can strongly influence PPAR expression, but in only a few selected tissues. ..
  9. Zarzuelo M, Jimenez R, Galindo P, Sanchez M, Nieto A, Romero M, et al. Antihypertensive effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension. 2011;58:733-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose PPAR? as a new therapeutic target in hypertension. ..

More Information


  1. Kharroubi I, Lee C, Hekerman P, Darville M, Evans R, Eizirik D, et al. BCL-6: a possible missing link for anti-inflammatory PPAR-delta signalling in pancreatic beta cells. Diabetologia. 2006;49:2350-8 pubmed
    ..This may render beta cells particularly susceptible to propagating inflammation in type 1 diabetes. ..
  2. Dimopoulos N, Watson M, Green C, Hundal H. The PPARdelta agonist, GW501516, promotes fatty acid oxidation but has no direct effect on glucose utilisation or insulin sensitivity in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:4743-8 pubmed
    ..Our findings exclude sarcolemmal glucose transport as a potential target for the therapeutic action of PPARdelta agonists in skeletal muscle. ..
  3. Yu B, Chang C, Ou H, Cheng K, Cheng J. Decrease of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta expression in cardiomyopathy of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Cardiovasc Res. 2008;80:78-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that inhibitors of ROS production or MAPK activation are involved in reduction of cardiac PPARdelta expression in response to hyperglycaemia. ..
  4. Cresser J, Bonen A, Chabowski A, Stefanyk L, Gulli R, Ritchie I, et al. Oral administration of a PPAR-delta agonist to rodents worsens, not improves, maximal insulin-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle of different fibers. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R470-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, an accumulation of diacylglycerol and ceramide, while associated with diet-induced insulin resistance, does not appear to be responsible for the agonist-induced reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose transport. ..
  5. Angione A, Jiang C, Pan D, Wang Y, Kuang S. PPAR? regulates satellite cell proliferation and skeletal muscle regeneration. Skelet Muscle. 2011;1:33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a function of PPAR? in regulating skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin sensitivity, and they establish a novel role of PPAR? in muscle progenitor cells and postnatal muscle regeneration. ..
  6. Yin K, Deng Z, Hamblin M, Xiang Y, Huang H, Zhang J, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta regulation of miR-15a in ischemia-induced cerebral vascular endothelial injury. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6398-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, regulation of PPARdelta-mediated miR-15a inhibition of bcl-2 could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of stroke-related vascular dysfunction. ..
  7. Castillero E, Alamdari N, Aversa Z, Gurav A, Hasselgren P. PPAR?/? regulates glucocorticoid- and sepsis-induced FOXO1 activation and muscle wasting. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59726 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that PPAR?/? regulates FOXO1 activation in glucocorticoid- and sepsis-induced muscle wasting and that treatment with a PPAR?/? inhibitor may ameliorate loss of muscle mass in these conditions...
  8. Shin H, Park B, Kim L, Jung H, Cho Y, Moon M, et al. Genetic polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta associated with obesity. Diabetes. 2004;53:847-51 pubmed
    ..The genetic information about PPAR-delta from this study would be useful for further genetic study of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases. ..
  9. Almendro V, Fuster G, Busquets S, Ametller E, Figueras M, Argiles J, et al. Effects of IL-15 on rat brown adipose tissue: uncoupling proteins and PPARs. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:285-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes observed in BAT suggest that IL-15 could be implicated in lipid consumption in this tissue by regulating lipid oxidation and probably thermogenesis, processes mediated by UCPs and PPARs. ..
  10. Ding N, Ma X, Diao H, Xu L, Yang Z. Differential expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta at implantation sites and in decidual cells of rat uterus. Reproduction. 2003;125:817-25 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the high PPARdelta expression at implantation sites and in the decidual cells in rat uterus indicates that PPARdelta may play an important role during implantation and decidualization. ..
  11. Quintela A, Jimenez R, Piqueras L, Gómez Guzmán M, Haro J, Zarzuelo M, et al. PPAR? activation restores the high glucose-induced impairment of insulin signalling in endothelial cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2014;171:3089-102 pubmed publisher
    ..PPAR? activation in vitro and in vivo restores the endothelial function, preserving the insulin-Akt-eNOS pathway impaired by high glucose, at least in part, through PDK4 activation. ..
  12. Jiang Y, BARISH G, Lu B, Evans R, Crumrine D, Schmuth M, et al. PPAR? activation promotes stratum corneum formation and epidermal permeability barrier development during late gestation. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:511-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that PPARdelta has a role in SC formation and permeability barrier development. ..
