Gene Symbol: Pou5f1
Description: POU class 5 homeobox 1
Alias: POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1
Species: rat
Products:     Pou5f1

Top Publications

  1. Remenyi A, Lins K, Nissen L, Reinbold R, Scholer H, Wilmanns M. Crystal structure of a POU/HMG/DNA ternary complex suggests differential assembly of Oct4 and Sox2 on two enhancers. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2048-59 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, these surfaces frequently have redundant functions and are instrumental in recruiting various interacting protein partners. ..
  2. Lee J, Kim H, Han Y, Kim J. Pyruvate kinase isozyme type M2 (PKM2) interacts and cooperates with Oct-4 in regulating transcription. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:1043-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, ectopic expression of the PKM2 enhanced Oct-4-mediated transcription. These observations indicate that the transactivation potential of the Oct-4 transcription factor is positively modulated by PKM2. ..
  3. Loh Y, Wu Q, Chew J, Vega V, Zhang W, Chen X, et al. The Oct4 and Nanog transcription network regulates pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem cells. Nat Genet. 2006;38:431-40 pubmed
    ..The emerging picture is one in which Oct4 and Nanog control a cascade of pathways that are intricately connected to govern pluripotency, self-renewal, genome surveillance and cell fate determination. ..
  4. Chew J, Loh Y, Zhang W, Chen X, Tam W, Yeap L, et al. Reciprocal transcriptional regulation of Pou5f1 and Sox2 via the Oct4/Sox2 complex in embryonic stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6031-46 pubmed
    ..It has previously been shown that Pou5f1, the Oct4 gene, contains a distal enhancer imparting specific expression in both ESCs and preimplantation embryos...
  5. Rosner M, Vigano M, Ozato K, Timmons P, Poirier F, Rigby P, et al. A POU-domain transcription factor in early stem cells and germ cells of the mammalian embryo. Nature. 1990;345:686-92 pubmed
    ..The oct-3 gene is also expressed in primordial germ cells and in the female germ line. ..
  6. Yuan H, Corbi N, Basilico C, Dailey L. Developmental-specific activity of the FGF-4 enhancer requires the synergistic action of Sox2 and Oct-3. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2635-45 pubmed
  7. Niwa H, Toyooka Y, Shimosato D, Strumpf D, Takahashi K, Yagi R, et al. Interaction between Oct3/4 and Cdx2 determines trophectoderm differentiation. Cell. 2005;123:917-29 pubmed
    ..This suggests that reciprocal inhibition between lineage-specific transcription factors might be involved in the first differentiation event of mammalian development. ..
  8. Boyer L, Lee T, Cole M, Johnstone S, Levine S, Zucker J, et al. Core transcriptional regulatory circuitry in human embryonic stem cells. Cell. 2005;122:947-56 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insights into the transcriptional regulation of stem cells and reveal how OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG contribute to pluripotency and self-renewal. ..
  9. Nichols J, Zevnik B, Anastassiadis K, Niwa H, Klewe Nebenius D, Chambers I, et al. Formation of pluripotent stem cells in the mammalian embryo depends on the POU transcription factor Oct4. Cell. 1998;95:379-91 pubmed
    ..Expansion of trophoblast precursors is restored, however, by an Oct4 target gene product, fibroblast growth factor-4. Therefore, Oct4 also determines paracrine growth factor signaling from stem cells to the trophectoderm. ..

More Information


  1. Niwa H, Miyazaki J, Smith A. Quantitative expression of Oct-3/4 defines differentiation, dedifferentiation or self-renewal of ES cells. Nat Genet. 2000;24:372-6 pubmed
    ..The POU transcription factor Oct-3/4 (encoded by Pou5f1) is a candidate regulator in pluripotent and germline cells and is essential for the initial formation of a ..
