Gene Symbol: Pou4f2
Description: POU class 4 homeobox 2
Alias: Brn-3.2, Brn-3B, Brn3b, POU domain, class 4, transcription factor 2, brain-3B, brain-specific homeobox/POU domain protein 3B
Species: rat
Products:     Pou4f2

Top Publications

  1. Erkman L, Yates P, McLaughlin T, McEvilly R, Whisenhunt T, O Connell S, et al. A POU domain transcription factor-dependent program regulates axon pathfinding in the vertebrate visual system. Neuron. 2000;28:779-92 pubmed
    ..elegans homolog, UNC-115. Our findings provide insights into a Brn-3.2-directed hierarchical program linking signaling events to cytoskeletal changes required for axon pathfinding. ..
  2. Wang S, Mu X, Bowers W, Kim D, Plas D, Crair M, et al. Brn3b/Brn3c double knockout mice reveal an unsuspected role for Brn3c in retinal ganglion cell axon outgrowth. Development. 2002;129:467-77 pubmed
    ..During retinal ganglion cell differentiation, Brn3b is expressed first, followed by Brn3a and Brn3c...
  3. Ensor E, Smith M, Latchman D. The BRN-3A transcription factor protects sensory but not sympathetic neurons from programmed cell death/apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5204-12 pubmed
  4. Xiang M, Zhou L, Macke J, Yoshioka T, Hendry S, Eddy R, et al. The Brn-3 family of POU-domain factors: primary structure, binding specificity, and expression in subsets of retinal ganglion cells and somatosensory neurons. J Neurosci. 1995;15:4762-85 pubmed
  5. Gan L, Wang S, Huang Z, Klein W. POU domain factor Brn-3b is essential for retinal ganglion cell differentiation and survival but not for initial cell fate specification. Dev Biol. 1999;210:469-80 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Brn-3b regulates the activity of genes whose products play essential roles in the formation of retinal ganglion cell axons. ..
  6. Turner E, Jenne K, Rosenfeld M. Brn-3.2: a Brn-3-related transcription factor with distinctive central nervous system expression and regulation by retinoic acid. Neuron. 1994;12:205-18 pubmed
    ..Our analysis suggests that in the CNS Brn-3.2 is selectively expressed in postmitotic neurons, implying a role in specifying terminally differentiated neuronal phenotypes. ..
  7. Budhram Mahadeo V, Irshad S, Bowen S, Lee S, Samady L, Tonini G, et al. Proliferation-associated Brn-3b transcription factor can activate cyclin D1 expression in neuroblastoma and breast cancer cells. Oncogene. 2008;27:145-54 pubmed
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis of this sequence resulted in loss of transactivation of the CD1 promoter by Brn-3b. Thus, Brn-3b may act to alter growth properties of breast cancer and NB cells by enhancing CD1 expression in these cells. ..
  8. Xiang M. Requirement for Brn-3b in early differentiation of postmitotic retinal ganglion cell precursors. Dev Biol. 1998;197:155-69 pubmed
  9. Xiang M, Zhou L, Peng Y, Eddy R, Shows T, Nathans J. Brn-3b: a POU domain gene expressed in a subset of retinal ganglion cells. Neuron. 1993;11:689-701 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Brn-3b plays a role in determining and/or maintaining the identities of a small number of neurons, including a subset of visual system neurons. ..

More Information


  1. Pan L, Deng M, Xie X, Gan L. ISL1 and BRN3B co-regulate the differentiation of murine retinal ganglion cells. Development. 2008;135:1981-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that ISL1, a LIM-HD protein, is co-expressed with BRN3B, a POU-HD factor, in nascent post-mitotic retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)...
  2. Budhram Mahadeo V, Parker M, Latchman D. POU transcription factors Brn-3a and Brn-3b interact with the estrogen receptor and differentially regulate transcriptional activity via an estrogen response element. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1029-41 pubmed
    ..These observations and their implications for transcriptional regulation by the ER are discussed. ..
