Gene Symbol: Pomc
Description: proopiomelanocortin
Alias: Pomc1, Pomc2, alphaMSH, pro-opiomelanocortin, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, corticotropin-lipotropin, pro-opiomelanocortin-alpha, proopiomelanocortin (adrenocorticotropin/ beta-lipotropin/ alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone/ beta-melanocyte stimulating hormone/ beta-endorphin), proopiomelanocortin, beta (endorphin, beta), proopoimelanocortin, beta (endorphin, beta)
Species: rat
Products:     Pomc

Top Publications

  1. Douglas A, Bicknell R, Leng G, Russell J, Meddle S. Beta-endorphin cells in the arcuate nucleus: projections to the supraoptic nucleus and changes in expression during pregnancy and parturition. J Neuroendocrinol. 2002;14:768-77 pubmed
    ..Thus, beta-endorphin cells in the arcuate nucleus project to the supraoptic nucleus and increased innervation during pregnancy may explain the enhanced endogenous opioid inhibition of oxytocin neurones. ..
  2. Mousa S, Shakibaei M, Sitte N, Schafer M, Stein C. Subcellular pathways of beta-endorphin synthesis, processing, and release from immunocytes in inflammatory pain. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1331-41 pubmed
    The opioid peptide beta-endorphin (END) as well as mRNA for its precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC) are found not only in the pituitary gland, but also within various types of immune cells infiltrating inflamed sc tissue...
  3. Sarkar D, Kuhn P, Marano J, Chen C, Boyadjieva N. Alcohol exposure during the developmental period induces beta-endorphin neuronal death and causes alteration in the opioid control of stress axis function. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2828-34 pubmed
  4. Bekdash R, Zhang C, Sarkar D. Gestational choline supplementation normalized fetal alcohol-induced alterations in histone modifications, DNA methylation, and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene expression in ?-endorphin-producing POMC neurons of the hypothalamus. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37:1133-42 pubmed publisher
    Prenatal exposure to ethanol (EtOH) reduces the expression of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene, known to control various physiological functions including the organismal stress response...
  5. Langlais D, Couture C, Sylvain Drolet G, Drouin J. A pituitary-specific enhancer of the POMC gene with preferential activity in corticotrope cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:348-59 pubmed publisher
    Cell-specific expression of the pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene depends on the combination of tissue- and cell-restricted transcription factors such as Pitx1 and Tpit...
  6. Rorato R, Castro M, Borges B, Benedetti M, Germano C, Antunes Rodrigues J, et al. Adrenalectomy enhances endotoxemia-induced hypophagia: higher activation of corticotrophin-releasing-factor and proopiomelanocortin hypothalamic neurons. Horm Behav. 2008;54:134-42 pubmed publisher
    ..hormone responses and Fos-CRF and Fos-alpha-MSH immunoreactivity in the PVN and arcuate nucleus, as well as CRF and POMC mRNA expression in these hypothalamic nuclei...
  7. Pelletier G, Li S, Luu The V, Labrie F. Oestrogenic regulation of pro-opiomelanocortin, neuropeptide Y and corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNAs in mouse hypothalamus. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:426-31 pubmed
    ..for three neuropeptides involved in feeding behaviour: two anorexigenic peptides, (i) the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and (ii) corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), and the ..
  8. Caruso C, Sanchez M, Durand D, Perez M, Gonzalez P, Lasaga M, et al. ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone modulates lipopolysaccharide plus interferon-?-induced tumor necrosis factor-? expression but not tumor necrosis factor-? receptor expression in cultured hypothalamic neurons. J Neuroimmunol. 2010;227:52-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The regulation of inflammatory processes in the hypothalamus by ?-MSH might help to prevent neurodegeneration resulting from inflammation. ..
  9. Zhou Y, Colombo G, Niikura K, Carai M, Femenía T, García Gutiérrez M, et al. Voluntary alcohol drinking enhances proopiomelanocortin gene expression in nucleus accumbens shell and hypothalamus of Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37 Suppl 1:E131-40 pubmed publisher
    Evidence obtained in humans and rodents indicates that beta-endorphin (encoded by the proopiomelanocortin [POMC] gene) is critical in the regulation of alcohol drinking behavior...

More Information


  1. Wang J, Wang F, Yang M, Yu D, Wu W, Liu J, et al. Leptin regulated calcium channels of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin neurons by activation of different signal pathways. Neuroscience. 2008;156:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..food intake and body weight in part by modulating the activity of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC)...