  2. Stefanovic S, Abboud N, Désilets S, Nury D, Cowan C, Puceat M. Interplay of Oct4 with Sox2 and Sox17: a molecular switch from stem cell pluripotency to specifying a cardiac fate. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:665-73 pubmed publisher
  3. Palmieri S, Peter W, Hess H, Scholer H. Oct-4 transcription factor is differentially expressed in the mouse embryo during establishment of the first two extraembryonic cell lineages involved in implantation. Dev Biol. 1994;166:259-67 pubmed
    ..In direct contrast to RNA localization studies which demonstrate that there are only low levels of Oct-4 transcripts in primitive endoderm cells, protein expression in these early migrating cells is higher than in the inner cell mass. ..
  4. Yamada M, Hamatani T, Akutsu H, Chikazawa N, Kuji N, Yoshimura Y, et al. Involvement of a novel preimplantation-specific gene encoding the high mobility group box protein Hmgpi in early embryonic development. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:480-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings implicated an important role for Hmgpi at the earliest stages of mammalian embryonic development. ..
  5. Gonzalez R, Allen L, Dobbs L. Rat alveolar type I cells proliferate, express OCT-4, and exhibit phenotypic plasticity in vitro. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;297:L1045-55 pubmed publisher
    ..By immunofluorescence, Western blotting, and Q-PCR, TI cells express OCT-4A (POU5F1), a transcription factor associated with maintenance of the pluripotent state in stem cells...
  6. Brown L, Brown S. Zic2 is expressed in pluripotent cells in the blastocyst and adult brain expression overlaps with makers of neurogenesis. Gene Expr Patterns. 2009;9:43-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of Zic2 in pluripotent cells of the embryo as well as in dividing neural cells in the adult suggests that this transcription factor may have a role in maintaining pluripotency. ..
  7. Vassilieva S, Guan K, Pich U, Wobus A. Establishment of SSEA-1- and Oct-4-expressing rat embryonic stem-like cell lines and effects of cytokines of the IL-6 family on clonal growth. Exp Cell Res. 2000;258:361-73 pubmed
    ..Embryonal stem cell properties, such as SSEA-1 and Oct-4 expression, were maintained by members of the IL-6 family of cytokines, but most significantly by LIF. ..
  8. Cao Y, Siegel D, Donow C, Knöchel S, Yuan L, Knöchel W. POU-V factors antagonize maternal VegT activity and beta-Catenin signaling in Xenopus embryos. EMBO J. 2007;26:2942-54 pubmed
    ..We suggest that POU-V factors antagonize primary inducers to allow germ layer specification in a temporally and spatially coordinated manner. ..
  9. Okamoto K, Okazawa H, Okuda A, Sakai M, Muramatsu M, Hamada H. A novel octamer binding transcription factor is differentially expressed in mouse embryonic cells. Cell. 1990;60:461-72 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Oct-3 is a novel octamer binding transcription factor that is developmentally regulated during mouse embryogenesis. ..
  10. Morfouace M, Lalier L, Oliver L, Cheray M, Pecqueur C, Cartron P, et al. Control of glioma cell death and differentiation by PKM2-Oct4 interaction. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1036 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results highlight a new molecular pathway through which PKM2 can manage gliomagenesis via the control of glioma stemness by Oct4. ..
  11. Yoon S, Wills A, Chuong E, Gupta R, Baker J. HEB and E2A function as SMAD/FOXH1 cofactors. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1654-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, E proteins are novel Nodal signaling cofactors that associate with SMAD2/3 and FOXH1 and are necessary for mesendoderm differentiation. ..
  12. Kehler J, Tolkunova E, Koschorz B, Pesce M, Gentile L, Boiani M, et al. Oct4 is required for primordial germ cell survival. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:1078-83 pubmed
    ..These new results suggest a previously unknown function of Oct4 in maintaining viability of mammalian germline. ..
  13. Li J, Pan G, Cui K, Liu Y, Xu S, Pei D. A dominant-negative form of mouse SOX2 induces trophectoderm differentiation and progressive polyploidy in mouse embryonic stem cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19481-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that SOX2 maintains stem cell pluripotency by shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm in cooperation with OCT4 to prevent trophectoderm differentiation and polyploid formation in ES cells. ..
