Gene Symbol: Ppara
Description: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha
Alias: PPAR, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPAR-alpha, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 1
Species: rat
Products:     Ppara

Top Publications

  1. Vohl M, Lepage P, Gaudet D, Brewer C, Betard C, Perron P, et al. Molecular scanning of the human PPARa gene: association of the L162v mutation with hyperapobetalipoproteinemia. J Lipid Res. 2000;41:945-52 pubmed
    ..02). These results suggest an association between the PPARalpha V162 allele and the atherogenic/hyperapolipoprotein B dyslipidemia. ..
  2. Kliewer S, Sundseth S, Jones S, Brown P, Wisely G, Koble C, et al. Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:4318-23 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that PPARs serve as physiological sensors of lipid levels and suggest a molecular mechanism whereby dietary fatty acids can modulate lipid homeostasis. ..
  3. Gilde A, van der Lee K, Willemsen P, Chinetti G, van der Leij F, Van der Vusse G, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and PPARbeta/delta, but not PPARgamma, modulate the expression of genes involved in cardiac lipid metabolism. Circ Res. 2003;92:518-24 pubmed
    ..To explore the involvement of each of the PPAR isoforms, neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to FA or to ligands specific for either PPARalpha (Wy-14,643), ..
  4. Ravnskjaer K, Boergesen M, Dalgaard L, Mandrup S. Glucose-induced repression of PPARalpha gene expression in pancreatic beta-cells involves PP2A activation and AMPK inactivation. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006;36:289-99 pubmed
    ..The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a key activator of genes involved in beta-cell fatty acid oxidation, and ..
  5. Fluhr J, Man M, Hachem J, Crumrine D, Mauro T, Elias P, et al. Topical peroxisome proliferator activated receptor activators accelerate postnatal stratum corneum acidification. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:365-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined here whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators accelerate postnatal SC acidification...
  6. Aoyama T, Peters J, Iritani N, Nakajima T, Furihata K, Hashimoto T, et al. Altered constitutive expression of fatty acid-metabolizing enzymes in mice lacking the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). J Biol Chem. 1998;273:5678-84 pubmed
  7. Kliewer S, Forman B, Blumberg B, Ong E, Borgmeyer U, Mangelsdorf D, et al. Differential expression and activation of a family of murine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7355-9 pubmed
    ..of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms in mammals, we have cloned and characterized two PPAR alpha-related cDNAs (designated PPAR gamma and -delta, respectively) from mouse...
  8. Gottlicher M, Widmark E, Li Q, Gustafsson J. Fatty acids activate a chimera of the clofibric acid-activated receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:4653-7 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferators such as clofibric acid, nafenopin, and WY-14,643 have been shown to activate PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor), a member of the steroid nuclear receptor superfamily...
  9. Bulhak A, Jung C, Ostenson C, Lundberg J, Sjöquist P, Pernow J. PPAR-alpha activation protects the type 2 diabetic myocardium against ischemia-reperfusion injury: involvement of the PI3-Kinase/Akt and NO pathway. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H719-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury in nondiabetic animals...

More Information


  1. Oakes N, Thalén P, Hultstrand T, Jacinto S, Camejo G, Wallin B, et al. Tesaglitazar, a dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonist, ameliorates glucose and lipid intolerance in obese Zucker rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R938-46 pubmed
    ..The present work demonstrates that tesaglitazar ameliorates these abnormalities and enhances insulin sensitivity in this animal model. ..
  2. Sun Y, Zhang L, Gu H, Han W, Ren M, Wang F, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha regulates the expression of pancreatic/duodenal homeobox-1 in rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells and ameliorates glucose-induced insulin secretion impaired by palmitate. Endocrinology. 2008;149:662-71 pubmed
    ..Our findings have potential clinical implications for the use of PPARalpha agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. ..
  3. Enquobahrie D, Smith N, Bis J, Carty C, Rice K, Lumley T, et al. Cholesterol ester transfer protein, interleukin-8, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor alpha, and Toll-like receptor 4 genetic variations and risk of incident nonfatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Am J Cardiol. 2008;101:1683-8 pubmed publisher
    ..cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), interleukin-8 (IL8), peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-alpha (PPARA), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) genes with incident nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) or ischemic stroke...