  2. Singru P, Sanchez E, Fekete C, Lechan R. Importance of melanocortin signaling in refeeding-induced neuronal activation and satiety. Endocrinology. 2007;148:638-46 pubmed
    ..We conclude that refeeding activates a subset of neurons in the PVN and DMN as a result of increased melanocortin signaling and propose that one or more of these neuronal populations mediate the potent anorexic actions of alpha-MSH. ..
  3. Calviño C, Império G, Wilieman M, Costa E Sousa R, Souza L, Trevenzoli I, et al. Hypothyroidism Induces Hypophagia Associated with Alterations in Protein Expression of Neuropeptide Y and Proopiomelanocortin in the Arcuate Nucleus, Independently of Hypothalamic Nuclei-Specific Changes in Leptin Signaling. Thyroid. 2016;26:134-43 pubmed publisher
    ..modulates the expression of neuropeptides: orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC), independently of inducing nuclei-specific changes in hypothalamic leptin signaling...
  4. Chen J, Tang Y, Yang J. Changes of glucocorticoid receptor and levels of CRF mRNA, POMC mRNA in brain of chronic immobilization stress rats. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008;28:237-44 pubmed
    ..on the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR), corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) mRNA and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA in brains of rats. The rats were randomly divided into stressed and control groups...
  5. Seres J, Herichova I, Roman O, Bornstein S, Jurcovicova J. Evidence for daily rhythms of the expression of proopiomelanocortin, interleukin-1-beta and interleukin-6 in adenopituitaries of male long-evans rats: effect of adjuvant arthritis. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2004;11:316-22 pubmed
    ..was to describe the relationship between circulating corticosterone and the mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), IL-1 beta and IL-6 in the AP during a 24-hour cycle in normal rats and rats with acute adjuvant arthritis (AA)...
  6. Muffley L, Zhu K, Engrav L, Gibran N, Hocking A. Spatial and temporal localization of the melanocortin 1 receptor and its ligand ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone during cutaneous wound repair. J Histochem Cytochem. 2011;59:278-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This article contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials. ..
  7. Wachira S, Temoney S, Ramlochansingh C, Hughes Darden C. Prevalence of melanocortin system transcripts in rat salt homeostasis endocrine tissues. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2007;53:8-14 pubmed
    ..Expression levels of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), POMC processing enzymes prohormone convertases 1 and 2 (PC1/PC2), melanocortin 3 receptor (MC3R) and melanocortin ..
  8. Bomberg E, Grace M, Levine A, Olszewski P. Functional interaction between nociceptin/orphanin FQ and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the regulation of feeding. Peptides. 2006;27:1827-34 pubmed
    ..Thus, to some degree, the stimulatory effect of N/OFQ on consumption may arise from this peptide's inhibitory influence on activity of anorexigenic pathways containing alpha-MSH. ..
  9. Bruder E, Kamer K, Guenther M, Raff H. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone responses to acute hypoxia in the neonatal rat: effects of body temperature maintenance. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;300:R708-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevention of hypothermia may increase the stress response during neonatal hypoxia, becoming more pronounced with increased age. ..
  10. Li G, Zhang Y, Cheng K, Scarpace P. Lean rats with hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin overexpression exhibit greater diet-induced obesity and impaired central melanocortin responsiveness. Diabetologia. 2007;50:1490-9 pubmed
    Central pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) gene therapy ameliorates genetic- or age-related obesity. We hypothesised that this treatment would delay or prevent dietary obesity in young, lean rats...
  11. Rajora N, Boccoli G, Catania A, Lipton J. alpha-MSH modulates experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Peptides. 1997;18:381-5 pubmed
  12. Wittmann G, Hrabovszky E, Lechan R. Distinct glutamatergic and GABAergic subsets of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin neurons revealed by in situ hybridization in male rats and mice. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:3287-302 pubmed publisher
    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) neurons in the hypothalamus regulate various aspects of energy homeostasis and metabolism...
  13. Iwasaki Y, Nishiyama M, Taguchi T, Kambayashi M, Asai M, Yoshida M, et al. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase stimulates proopiomelanocortin gene transcription in AtT20 corticotroph cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E1899-905 pubmed
    ..protein kinase (AMPK), which is known to occur in intracellular energy depletion, influences the expression of POMC gene that encodes adrenocorticotropin...
  14. Lindqvist N, Näpänkangas U, Lindblom J, Hallböök F. Proopiomelanocortin and melanocortin receptors in the adult rat retino-tectal system and their regulation after optic nerve transection. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;482:85-94 pubmed
    ..Together, these data implicate a role for the melanocortin system in the adult rat retina and that melanocortins can stimulate neurite growth from retinal neurons. ..