  13. Yue T, Nerurkar S, Bao W, Jucker B, Sarov Blat L, Steplewski K, et al. In vivo activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta protects the heart from ischemia/reperfusion injury in Zucker fatty rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;325:466-74 pubmed publisher
  14. Xing G, Zhang L, Heynen T, Yoshikawa T, Smith M, Weiss S, et al. Rat PPAR delta contains a CGG triplet repeat and is prominently expressed in the thalamic nuclei. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;217:1015-25 pubmed
    ..sequence encoded by the cDNA clone showed a strong homology to the human NUCI and the mouse peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPAR delta). We therefore refer to this new clone as rat PPAR delta (rPPAR delta)...
  15. Zhang H, Pi R, Li R, Wang P, Tang F, Zhou S, et al. PPARbeta/delta activation inhibits angiotensin II-induced collagen type I expression in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;460:25-32 pubmed
    ..PPARbeta/delta may be a promising therapeutic target for myocardial fibrosis. ..
  16. Tanaka T, Yamamoto J, Iwasaki S, Asaba H, Hamura H, Ikeda Y, et al. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta induces fatty acid beta-oxidation in skeletal muscle and attenuates metabolic syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15924-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PPARdelta is pivotal to control the program for fatty acid oxidation in the skeletal muscle, thereby ameliorating obesity and insulin resistance through its activation in obese animals. ..
  17. Yang Y, Tong Y, Gong M, Lu Y, Wang C, Zhou M, et al. Activation of PPAR?/? protects pancreatic ? cells from palmitate-induced apoptosis by upregulating the expression of GLP-1 receptor. Cell Signal. 2014;26:268-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggested that the anti-apoptotic action of GW may involve its transcriptional regulation of GLP-1R, and PPAR?/? activation may represent a new therapeutic method for protecting pancreatic ? cells from lipotoxicity. ..
  18. Kotla S, Rao G. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Mediate p300-dependent STAT1 Protein Interaction with Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR)-γ in CD36 Protein Expression and Foam Cell Formation. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:30306-20 pubmed publisher
  19. Rector R, Uptergrove G, Borengasser S, Mikus C, Morris E, Naples S, et al. Changes in skeletal muscle mitochondria in response to the development of type 2 diabetes or prevention by daily wheel running in hyperphagic OLETF rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E1179-87 pubmed publisher
    ..However, diabetes prevention through increased physical activity appears to be mediated in part through maintenance of skeletal muscle mitochondrial function...
  20. Li J, Li P, Zhang Y, Li G, He F, Zhou Y, et al. Upregulation of ski in fibroblast is implicated in the peroxisome proliferator--activated receptor ?-mediated wound healing. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2012;30:1059-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that Ski is a novel target gene for PPAR? and upregulation of Ski to promote fibroblast proliferation is implicated in the PPAR?-mediated wound healing. ..
  21. Liu K, Li Y, Cheng K, Hsu C, Cheng J, Peng W. Changes in PPAR? expression in a rat model of stress-induced depression. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2017;44:664-670 pubmed publisher
  22. Xu H, Lambert M, Montana V, Parks D, Blanchard S, Brown P, et al. Molecular recognition of fatty acids by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Mol Cell. 1999;3:397-403 pubmed
    ..These structures provide molecular insight into the propensity for PPARs to interact with a variety of synthetic and natural compounds, including FAs that vary in both chain length and degree of saturation. ..
  23. Sue Y, Chung C, Lin H, Chou Y, Jen C, Li H, et al. PPARdelta-mediated p21/p27 induction via increased CREB-binding protein nuclear translocation in beraprost-induced antiproliferation of murine aortic smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;297:C321-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that BPS-mediated PPARdelta activation enhances transcriptional activation of p21/p27 by increasing CBP nuclear translocation, which contributes to the vasoprotective action of BPS. ..
  24. Vega V, Anzulovich A, Varas S, Bonomi M, Gimenez M, Oliveros L. Effect of nutritional vitamin A deficiency on lipid metabolism in the rat heart: Its relation to PPAR gene expression. Nutrition. 2009;25:828-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Alteration of mitochondrial energetic processes by modifying the activity and gene expressions of the regulatory enzymes is associated with a high PPAR expression induced by vitamin A deprivation. ..
  25. Smeets P, Teunissen B, Planavila A, de Vogel van den Bosch H, Willemsen P, Van der Vusse G, et al. Inflammatory pathways are activated during cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and attenuated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors PPARalpha and PPARdelta. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29109-18 pubmed publisher
    ..It was shown that both PPARalpha and PPARdelta are able to mitigate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation. ..