  14. Scholer H, Ruppert S, Suzuki N, Chowdhury K, Gruss P. New type of POU domain in germ line-specific protein Oct-4. Nature. 1990;344:435-9 pubmed
    ..Sequence comparison with known POU domains reveals that Oct-4 is a novel member of the POU-family. ..
  15. Gao X, Tate P, Hu P, Tjian R, Skarnes W, Wang Z. ES cell pluripotency and germ-layer formation require the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling component BAF250a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6656-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that BAF250a is a key component of the gene regulatory machinery in ES cells controlling self-renewal, differentiation, and cell lineage decisions...
  16. Atlasi Y, Mowla S, Ziaee S, Bahrami A. OCT-4, an embryonic stem cell marker, is highly expressed in bladder cancer. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:1598-602 pubmed
    OCT-4 (also known as POU5F1) is a key regulator of self-renewal in embryonic stem cells...
  17. McGowan S, Edelhauser H, Pfister R, Whikehart D. Stem cell markers in the human posterior limbus and corneal endothelium of unwounded and wounded corneas. Mol Vis. 2007;13:1984-2000 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that stem cells reside in the posterior limbus and respond to corneal wounding to initiate an endothelial repair process. The stem cells may also contribute to a normal, slow replacement of corneal endothelial cells. ..
  18. Lorthongpanich C, Messerschmidt D, Chan S, Hong W, Knowles B, Solter D. Temporal reduction of LATS kinases in the early preimplantation embryo prevents ICM lineage differentiation. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that precisely timed YAP localization in early morulae is essential to prevent trophectoderm marker expression in, and lineage specification of, the ICM. ..
  19. Rosfjord E, Rizzino A. The octamer motif present in the Rex-1 promoter binds Oct-1 and Oct-3 expressed by EC cells and ES cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;203:1795-802 pubmed
    ..In contrast, the other DNA/protein complexes, including the DNA/protein complex containing Oct-1, can still be detected. These results provide support for a role of Oct-3 in the transcription of the Rex-1 gene. ..
  20. Zhao M, Amiel S, Christie M, Muiesan P, Srinivasan P, Littlejohn W, et al. Evidence for the presence of stem cell-like progenitor cells in human adult pancreas. J Endocrinol. 2007;195:407-14 pubmed
    ..The numbers of Oct4(+ve) and Sox2(+ve) cells varied among donors and were approximately 1-200 and 1-30 per 100 000 pancreatic cells respectively. ..
  21. Botquin V, Hess H, Fuhrmann G, Anastassiadis C, Gross M, Vriend G, et al. New POU dimer configuration mediates antagonistic control of an osteopontin preimplantation enhancer by Oct-4 and Sox-2. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2073-90 pubmed
    ..Expression, DNA binding, and transactivation data are consistent with the hypothesis that OPN expression is regulated by Oct-4 and Sox-2 in preimplantation development. ..
  22. Cheng L. Establishing a germ cell origin for metastatic tumors using OCT4 immunohistochemistry. Cancer. 2004;101:2006-10 pubmed
    ..Establishing germ cell origin for metastatic tumors has important implications for assessing patient prognosis and treatment options. ..
  23. Xu H, Wang W, Li C, Yu H, Yang A, Wang B, et al. WWP2 promotes degradation of transcription factor OCT4 in human embryonic stem cells. Cell Res. 2009;19:561-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that WWP2 is an important regulator of the OCT4 protein level in human ES cells. ..
  24. Duan P, Zhang Y, Han X, Liu J, Yan W, Xing Y. Effect of neuronal induction on NSE, Tau, and Oct4 promoter methylation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2012;48:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..So, we conclude that promoter methylation modifies pluripotency-specific gene, rather than regulates the expression of neural-specific genes when MSCs differentiate into neurocyte-like cells. ..
  25. Kunarso G, Wong K, Stanton L, Lipovich L. Detailed characterization of the mouse embryonic stem cell transcriptome reveals novel genes and intergenic splicing associated with pluripotency. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:155 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi results indicate that, despite their strong association with pluripotency, these five transcriptomic novelties may not be required for maintaining it. ..