  15. Carniglia L, Durand D, Caruso C, Lasaga M. Effect of NDP-?-MSH on PPAR-? and -? expression and anti-inflammatory cytokine release in rat astrocytes and microglia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57313 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the activation of glial MC4R and open perspectives for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of inflammation-mediated brain diseases. ..
  16. Pritchard L, Oliver R, McLoughlin J, Birtles S, Lawrence C, Turnbull A, et al. Proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides in rat cerebrospinal fluid and hypothalamic extracts: evidence that secretion is regulated with respect to energy balance. Endocrinology. 2003;144:760-6 pubmed
    Regulation of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is an important means of controlling the central melanocortin system...
  17. Puglianiello A, Germani D, Cianfarani S. Exposure to uteroplacental insufficiency reduces the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and proopiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus of newborn rats. Pediatr Res. 2009;66:208-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to investigate the expression of STAT3 and its downstream effector proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in IUGR rats obtained by uterine artery ligation...
  18. Bettenworth D, Buyse M, Bohm M, Mennigen R, Czorniak I, Kannengiesser K, et al. The tripeptide KdPT protects from intestinal inflammation and maintains intestinal barrier function. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:1230-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, KdPT does not induce pigmentation, emphasizing the potential of this small molecule for the future treatment of IBD. ..
  19. Tanida M, Shintani N, Hashimoto H. The melanocortin system is involved in regulating autonomic nerve activity through central pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide. Neurosci Res. 2011;70:55-61 pubmed publisher
  20. Yoo S, Ryu V, Park E, Kim B, Kang D, Lee J, et al. The arcuate NPY, POMC, and CART expressions responding to food deprivation are exaggerated in young female rats that experienced neonatal maternal separation. Neuropeptides. 2011;45:343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Weanling female pups were housed in group and the arcuate mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and cocaine-amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) were examined at two months of age with or without food ..
  21. Kinzig K, Hargrave S, Tao E. Central and peripheral effects of chronic food restriction and weight restoration in the rat. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;296:E282-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypothalamic mRNA expression levels for proopiomelanocortin (POMC), agouti-related protein (AgRP), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) revealed significantly less POMC mRNA expression in CR ..
  22. Shelkar G, Kale A, Singh U, Singru P, Subhedar N, Kokare D. Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone modulates ethanol self-administration in posterior ventral tegmental area through melanocortin-4 receptors. Addict Biol. 2015;20:302-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that ?-MSH-MC4R system in the pVTA might be a part of the neuroadaptive mechanism underlying ethanol addiction. ..
  23. Zheng H, Patterson L, Rhodes C, Louis G, Skibicka K, Grill H, et al. A potential role for hypothalamomedullary POMC projections in leptin-induced suppression of food intake. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R720-8 pubmed publisher
    ..nucleus of the hypothalamus and the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) harbor populations of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons...
  24. Seo Y, Kwon M, Choi S, Lee J, Park S, Jung J, et al. Differential cross-tolerance development between single and repeated immobilization stress on the antinociceptive effect induced by ?-endorphin, 5-hydroxytryptamine, morphine, and WIN55,212-2 in the inflammatory mouse pain mode. Arch Pharm Res. 2011;34:269-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We also found that immobilization stress activated hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene and ?-endorphin expression...
  25. Lavoie P, Budry L, Balsalobre A, Drouin J. Developmental dependence on NurRE and EboxNeuro for expression of pituitary proopiomelanocortin. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1647-57 pubmed publisher
    Cell-specific expression of the pituitary proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene depends on the combinatorial action of a large number of DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs)...
  26. Koban M, Le W, Hoffman G. Changes in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y, and proopiomelanocortin gene expression during chronic rapid eye movement sleep deprivation of rats. Endocrinology. 2006;147:421-31 pubmed
    ..of the orexigen neuropeptide Y (NPY) would increase, but expression of the anorexigen proopiomelanocortin (POMC) would decrease...
  27. Brunetti L, Di Nisio C, Recinella L, Chiavaroli A, Leone S, Ferrante C, et al. Effects of vaspin, chemerin and omentin-1 on feeding behavior and hypothalamic peptide gene expression in the rat. Peptides. 2011;32:1866-71 pubmed publisher
    ..and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
  28. Diane A, Pierce W, Russell J, Heth C, Vine D, Richard D, et al. Down-regulation of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) expression after weaning is associated with hyperphagia-induced obesity in JCR rats overexpressing neuropeptide Y. Br J Nutr. 2014;111:924-32 pubmed publisher
    ..in the present study, we measured energy balance and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expressions in male JCR:LA-cp rats...