  26. Kalinowska A, Gorski J, Harasim E, Harasiuk D, Bonen A, Chabowski A. Differential effects of chronic, in vivo, PPAR's stimulation on the myocardial subcellular redistribution of FAT/CD36 and FABPpm. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:2527-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Observed effects of chronic PPAR stimulation were not related to either AMPK or ERK1/2 activation. ..
  27. Abdollahi A, Schwager C, Kleeff J, Esposito I, Domhan S, Peschke P, et al. Transcriptional network governing the angiogenic switch in human pancreatic cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:12890-5 pubmed
  28. Gilde A, van der Lee K, Willemsen P, Chinetti G, van der Leij F, Van der Vusse G, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and PPARbeta/delta, but not PPARgamma, modulate the expression of genes involved in cardiac lipid metabolism. Circ Res. 2003;92:518-24 pubmed
  29. Lunde I, Ekmark M, Rana Z, Buonanno A, Gundersen K. PPARdelta expression is influenced by muscle activity and induces slow muscle properties in adult rat muscles after somatic gene transfer. J Physiol. 2007;582:1277-87 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that PPARdelta can mediate activity effects acutely in pre-existing adult fibres, and thus is an important link in excitation-transcription coupling. ..
  30. Reza López S, Poon A, Szeto I, Ma D, Anderson G. High multivitamin intakes during pregnancy and postweaning obesogenic diets interact to affect the relationship between expression of PPAR genes and glucose regulation in the offspring. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:877-81 pubmed publisher
  31. Falcone R, Florio T, Di Giacomo E, Benedetti E, Cristiano L, Antonosante A, et al. PPARβ/δ and γ in a rat model of Parkinson's disease: possible involvement in PD symptoms. J Cell Biochem. 2015;116:844-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained indicate the possible use of a dual PPARβ/δ antagonist/PPARγ agonist to counteract primary and secondary signs of PD neurodegeneration. ..
  32. Almad A, McTigue D. Chronic expression of PPAR-delta by oligodendrocyte lineage cells in the injured rat spinal cord. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:785-99 pubmed publisher
  33. Zhou Y, Gu P, Shi W, Li J, Hao Q, Cao X, et al. MicroRNA-29a induces insulin resistance by targeting PPARδ in skeletal muscle cells. Int J Mol Med. 2016;37:931-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide evidence for a novel micro-RNA‑mediated mechanism of PPARδ regulation, and we also noted the IR-promoting actions of miR-29a in skeletal muscles of IUGR. ..
  34. Wang D, Wang H, Shi Q, Katkuri S, Walhi W, Desvergne B, et al. Prostaglandin E(2) promotes colorectal adenoma growth via transactivation of the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Cancer Cell. 2004;6:285-95 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that PPARdelta is a focal point of crosstalk between the prostaglandin and Wnt signaling pathways which results in a shift from cell death to cell survival, leading to increased tumor growth. ..
  35. Teng Z, Jiang L, Hu Q, He Y, Guo Z, Wu Y, et al. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ Alleviates Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats. Stroke. 2016;47:196-205 pubmed publisher
    ..PPARβ/δ's overexpression may attenuate early brain injury after rats' SAH administration, which reduces neural apoptosis possibly through blocking NF-κB/MMP-9 pathway. ..
  36. Kino T, Rice K, Chrousos G. The PPARdelta agonist GW501516 suppresses interleukin-6-mediated hepatocyte acute phase reaction via STAT3 inhibition. Eur J Clin Invest. 2007;37:425-33 pubmed
    ..Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta), which binds to and is activated by a variety of fatty acids, was recently shown to have anti-inflammatory actions...
  37. Jimenez R, Sanchez M, Zarzuelo M, Romero M, Quintela A, López Sepúlveda R, et al. Endothelium-dependent vasodilator effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta agonists via the phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase-Akt pathway. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;332:554-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the PPAR-beta agonists acutely caused vasodilatation, which was partially dependent on endothelial-derived NO. The eNOS activation is calcium-independent and seems to be related to activation of the PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway. ..
  38. el Azzouzi H, Leptidis S, Dirkx E, Hoeks J, van Bree B, Brand K, et al. The hypoxia-inducible microRNA cluster miR-199a∼214 targets myocardial PPARδ and impairs mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. Cell Metab. 2013;18:341-54 pubmed publisher
  39. Poleni P, Bianchi A, Etienne S, Koufany M, Sebillaud S, Netter P, et al. Agonists of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPAR) alpha, beta/delta or gamma reduce transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-induced proteoglycans' production in chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2007;15:493-505 pubmed
    ..Thus, PPAR agonists could be deleterious in situation of cartilage repair although being protective in situation of cartilage degradation. ..