  26. Qiao B, He B, Cai J, Yang W. The expression profile of Oct4 and Sox2 in the carcinogenesis of oral mucosa. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014;7:28-37 pubmed
    ..Oct4+Sox2+ profile may contribute to the malignant transformation of oral mucosa. ..
  27. Uranishi K, Akagi T, Sun C, Koide H, Yokota T. Dax1 associates with Esrrb and regulates its function in embryonic stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:2056-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data, together with previous findings, suggest that Dax1 functions as a negative regulator of Esrrb and Oct3/4, and these molecules form a regulatory loop for controlling the pluripotency and self-renewal capacity of ES cells. ..
  28. Iczkowski K, Butler S, Shanks J, Hossain D, Schall A, Meiers I, et al. Trials of new germ cell immunohistochemical stains in 93 extragonadal and metastatic germ cell tumors. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:275-81 pubmed
    ..For embryonal carcinoma, OCT3/4 was superior to PLAP and more specific than CD30. D2-40 is recommended to discriminate between seminoma and embryonal carcinoma. ..
  29. Gashaw I, Dushaj O, Behr R, Biermann K, Brehm R, Rubben H, et al. Novel germ cell markers characterize testicular seminoma and fetal testis. Mol Hum Reprod. 2007;13:721-7 pubmed
  30. Nishimoto M, Miyagi S, Katayanagi T, Tomioka M, Muramatsu M, Okuda A. The embryonic Octamer factor 3/4 displays distinct DNA binding specificity from those of other Octamer factors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;302:581-6 pubmed
  31. Strizzi L, Mancino M, Bianco C, Raafat A, Gonzales M, Booth B, et al. Netrin-1 can affect morphogenesis and differentiation of the mouse mammary gland. J Cell Physiol. 2008;216:824-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Netrin-1 may facilitate functional differentiation of mammary epithelial cells and possibly affect the expression of Nanog and/or Cripto-1 in multipotent cells that may reside in the mammary gland. ..
  32. Velkey J, O Shea K. Oct4 RNA interference induces trophectoderm differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells. Genesis. 2003;37:18-24 pubmed
    ..These findings support the critical role of Oct4 in regulating stem cell identity and suggest that future experiments using RNAi in ES cells can elucidate the roles of other genes affecting lineage specification during differentiation. ..
  33. Monti M, Redi C. Oogenesis specific genes (Nobox, Oct4, Bmp15, Gdf9, Oogenesin1 and Oogenesin2) are differentially expressed during natural and gonadotropin-induced mouse follicular development. Mol Reprod Dev. 2009;76:994-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..Oocytes that are able to proceed into whole embryo development show a tight regulation of Nobox and Oct4 expression at the antral stage. A parallel immunocytochemical study at the protein level corroborates these findings. ..
  34. van den Berg D, Zhang W, Yates A, Engelen E, Takacs K, Bezstarosti K, et al. Estrogen-related receptor beta interacts with Oct4 to positively regulate Nanog gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5986-95 pubmed publisher
  35. Zhang K, Haversat J, Mager J. CTR9/PAF1c regulates molecular lineage identity, histone H3K36 trimethylation and genomic imprinting during preimplantation development. Dev Biol. 2013;383:15-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that the PAF1 complex is required for mammalian development, likely through regulation of H3K36me3, and indicate functional conservation of the PAF1 complex from yeast to mammals in vivo. ..
  36. Ng C, Li N, Chee S, Prabhakar S, Kolatkar P, Jauch R. Deciphering the Sox-Oct partner code by quantitative cooperativity measurements. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:4933-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest selective Sox-Oct partnerships in genome regulation and provide a toolset to study protein cooperation on DNA. ..
  37. Zalzman M, Falco G, Sharova L, Nishiyama A, Thomas M, Lee S, et al. Zscan4 regulates telomere elongation and genomic stability in ES cells. Nature. 2010;464:858-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data show a unique mode of genome maintenance in ES cells. ..