  4. Yamaguchi T, Matsushita S, Motojima K, Hirose F, Osumi T. MLDP, a novel PAT family protein localized to lipid droplets and enriched in the heart, is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:14232-40 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that MLDP is a bona fide new PAT family member localized in LDs. Its expression depends on the physiological conditions and the action of PPARalpha. ..
  5. Liang C, Tseng C, Yang C, Ma Y. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid inhibits ATP-induced COX-2 expression via peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-? in vascular smooth muscle cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163:815-25 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 and the promoter luciferase activity of COX-2 and PPAR response element were determined...
  6. Kakehashi A, Hagiwara A, Imai N, Nagano K, Nishimaki F, Banton M, et al. Mode of action of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether hepatotumorigenicity in the rat: evidence for a role of oxidative stress via activation of CAR, PXR and PPAR signaling pathways. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2013;273:390-400 pubmed publisher
    ..The MOA for ETBE hepatotumorigenicity in rats is unlikely to be relevant to humans. ..
  7. Scheggi S, Melis M, De Felice M, Aroni S, Muntoni A, Pelliccia T, et al. PPARα modulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission rescues depression-related behaviors. Neuropharmacology. 2016;110:251-259 pubmed publisher
    ..Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type-α (PPARα) acutely regulate VTA dopamine neuron firing via β2 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (Î..
  8. Jeffery B, Choudhury A, Horley N, Bruce M, Tomlinson S, Roberts R, et al. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha regulates a male-specific cytochrome P450 in mouse liver. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2004;429:231-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, PPARalpha has a specific effect on constitutive expression of Cyp4a12. ..
  9. Yu Y, Zhang Z, Wei S, Weiss R, Felder R. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? regulates inflammation and renin-angiotensin system activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and ameliorates peripheral manifestations of heart failure. Hypertension. 2012;59:477-84 pubmed publisher
    Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-?, a nuclear transcription factor, has been shown to inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines and, in peripheral tissues, to downregulate the renin-angiotensin ..
  10. Bonfleur M, Borck P, Ribeiro R, Caetano L, Soares G, Carneiro E, et al. Improvement in the expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid metabolism in obese rats supplemented with taurine. Life Sci. 2015;135:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Tau also normalized hepatic TG content by enhancing ChREBP, MTP, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, ACO (acyl-CoA oxidase) and CPT-1a gene expressions...
  11. Holness M, Greenwood G, Smith N, Sugden M. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha and glucocorticoids interactively regulate insulin secretion during pregnancy. Diabetes. 2006;55:3501-8 pubmed
    We evaluated the impact of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha activation and dexamethasone treatment on islet adaptations to the distinct metabolic challenges of fasting and pregnancy, situations where lipid handling ..
  12. Patsouris D, Mandard S, Voshol P, Escher P, Tan N, Havekes L, et al. PPARalpha governs glycerol metabolism. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:94-103 pubmed
    ..gel shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that cytosolic GPDH is a direct PPAR target gene...
  13. Schmutz I, Ripperger J, Baeriswyl Aebischer S, Albrecht U. The mammalian clock component PERIOD2 coordinates circadian output by interaction with nuclear receptors. Genes Dev. 2010;24:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The concept that PER2 may propagate clock information to metabolic pathways via nuclear receptors adds an important facet to the clock-dependent regulation of biological networks. ..
  14. Zhang Y, Xie M, Xue J, Gu Z. Osthole regulates enzyme protein expression of CYP7A1 and DGAT2 via activation of PPARalpha/gamma in fat milk-induced fatty liver rats. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2008;10:807-12 pubmed publisher
  15. Ibarra Lara L, Sánchez Aguilar M, Hong E, del Valle Mondragón L, Soria Castro E, Pérez Severiano F, et al. PPARα Stimulation Modulates Myocardial Ischemia-induced Activation of Renin-Angiotensin System. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2015;65:430-7 pubmed publisher
    We have recently demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) stimulation lowers the production of angiotensin II while increasing the production of Ang-(1-7), both in cardiac and plasmatic level...
  16. Schmuth M, Schoonjans K, Yu Q, Fluhr J, Crumrine D, Hachem J, et al. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in epidermal development in utero. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;119:1298-303 pubmed
    ..a variety of endogenous free fatty acids are known activators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) is a potential candidate for this key regulatory role...
  17. Yang H, Lin H, Chao J, Chien Y, Peng H, Chen J. Effects of soy protein on alcoholic liver disease in rats undergoing ethanol withdrawal. J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23:679-84 pubmed publisher
    ..was significantly lower than that in the EC group, and the hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? and cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A) protein expressions in the EP group were significantly higher than those in the ..