  3. Erkman L, McEvilly R, Luo L, Ryan A, Hooshmand F, O Connell S, et al. Role of transcription factors Brn-3.1 and Brn-3.2 in auditory and visual system development. Nature. 1996;381:603-6 pubmed
    ..Mutation of Brn-3.1 results in complete deafness, owing to a failure of hair cells to appear in the inner ear, with subsequent loss of cochlear and vestibular ganglia. ..
  4. Phatak N, Stankowska D, Krishnamoorthy R. Transcription Factor Brn-3b Overexpression Enhances Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells Under Condition of Hypoxia. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2015;35:769-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings have implications for a potential role of Brn-3b in neurodegenerative diseases in which hypoxia/ischemia contribute to pathophysiology of the disease. ..
  5. Wagner K, Wagner N, Schley G, Theres H, Scholz H. The Wilms' tumor suppressor Wt1 encodes a transcriptional activator of the class IV POU-domain factor Pou4f2 (Brn-3b). Gene. 2003;305:217-23 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the POU-domain factor Pou4f2 (formerly Brn-3b), which is necessary for retinal ganglion cell survival, is up-regulated in human embryonic ..
  6. Budhram Mahadeo V, Bowen S, Lee S, Perez Sanchez C, Ensor E, Morris P, et al. Brn-3b enhances the pro-apoptotic effects of p53 but not its induction of cell cycle arrest by cooperating in trans-activation of bax expression. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:6640-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, the ability of Brn-3b to interact with p53 and modulate Bax expression may demonstrate an important mechanism that helps to determine the fate of cells when p53 is induced. ..
  7. Ounzain S, Bowen S, Patel C, Fujita R, Heads R, Budhram Mahadeo V. Proliferation-associated POU4F2/Brn-3b transcription factor expression is regulated by oestrogen through ER? and growth factors via MAPK pathway. Breast Cancer Res. 2011;13:R5 pubmed publisher
  8. SCHULZE SPATE U, Battaglino R, Fu J, Sharma A, Vokes M, Stashenko P. Brn3 transcription factors control terminal osteoclastogenesis. J Cell Biochem. 2007;102:1-12 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Brn-3 represents a novel molecular differentiation factor that controls osteoclast maturation and function, suggesting an important role in bone metabolism. ..
  9. Li R, Wu F, Ruonala R, Sapkota D, Hu Z, Mu X. Isl1 and Pou4f2 form a complex to regulate target genes in developing retinal ganglion cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92105 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown previously that Isl1, a Lim-Homeodomain transcription factor, and Pou4f2, a class IV POU domain transcription factor, co-regulate a set of genes required for retinal ganglion cell (RGC) ..
  10. Farooqui Kabir S, Diss J, Henderson D, Marber M, Latchman D, Budhram Mahadeo V, et al. Cardiac expression of Brn-3a and Brn-3b POU transcription factors and regulation of Hsp27 gene expression. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2008;13:297-312 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Brn-3a may be necessary for correct valve and myocardial remodelling and maturation. ..
  11. Budhram Mahadeo V, Fujita R, Bitsi S, Sicard P, Heads R. Co-expression of POU4F2/Brn-3b with p53 may be important for controlling expression of pro-apoptotic genes in cardiomyocytes following ischaemic/hypoxic insults. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1503 pubmed publisher
    ..apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, but effects on cell fate depend on interactions with other regulators such as POU4F2/Brn-3b (Brn-3b), which co-operates with p53 to increase the expression of pro-apoptotic genes...
  12. Dawson S, Liu Y, Rodel B, Moroy T, Latchman D. The ability of POU family transcription factors to activate or repress gene expression is dependent on the spacing and context of their specific response elements. Biochem J. 1996;314 ( Pt 2):439-43 pubmed
    ..4 or Oct-2.5 being different. These effects are discussed in the context of the mechanisms by which POU factors activate or repress their target genes. ..