  38. Card D, Hebbar P, Li L, Trotter K, Komatsu Y, Mishina Y, et al. Oct4/Sox2-regulated miR-302 targets cyclin D1 in human embryonic stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6426-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcriptional activation of miR-302 and the translational repression of its targets, such as cyclin D1, may provide a link between Oct4/Sox2 and cell cycle regulation in pluripotent cells. ..
  39. Kemler R, Hierholzer A, Kanzler B, Kuppig S, Hansen K, Taketo M, et al. Stabilization of beta-catenin in the mouse zygote leads to premature epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the epiblast. Development. 2004;131:5817-24 pubmed
    ..As a consequence, cells of the embryonic ectoderm change their fate, resulting in a premature epithelial-mesenchymal transition. ..
  40. Shen C, Zhang H, Wang P, Feng J, Li J, Xu Y, et al. Deoxycholic acid (DCA) confers an intestinal phenotype on esophageal squamous epithelium via induction of the stemness-associated reprogramming factors OCT4 and SOX2. Cell Cycle. 2016;15:1439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that both OCT4 and SOX2 play important roles in the development of BE triggered by bile acid reflux. ..
  41. Dailey L, Yuan H, Basilico C. Interaction between a novel F9-specific factor and octamer-binding proteins is required for cell-type-restricted activity of the fibroblast growth factor 4 enhancer. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:7758-69 pubmed
    ..Thus, while FGF-4 enhancer function is octamer site dependent, its developmentally restricted activity is determined by the interaction of octamer-binding proteins with the tissue-specific factor Fx. ..
  42. Campbell P, Rudnicki M. Oct4 interaction with Hmgb2 regulates Akt signaling and pluripotency. Stem Cells. 2013;31:1107-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work highlights a previously unappreciated role for Oct4 PTM-dependent interactions in maintaining restrained Akt signaling and promoting a primitive epigenetic state. ..
  43. Zogbi C, Tesser R, Encinas G, Miraglia S, Stumpp T. Gonocyte development in rats: proliferation, distribution and death revisited. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;138:305-22 pubmed publisher
  44. Johansson H, Simonsson S. Core transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog, individually form complexes with nucleophosmin (Npm1) to control embryonic stem (ES) cell fate determination. Aging (Albany NY). 2010;2:815-22 pubmed
    ..Our findings improve the current knowledge about ES cell-specific protein networks and indicate the importance of Npm1 and Tpt1 to maintain the ES cell phenotype. ..
  45. Ivanova N, Dobrin R, Lu R, Kotenko I, Levorse J, DeCoste C, et al. Dissecting self-renewal in stem cells with RNA interference. Nature. 2006;442:533-8 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest specific biological roles for these molecules and reveal the complexity of cell fate regulation in embryonic stem cells. ..
  46. Tokuzawa Y, Kaiho E, Maruyama M, Takahashi K, Mitsui K, Maeda M, et al. Fbx15 is a novel target of Oct3/4 but is dispensable for embryonic stem cell self-renewal and mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2699-708 pubmed
    ..Fbx15-null ES cells were normal in morphology, proliferation, and differentiation. These data demonstrate that Fbx15 is a novel target of Oct3/4 but is dispensable for ES cell self-renewal, development, and fertility. ..
  47. Loh Y, Zhang W, Chen X, George J, Ng H. Jmjd1a and Jmjd2c histone H3 Lys 9 demethylases regulate self-renewal in embryonic stem cells. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2545-57 pubmed
    ..Our results connect the ES cell transcription circuitry to chromatin modulation through H3K9 demethylation in pluripotent cells. ..
  48. Wang C, Chen Y, Deng H, Gao S, Li L. Rbm46 regulates trophectoderm differentiation by stabilizing Cdx2 mRNA in early mouse embryos. Stem Cells Dev. 2015;24:904-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study revealed a novel mechanism by which Rbm46 regulates trophectoderm specification through stabilizing Cdx2 mRNA in early mouse embryos. ..