  29. Munzberg H, Huo L, Nillni E, Hollenberg A, Bjørbaek C. Role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in regulation of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin gene expression by leptin. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2121-31 pubmed
    Leptin acts on the brain to regulate body weight and neuroendocrine function. Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus are important targets of leptin...
  30. Rivier C. Relative importance of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in regulating the ACTH response to immune and non-immune signals. Stress. 2001;4:13-24 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that endogenous NO, but not CO, interferes with ACTH released by a peripheral immune signal. In contrast, NO formed by nNOS enhances the ability of shocks to induce ACTH secretion. ..
  31. Guan J, Okuda H, Takenoya F, Kintaka Y, Yagi M, Wang L, et al. Synaptic relationships between proopiomelanocortin- and ghrelin-containing neurons in the rat arcuate nucleus. Regul Pept. 2008;145:128-32 pubmed
    Both proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and ghrelin peptides are implicated in the feeding regulation...
  32. Yamashita M, Yamauchi K, Suzuki M, Eguchi Y, Orita S, Endo M, et al. Transfection of rat cells with proopiomeranocortin gene, precursor of endogenous endorphin, using radial shock waves suppresses inflammatory pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:2270-7 pubmed publisher
    The effect of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene transfer with radial shock waves (RSW) was investigated in vitro and in vivo rat pain models...
  33. Zhou Y, Kreek M. Persistent increases in rat hypothalamic POMC gene expression following chronic withdrawal from chronic "binge" pattern escalating-dose, but not steady-dose, cocaine. Neuroscience. 2015;289:63-70 pubmed publisher
    Recent research suggests an involvement of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene products (e.g., beta-endorphin) in modulating cocaine-induced reward and addiction-like behaviors in rodents...
  34. Zhang Y, Rodrigues E, Li G, Gao Y, King M, Carter C, et al. Simultaneous POMC gene transfer to hypothalamus and brainstem increases physical activity, lipolysis and reduces adult-onset obesity. Eur J Neurosci. 2011;33:1541-50 pubmed publisher
    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are identified in two brain sites, the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in brainstem...
  35. Sousa Ferreira L, Alvaro A, Aveleira C, Santana M, Brandão I, Kügler S, et al. Proliferative hypothalamic neurospheres express NPY, AGRP, POMC, CART and Orexin-A and differentiate to functional neurons. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19745 pubmed publisher
    ..the feeding-related neuropeptides Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti-related Protein (AGRP), Pro-OpioMelanocortin (POMC), Cocaine-and-Amphetamine Responsive Transcript (CART) and Orexin-A/Hypocretin-1...
  36. Su C, Chang Y, Pai H, Liu I, Lo C, Cheng J. Mediation of beta-endorphin in exercise-induced improvement in insulin resistance in obese Zucker rats. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2005;21:175-82 pubmed
  37. Couvreur O, Aubourg A, Crépin D, Degrouard J, Gertler A, Taouis M, et al. The anorexigenic cytokine ciliary neurotrophic factor stimulates POMC gene expression via receptors localized in the nucleus of arcuate neurons. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E458-67 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrate that CNTF, together with its receptor subunits, translocates to the cell nucleus of anorexigenic POMC neurons in the rat ARC...
  38. Su T, Zhang L, Peng M, Wu C, Pan W, Tian B, et al. Cannabinoid CB2 receptors contribute to upregulation of ?-endorphin in inflamed skin tissues by electroacupuncture. Mol Pain. 2011;7:98 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA level of POMC and protein level of ?-endorphin were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively...
  39. Ranganathan S, Singh P, Singh U, Singru P, Padinhateeri R, Maji S. Molecular interpretation of ACTH-?-endorphin coaggregation: relevance to secretory granule biogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31924 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that ACTH is not only involved in interaction with ?-endorphin but also enhances the stability of mixed oligomers of the entire system. ..
  40. Rivier C. Does IL-6 release ACTH by exerting a direct effect in the rat anterior pituitary. Stress. 2001;4:39-55 pubmed
    ..As comparable findings were obtained in adrenal-intact and adrenalectomized rats, they suggest that endogenous CRF is involved in the IL-6 response to LPS independently of circulating corticosteroids or other adrenal factors. ..
  41. Landmann E, Schellong K, Melchior K, Rodekamp E, Ziska T, Harder T, et al. Short-term regulation of the hypothalamic melanocortinergic system under fasting and defined glucose-refeeding conditions in rats: a laser capture microdissection (LMD)-based study. Neurosci Lett. 2012;515:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..while inconsistent data exist regarding fasting regulation of the anorexigenic neurohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC)...