  18. Sapiro J, Mashek M, Greenberg A, Mashek D. Hepatic triacylglycerol hydrolysis regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:1621-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhancing TAG hydrolysis through ADRP knockdown or ATGL overexpression increased PPARalpha activity. These results indicate that TAG hydrolysis and the consequential release of fatty acids regulate PPARalpha activity. ..
  19. Zambrano S, Blanca A, Ruiz Armenta M, Miguel Carrasco J, Revilla E, Santa Maria C, et al. The renoprotective effect of L-carnitine in hypertensive rats is mediated by modulation of oxidative stress-related gene expression. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52:1649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and redox-sensitive transcription factors (NF-?B, Nrf2, and PPAR?) have also been evaluated...
  20. Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Ito Y, Tsuchida A, Yokomizo T, Kita S, et al. Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects. Nature. 2003;423:762-9 pubmed
    ..of adiponectin seems to be mediated by an increase in fatty-acid oxidation through activation of AMP kinase and PPAR-alpha...
  21. Tien E, Davis J, Vanden Heuvel J. Identification of the CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting protein CITED2 as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha coregulator. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:24053-63 pubmed
    ..In an attempt to identify novel PPAR-interacting proteins, a cDNA expression library was screened with bacterially expressed PPARalpha...
  22. Evsikov A, de Vries W, Peaston A, Radford E, Fancher K, Chen F, et al. Systems biology of the 2-cell mouse embryo. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2004;105:240-50 pubmed
    ..These results provide a foundation for understanding molecular control at the onset of mammalian development. ..
  23. Gray E, Ginty M, Kemp K, Scolding N, Wilkins A. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? agonists protect cortical neurons from inflammatory mediators and improve peroxisomal function. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:1421-32 pubmed publisher
    ..oxide-mediated neurotoxicity, we investigated the effects of the peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? agonist fenofibrate on cortical neurons exposed to a nitric oxide donor or co-cultured with activated microglia...
  24. Alibin C, Kopilas M, Anderson H. Suppression of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy by conjugated linoleic acid: role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10707-15 pubmed publisher
    ..CLA stimulated PPAR activity in cardiomyocytes, and the anti-hypertrophic effects of CLA were blocked by genetic and pharmacological ..
  25. Sun L, Ke Y, Zhu C, Tang N, Tian D, Gao Y, et al. Inflammatory reaction versus endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors expression, re-exploring secondary organ complications of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Chin Med J (Engl). 2008;121:2305-11 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate PPAR isoforms expression profile in important organs of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to understand the ..
  26. Holness M, Smith N, Bulmer K, Hopkins T, Gibbons G, Sugden M. Evaluation of the role of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor alpha in the regulation of cardiac pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 protein expression in response to starvation, high-fat feeding and hyperthyroidism. Biochem J. 2002;364:687-94 pubmed
  27. Lacquemant C, Lepretre F, Pineda Torra I, Manraj M, Charpentier G, Ruiz J, et al. Mutation screening of the PPARalpha gene in type 2 diabetes associated with coronary heart disease. Diabetes Metab. 2000;26:393-401 pubmed
  28. Shurligina A, Dushkin M, Melnikova E, Panteleeva N, Tenditnik M, Chrapova M, et al. Reactivity of the immune system and activities of PPAR? and PPAR? in the liver under conditions of LPS-induced acute inflammatory response in hypertensive ISIAH rats. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2013;155:421-4 pubmed
    The effects of LPS from E. coli on DNA-binding activities of PPAR? and PPAR? in the liver and immune system parameters of were studied in hypertensive ISIAH rats and normotensive WAG rats...
  29. Mazzola C, Medalie J, Scherma M, Panlilio L, Solinas M, Tanda G, et al. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition enhances memory acquisition through activation of PPAR-alpha nuclear receptors. Learn Mem. 2009;16:332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..and palmitoylethanolamide (OEA and PEA, ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors, PPAR-alpha) when and where they are naturally released in the brain...
  30. Hsu Y, Chen T, Chen Y, Cheng C, Sue Y, Chen J, et al. Urotensin II exerts antiapoptotic effect on NRK-52E cells through prostacyclin-mediated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and Akt activation. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;381:168-74 pubmed publisher
    ..also found to induce prostacyclin (PGI2) production, which caused peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) activation as revealed by both PGI2 synthase siRNA transfection and piroxicam treatment...