  13. Salichs E, Ledda A, Mularoni L, Albà M, De La Luna S. Genome-wide analysis of histidine repeats reveals their role in the localization of human proteins to the nuclear speckles compartment. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000397 pubmed publisher
    ..These data contribute to our better understanding of the physiological role of single amino acid repeats in proteins. ..
  14. Theil T, Rodel B, Spiegelhalter F, Moroy T. Short isoform of POU factor Brn-3b can form a heterodimer with Brn-3a that is inactive for octamer motif binding. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:30958-64 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we hypothesize that Brn-3b(s) can act as a direct antagonist of Brn-3a(1) by inhibiting its DNA binding through the formation of an inactive hetero-oligomeric complex. ..
  15. Theil T, McLean Hunter S, Zörnig M, Moroy T. Mouse Brn-3 family of POU transcription factors: a new aminoterminal domain is crucial for the oncogenic activity of Brn-3a. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:5921-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, our data indicate that Brn-3b acts as an inhibitor of Brn-3a(l) activity. ..
  16. Beckerman R, Prives C. Transcriptional regulation by p53. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010;2:a000935 pubmed publisher
    ..How p53 is able to discriminate between these different loci is the subject of intense research. Here, we describe key aspects of the fundamentals of p53-mediated transcriptional regulation and target gene promoter selectivity. ..
  17. Budhram Mahadeo V, Moore A, Morris P, Ward T, Weber B, Sassone Corsi P, et al. The closely related POU family transcription factors Brn-3a and Brn-3b are expressed in distinct cell types in the testis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2001;33:1027-39 pubmed
    ..Hence, as observed in neuronal cells, Brn-3a and Brn-3b may play distinct and important functional roles in the regulation of gene expression during germ cell development. ..
  18. Calissano M, Latchman D. Cell-specific regulation of the pro-survival Brn-3b transcription factor by microRNAs. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:317-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that this mechanism could have a widespread role in the regulation of mRNAs encoding for essential proteins. ..
  19. Feng L, Eisenstat D, Chiba S, Ishizaki Y, Gan L, Shibasaki K. Brn-3b inhibits generation of amacrine cells by binding to and negatively regulating DLX1/2 in developing retina. Neuroscience. 2011;195:9-20 pubmed publisher
    ..neurons, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), by activating a network of RGC transcription factors, including Brn-3b (POU4F2)...
  20. Zhang L, Wahlin K, Li Y, Masuda T, Yang Z, Zack D, et al. RIT2, a neuron-specific small guanosine triphosphatase, is expressed in retinal neuronal cells and its promoter is modulated by the POU4 transcription factors. Mol Vis. 2013;19:1371-86 pubmed
  21. Das A, James J, Bhattacharya S, Imbalzano A, Antony M, Hegde G, et al. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling ATPase Brm regulates the differentiation of early retinal stem cells/progenitors by influencing Brn3b expression and Notch signaling. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:35187-201 pubmed
    ..cell differentiation by facilitating the expression and function of a key regulator of retinal ganglion cells, Brn3b, and the inhibition of Notch signaling...
  22. Xiang M, Gao W, Hasson T, Shin J. Requirement for Brn-3c in maturation and survival, but not in fate determination of inner ear hair cells. Development. 1998;125:3935-46 pubmed
    ..These data indicate a crucial role for Brn-3c in maturation, survival and migration of hair cells, but not in proliferation or commitment of hair cell progenitors. ..
  23. Morris P, Theil T, Ring C, Lillycrop K, Moroy T, Latchman D. The opposite and antagonistic effects of the closely related POU family transcription factors Brn-3a and Brn-3b on the activity of a target promoter are dependent on differences in the POU domain. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:6907-14 pubmed
  24. Stankowska D, Minton A, Rutledge M, Mueller B, Phatak N, He S, et al. Neuroprotective effects of transcription factor Brn3b in an ocular hypertension rat model of glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015;56:893-907 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Brn3b is a class-4 POU domain transcription factor that plays a key role in RGC development, axon outgrowth, and ..