  42. Loh Y, Maldonado A, Zhang C, Tam W, Cawley N. Mechanism of sorting proopiomelanocortin and proenkephalin to the regulated secretory pathway of neuroendocrine cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;971:416-25 pubmed
    Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and proenkephalin (PE) are synthesized at the endoplasmic reticulum and transported to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) where they are sorted and packaged into dense-core granules of the regulated secretory pathway ..
  43. Tungalagsuvd A, Matsuzaki T, Iwasa T, Munkhzaya M, Yiliyasi M, Kawami T, et al. The expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic factors in middle-aged female rats that had been subjected to prenatal undernutrition. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2016;49:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the mUN rats, the 48 h FD group exhibited significantly lower hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression than the Fed group, and a similar tendency was seen among the mNN rats...
  44. Cragnolini A, Schiöth H, Scimonelli T. Anxiety-like behavior induced by IL-1beta is modulated by alpha-MSH through central melanocortin-4 receptors. Peptides. 2006;27:1451-6 pubmed
    ..However, the associated treatment with gamma-MSH did not affect the anxiety response to IL-1beta. These data suggest that alpha-MSH, through central MC4-R can modulate the anxiety-like behavior induced by IL-1beta. ..
  45. Seeley R, Drazen D, Clegg D. The critical role of the melanocortin system in the control of energy balance. Annu Rev Nutr. 2004;24:133-49 pubmed
    ..Reviewed here is the wide range of evidence that points to the melanocortin system as a critical node in the diverse neurocircuitry that regulates food intake and body weight. ..
  46. Delahaye F, Breton C, Risold P, Enache M, Dutriez Casteloot I, Laborie C, et al. Maternal perinatal undernutrition drastically reduces postnatal leptin surge and affects the development of arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin neurons in neonatal male rat pups. Endocrinology. 2008;149:470-5 pubmed
    ..undernutrition on leptin plasma levels in newborn male rats and on the arcuate nucleus proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons that are major leptin targets...
  47. Chen C, Kuhn P, Advis J, Sarkar D. Chronic ethanol consumption impairs the circadian rhythm of pro-opiomelanocortin and period genes mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of the male rat. J Neurochem. 2004;88:1547-54 pubmed
    ..Our findings identified the vulnerability of the body's clock machinery and its opioidergic system to chronic alcohol drinking. ..
  48. Leriche M, Cote Vélez A, MENDEZ M. Presence of pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA in the rat medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area: studies by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization techniques. Neuropeptides. 2007;41:421-31 pubmed
    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a large proteic precursor which originates several biologically actives neuropeptides, such as beta-lipotropin (beta-LPH), beta-endorphin (beta-END), adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and alpha-melanocyte-..
  49. Santoro N, del Giudice E, Cirillo G, Raimondo P, Corsi I, Amato A, et al. An insertional polymorphism of the proopiomelanocortin gene is associated with fasting insulin levels in childhood obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89:4846-9 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the variability of insulin levels in early-onset obesity...
  50. Zhou Y, Leri F, Cummins E, Kreek M. Individual differences in gene expression of vasopressin, D2 receptor, POMC and orexin: vulnerability to relapse to heroin-seeking in rats. Physiol Behav. 2015;139:127-35 pubmed publisher
    ..with alterations of AVP and V1b, as well as other stress responsive systems, including pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), orexin, plasma ACTH and corticosterone, as well as dopamine D2 receptor (D2) and plasma prolactin...
  51. Chitravanshi V, Bhatt S, Sapru H. Microinjections of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone into the nucleus ambiguus of the rat elicit vagally mediated bradycardia. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R1402-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that alpha-MSH microinjections into the nAmb exert excitatory effects on parasympathetic preganglionic nAmb neurons via MC4Rs, leading to bradycardic responses. ..
  52. Wang X, Xu H, Rothman R. Regulation of the rat brain endothelin system by endogenous beta-endorphin. Peptides. 2006;27:769-74 pubmed
    ..These findings support the hypothesis that CSF neuropeptides have regulatory effects and further demonstrate a link between opioid and ET system. ..
  53. Asaba K, Iwasaki Y, Yoshida M, Asai M, Oiso Y, Murohara T, et al. Attenuation by reactive oxygen species of glucocorticoid suppression on proopiomelanocortin gene expression in pituitary corticotroph cells. Endocrinology. 2004;145:39-42 pubmed