  31. Sumanasekera W, Tien E, Davis J, Turpey R, Perdew G, Vanden Heuvel J. Heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90) acts as a repressor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) and PPARbeta activity. Biochemistry. 2003;42:10726-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, we describe the chaperone complex as being a regulator of PPARalpha and PPARbeta activity and have identified a novel, subtype-specific, inhibitory role for Hsp90. ..
  32. Ibrahim M, El Sheikh A, Khalaf H, Abdelrahman A. Protective effect of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR)-? and -? ligands against methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2014;36:130-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate effects of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR)-? and -? agonists; fenofibrate (FEN) and pioglitazone (PIO), in MTX-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. ..
  33. Zhang Y, Song C, Li H, Hou J, Li D. Ursolic acid prevents augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in high-fat diet-induced obese rats by restoring downregulated spinal PPAR?. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:5309-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence suggests that obesity causes the downregulation of peroxisome proliferator?activated receptor (PPAR)? in the spinal cord, contributing to augmented peripheral edema and inflammatory hyperalgesia...
  34. Jiang P, Wang J, Zhao Y, Qian G. [Influence and mechanism of peroxisome proliferation activated receptor-alpha expression induced by WY14643 in rat lung with acute lung injury]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2006;18:466-9 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of WY14643 [peroxisome proliferation activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) activator, 4-cholro-6-(2...
  35. Leisewitz A, Urrutia C, Martinez G, Loyola G, Bronfman M. A PPARs cross-talk concertedly commits C6 glioma cells to oligodendrocytes and induces enzymes involved in myelin synthesis. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, they suggest that active PPARbeta might be essential for increasing oligodendrocyte distinctive markers and enzymes required for myelin synthesis in C6 glioma cells through up-regulation of PPARgamma and PPARalpha. ..
  36. Brune S, Kolsch H, Ptok U, Majores M, Schulz A, Schlosser R, et al. Polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene influences the risk for Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2003;110:1041-50 pubmed
    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) is a member of the steroid hormone super family of ligand-inducible transcription factors, involved in glucose and lipid metabolism...
  37. Chao C, Youssef J, Rezaiekhaleigh M, Birnbaum L, Badr M. Senescence-associated decline in hepatic peroxisomal enzyme activities corresponds with diminished levels of retinoid X receptor alpha, but not peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Mech Ageing Dev. 2002;123:1469-76 pubmed
    ..to hepatocarcinogenicity produced by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). Mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood...
  38. Zhang Y, Cui Y, Wang X, Shang X, Qi Z, Xue J, et al. PPARα/γ agonists and antagonists differently affect hepatic lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production in steatohepatitic rats. Cytokine. 2015;75:127-35 pubmed publisher
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α/γ may control lipid metabolism and inflammatory response by regulating the downstream target genes, and play a crucial role in the process of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) ..
  39. Senol S, Temiz M, Guden D, Cecen P, Sari A, Sahan Firat S, et al. Contribution of PPARα/β/γ, AP-1, importin-α3, and RXRα to the protective effect of 5,14-HEDGE, a 20-HETE mimetic, against hypotension, tachycardia, and inflammation in a rat model of septic shock. Inflamm Res. 2016;65:367-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine whether increased renal and cardiovascular expression of PPARα/β/γ and RXRα associated with decreased expression and/or activity of AP-1 and importin-α3 ..
  40. Standage S, Caldwell C, Zingarelli B, Wong H. Reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? expression is associated with decreased survival and increased tissue bacterial load in sepsis. Shock. 2012;37:164-9 pubmed publisher
    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) is a member of the nuclear receptor family with many important physiologic roles related to metabolism and inflammation...
  41. Morgan F, Stewart J, Smith A, Tarnuzzer R. Differential expression of stress response genes in the H-Tx rat model of congenital hydrocephalus. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;138:273-90 pubmed
    ..07) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha, 0.04). Five (3.73%) of the 134 detected transcripts were elevated and 20 (17...
  42. Fernø J, Vik Mo A, Jassim G, Håvik B, Berge K, Skrede S, et al. Acute clozapine exposure in vivo induces lipid accumulation and marked sequential changes in the expression of SREBP, PPAR, and LXR target genes in rat liver. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;203:73-84 pubmed publisher
    ..for fatty acid beta-oxidation and cholesterol efflux genes, normally controlled by the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha and liver X receptor alpha transcription factors, and also down-regulation of genes encoding ..