  49. Scholer H, Dressler G, Balling R, Rohdewohld H, Gruss P. Oct-4: a germline-specific transcription factor mapping to the mouse t-complex. EMBO J. 1990;9:2185-95 pubmed
    ..Several mouse mutants in the distal region of the mouse t-complex affecting blastocyst and embryonic ectoderm formation also map to this region. ..
  50. Kristensen D, Nielsen J, Skakkebaek N, Graem N, Jacobsen G, Rajpert De Meyts E, et al. Presumed pluripotency markers UTF-1 and REX-1 are expressed in human adult testes and germ cell neoplasms. Hum Reprod. 2008;23:775-82 pubmed publisher
    ..UFT-1 and REX-1 are expressed in TGCT and the high abundance of UTF-1 in spermatocytic seminomas is consistent with the hypothesis that this tumour type originates from spermatogonia. ..
  51. Xu N, Papagiannakopoulos T, Pan G, Thomson J, Kosik K. MicroRNA-145 regulates OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4 and represses pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells. Cell. 2009;137:647-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This work reveals a direct link between the core reprogramming factors and miR-145 and uncovers a double-negative feedback loop involving OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and miR-145. ..
  52. Xu H, Liao B, Zhang Q, Wang B, Li H, Zhong X, et al. Wwp2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets transcription factor Oct-4 for ubiquitination. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23495-503 pubmed
    ..These results reveal that the functional status of Oct-4, in addition to its expression level, dictates its transcriptional activity, and the results open up a new avenue to understand how Oct-4 defines the fate of embryonic stem cells. ..
  53. Shen J, Jia W, Yu Y, Chen J, Cao X, Du Y, et al. Pwp1 is required for the differentiation potential of mouse embryonic stem cells through regulating Stat3 signaling. Stem Cells. 2015;33:661-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest that Pwp1 plays important roles in the differentiation potential of mESCs. ..
  54. Niakan K, Ji H, Maehr R, Vokes S, Rodolfa K, Sherwood R, et al. Sox17 promotes differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells by directly regulating extraembryonic gene expression and indirectly antagonizing self-renewal. Genes Dev. 2010;24:312-26 pubmed publisher
    ..By elaborating the function of Sox17, our results provide insight into how the transcriptional network promoting ES cell self-renewal is interrupted, allowing cellular differentiation. ..
  55. Ma P, Lin S, Bartolomei M, Schultz R. Metastasis tumor antigen 2 (MTA2) is involved in proper imprinted expression of H19 and Peg3 during mouse preimplantation development. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:1027-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results support a role for MTA2 within the NuRD complex in genomic imprinting. ..
  56. Tam W, Lim C, Han J, Zhang J, Ang Y, Ng H, et al. T-cell factor 3 regulates embryonic stem cell pluripotency and self-renewal by the transcriptional control of multiple lineage pathways. Stem Cells. 2008;26:2019-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate an important role for Tcf3 in modulating the appropriate level of gene transcription in ESCs and during embryonic development. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. ..
  57. Du Z, Jia D, Liu S, Wang F, Li G, Zhang Y, et al. Oct4 is expressed in human gliomas and promotes colony formation in glioma cells. Glia. 2009;57:724-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may provide further evidence for the stem cell theory of carcinogenesis. In contrast, the results might also imply that Oct4 contributes to the existence of undifferentiated cells in gliomas. ..
  58. Wang L, Schultz G. Expression of Oct-4 during differentiation of murine F9 cells. Biochem Cell Biol. 1996;74:579-84 pubmed
  59. Sung M, MacLennan G, Lopez Beltran A, Zhang S, Montironi R, Cheng L. Primary mediastinal seminoma: a comprehensive assessment integrated with histology, immunohistochemistry, and fluorescence in situ hybridization for chromosome 12p abnormalities in 23 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:146-55 pubmed
  60. de Jong J, Weeda S, Gillis A, Oosterhuis J, Looijenga L. Differential methylation of the OCT3/4 upstream region in primary human testicular germ cell tumors. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:127-32 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the findings argue against OCT3/4 being a driving oncogenic factor in the pathogenesis of human germ cell tumors. ..