  40. Shureiqi I, Jiang W, Zuo X, Wu Y, Stimmel J, Leesnitzer L, et al. The 15-lipoxygenase-1 product 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid down-regulates PPAR-delta to induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9968-73 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that the down-regulation of PPAR-delta by 15-LOX-1 through 13-S-HODE is an apoptotic signaling pathway that is activated by NSAIDs. ..
  41. Pellieux C, Montessuit C, Papageorgiou I, Lerch R. Inactivation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoforms alpha, beta/delta, and gamma mediate distinct facets of hypertrophic transformation of adult cardiac myocytes. Pflugers Arch. 2007;455:443-54 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of PPARalpha and PPARbeta/delta accounts for downregulation of the fatty acid oxidation pathway, whereas inactivation of PPARgamma enables development of hypertrophy. ..
  42. Hwang J, Ham S, Yoo T, Lee W, Paek K, Lee C, et al. Sirtuin 1 Mediates the Actions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? on the Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Triggered Migration and Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2016;90:522-529 pubmed
  43. Andrulionyte L, Peltola P, Chiasson J, Laakso M. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of PPARD in combination with the Gly482Ser substitution of PGC-1A and the Pro12Ala substitution of PPARG2 predict the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes: the STOP-NIDDM trial. Diabetes. 2006;55:2148-52 pubmed
    ..We screened six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the PPAR-delta gene (PPARD) for an association with the conversion from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 diabetes in 769 subjects ..
  44. Benani A, Kremarik Bouillaud P, Bianchi A, Netter P, Minn A, Dauca M. Evidence for the presence of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and beta in the rat spinal cord. J Chem Neuroanat. 2003;25:29-38 pubmed
    ..The possible functions of PPARalpha and PPARbeta expressed in both white and gray matters of the spinal cord will be discussed but need further studies. ..
  45. Kannisto K, Chibalin A, Glinghammar B, Zierath J, Hamsten A, Ehrenborg E. Differential expression of peroxisomal proliferator activated receptors alpha and delta in skeletal muscle in response to changes in diet and exercise. Int J Mol Med. 2006;17:45-52 pubmed
  46. Harrington L, Moreno L, Reed A, Wort S, Desvergne B, Garland C, et al. The PPARbeta/delta agonist GW0742 relaxes pulmonary vessels and limits right heart hypertrophy in rats with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9526 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations are the first to show a therapeutic benefit of 'PPARbeta/delta' agonists in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension and provide pre-clinical evidence to favour clinical trials in man. ..
  47. Sheng L, Ye P, Liu Y, Han C, Zhang Z. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta activation improves angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vitro. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2008;30:109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate for the first time that GW0742 exerts a beneficial effect on Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and the relation to inflammation response. ..
  48. Samokhvalov V, Zlobine I, Jamieson K, Jurasz P, Chen C, Lee K, et al. PPARδ signaling mediates the cytotoxicity of DHA in H9c2 cells. Toxicol Lett. 2015;232:10-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results illustrate novel pathways for DHA-induced cytotoxicity that suggest an important role for CYP-derived metabolites, EDPs. ..
  49. Kapoor A, Collino M, Castiglia S, Fantozzi R, Thiemermann C. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat. Shock. 2010;34:117-24 pubmed publisher
  50. Michalik L, Desvergne B, Tan N, Basu Modak S, Escher P, Rieusset J, et al. Impaired skin wound healing in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha and PPARbeta mutant mice. J Cell Biol. 2001;154:799-814 pubmed
    ..Thus, the findings presented here reveal unpredicted roles for PPARalpha and beta in adult mouse epidermal repair. ..
  51. Pesant M, Sueur S, Dutartre P, Tallandier M, Grimaldi P, Rochette L, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) activation protects H9c2 cardiomyoblasts from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;69:440-9 pubmed
    ..PPARdelta appears to be a new therapeutic target for the regulation of heart reperfusion-associated oxidative stress and stimulation of enzymatic antioxidative defences. ..
  52. Higa R, Gonzalez E, Pustovrh M, White V, Capobianco E, Martinez N, et al. PPARdelta and its activator PGI2 are reduced in diabetic embryopathy: involvement of PPARdelta activation in lipid metabolic and signalling pathways in rat embryo early organogenesis. Mol Hum Reprod. 2007;13:103-10 pubmed
  53. Kurtz M, Capobianco E, Martínez N, Fernández J, Higa R, White V, et al. Carbaprostacyclin, a PPARdelta agonist, ameliorates excess lipid accumulation in diabetic rat placentas. Life Sci. 2010;86:781-90 pubmed publisher