  43. Shalev A, Siegrist Kaiser C, Yen P, Wahli W, Burger A, Chin W, et al. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha is a phosphoprotein: regulation by insulin. Endocrinology. 1996;137:4499-502 pubmed
    ..The observations that PPAR alpha is a regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism and that the insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinediones are ligands for ..
  44. Napal L, Marrero P, Haro D. An intronic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-binding sequence mediates fatty acid induction of the human carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A. J Mol Biol. 2005;354:751-9 pubmed
    ..factor binding site database searches with comparative sequence analyses, we have localized a conserved functional PPAR responsive element downstream of the transcriptional start site of the human CPT1A gene...
  45. Ringseis R, Gutgesell A, Dathe C, Brandsch C, Eder K. Feeding oxidized fat during pregnancy up-regulates expression of PPARalpha-responsive genes in the liver of rat fetuses. Lipids Health Dis. 2007;6:6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the present study shows that feeding oxidized fat during whole pregnancy, but not during late pregnancy, lowers triacylglycerol concentrations in fetal livers. ..
  46. Nakajima T, Kamijo Y, Tanaka N, Sugiyama E, Tanaka E, Kiyosawa K, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha protects against alcohol-induced liver damage. Hepatology. 2004;40:972-80 pubmed
    ..Humans may be more susceptible to liver toxicity induced by ethanol as PPARalpha expression in human liver is considerably lower compared to that of rodents. ..
  47. Forcheron F, Basset A, Abdallah P, Del Carmine P, Gadot N, Beylot M. Diabetic cardiomyopathy: effects of fenofibrate and metformin in an experimental model--the Zucker diabetic rat. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2009;8:16 pubmed publisher
    ..We evaluated the possible usefulness of two molecules promoting lipid oxidation, fenofibrate and metformin, in an experimental model of DCM, the Zucker diabetic rat (ZDF)...
  48. Raso G, Esposito E, Vitiello S, Iacono A, Santoro A, D Agostino G, et al. Palmitoylethanolamide stimulation induces allopregnanolone synthesis in C6 Cells and primary astrocytes: involvement of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-?. J Neuroendocrinol. 2011;23:591-600 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we report that PEA, acting as a ligand of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-?, might regulate neurosteroidogenesis in astrocytes, which, similar to other glial cells and neurones, have the ..
  49. Tamasi V, Miller K, Ripp S, Vila E, Geoghagen T, Prough R. Modulation of receptor phosphorylation contributes to activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha by dehydroepiandrosterone and other peroxisome proliferators. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;73:968-76 pubmed
    ..DHEA action involves induction of PPARalpha mRNA and protein levels as well as increased PPARalpha transcriptional activity through decreasing receptor phosphorylation at serines in the AF1 region. ..
  50. Holness M, Smith N, Greenwood G, Sugden M. PPARalpha activation reverses adverse effects induced by high-saturated-fat feeding on pancreatic beta-cell function in late pregnancy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E1087-94 pubmed
  51. Zhao C, Zhang T, Shi Z, Ding H, Ling X. MicroRNA-518d regulates PPAR? protein expression in the placentas of females with gestational diabetes mellitus. Mol Med Rep. 2014;9:2085-90 pubmed publisher
    ..whereas the protein levels of the predicted miR-518d target gene, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), were lower in placentas from patients with GDM compared with those from control subjects...
  52. Barreto Torres G, Hernández J, Jang S, Rodríguez Muñoz A, Torres Ramos C, Basnakian A, et al. The beneficial effects of AMP kinase activation against oxidative stress are associated with prevention of PPARα-cyclophilin D interaction in cardiomyocytes. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015;308:H749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study examines whether or not AMPK affects the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα)/mitochondria pathway in response to acute oxidative stress in cultured cardiomyocytes...
  53. Wan C, Wong C, Pin W, Wong M, Kwok C, Chan R, et al. Chlorogenic acid exhibits cholesterol lowering and fatty liver attenuating properties by up-regulating the gene expression of PPAR-? in hypercholesterolemic rats induced with a high-cholesterol diet. Phytother Res. 2013;27:545-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypocholesterolemic functions of chlorogenic acid are probably due to the increase in fatty acids unitization in liver via the up-regulation of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor ? mRNA. ..