  61. Cormier S, Le Bras S, Souilhol C, Vandormael Pournin S, Durand B, Babinet C, et al. The murine ortholog of notchless, a direct regulator of the notch pathway in Drosophila melanogaster, is essential for survival of inner cell mass cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3541-9 pubmed
  62. Turco M, Furia L, Dietze A, Fernandez Diaz L, Ronzoni S, Sciullo A, et al. Cellular heterogeneity during embryonic stem cell differentiation to epiblast stem cells is revealed by the ShcD/RaLP adaptor protein. Stem Cells. 2012;30:2423-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data reveal ShcD as an important modulator in the switch of key pathway(s) involved in determining EpiSC identity. ..
  63. Tsuruzoe S, Ishihara K, Uchimura Y, Watanabe S, Sekita Y, Aoto T, et al. Inhibition of DNA binding of Sox2 by the SUMO conjugation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;351:920-6 pubmed
    ..These indicate that Sox2 sumoylation negatively regulates its transcriptional role through impairing the DNA binding. ..
  64. Fong H, Hohenstein K, Donovan P. Regulation of self-renewal and pluripotency by Sox2 in human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells. 2008;26:1931-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article. ..
  65. Cheng L, Thomas A, Roth L, Zheng W, Michael H, Karim F. OCT4: a novel biomarker for dysgerminoma of the ovary. Am J Surg Pathol. 2004;28:1341-6 pubmed
    ..OCT4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor involved in the regulation of pluripotency during embryonic development...
  66. Plachta N, Bollenbach T, Pease S, Fraser S, Pantazis P. Oct4 kinetics predict cell lineage patterning in the early mammalian embryo. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:117-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify Oct4 kinetics, rather than differences in total transcription factor expression levels, as a predictive measure of developmental cell lineage patterning in the early mouse embryo. ..
  67. Wei Z, Yang Y, Zhang P, Andrianakos R, Hasegawa K, Lyu J, et al. Klf4 interacts directly with Oct4 and Sox2 to promote reprogramming. Stem Cells. 2009;27:2969-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the idea that direct interactions between Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2 are critical for somatic cell reprogramming. ..
  68. Barrow K, Ward C, Rutter J, Ali S, Stern P. Embryonic expression of murine 5T4 oncofoetal antigen is associated with morphogenetic events at implantation and in developing epithelia. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1535-45 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate a limited 5T4 expression profile during embryogenesis associated with actively cycling, undifferentiated epithelial progenitor cells that may contribute to their migration. ..
  69. Kan N, Stemmler M, Junghans D, Kanzler B, de Vries W, Dominis M, et al. Gene replacement reveals a specific role for E-cadherin in the formation of a functional trophectoderm. Development. 2007;134:31-41 pubmed
    ..Thus, N-cadherin can maintain epithelia in differentiating ES cells, but not during the formation of the trophectoderm. Our results point to a specific and unique function for E-cadherin during mouse preimplantation development. ..
  70. Durcova Hills G, Wianny F, Merriman J, Zernicka Goetz M, McLaren A. Developmental fate of embryonic germ cells (EGCs), in vivo and in vitro. Differentiation. 2003;71:135-41 pubmed
    ..In urogenital ridge reaggregates on the other hand, some EGCs were capable of differentiating to form small epithelial cysts. ..
  71. Wang H, Ding T, Brown N, Yamamoto Y, Prince L, Reese J, et al. Zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) is involved in morula to blastocyst transformation in the mouse. Dev Biol. 2008;318:112-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide the first evidence that ZO-1 is involved in blastocyst formation from the morula by regulating accumulation of fluid and differentiation of nonpolar blastomeres to polar trophoblast cells...
  72. Debeb B, Galat V, Epple Farmer J, Iannaccone S, Woodward W, Bader M, et al. Isolation of Oct4-expressing extraembryonic endoderm precursor cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7216 pubmed publisher