Pnoc

Summary

Gene Symbol: Pnoc
Description: prepronociceptin
Alias: N23K, Npnc1, prepronociceptin, Prepronociceptin (neuropeptide nociceptin) (N23K), neuropeptide nociceptin 1, nociceptin, orphanin FQ
Species: rat
Products:     Pnoc

Top Publications

  1. Marti M, Mela F, Guerrini R, Calo G, Bianchi C, Morari M. Blockade of nociceptin/orphanin FQ transmission in rat substantia nigra reverses haloperidol-induced akinesia and normalizes nigral glutamate release. J Neurochem. 2004;91:1501-4 pubmed
    We recently showed that pharmacological blockade of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide (NOP) receptors located in the substantia nigra stimulates the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and motor behavior (Marti et al. J. Neurosci...
  2. Zaveri N, Waleh N, Toll L. Regulation of the prepronociceptin gene and its effect on neuronal differentiation. Gene. 2006;384:27-36 pubmed
    ..b>Prepronociceptin (ppN/OFQ) mRNA has been shown to be upregulated by an increase in cAMP, a treatment that leads to ..
  3. Volta M, Viaro R, Trapella C, Marti M, Morari M. Dopamine-nociceptin/orphanin FQ interactions in the substantia nigra reticulata of hemiparkinsonian rats: involvement of D2/D3 receptors and impact on nigro-thalamic neurons and motor activity. Exp Neurol. 2011;228:126-37 pubmed publisher
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) peptide (NOP) receptor antagonists proved to be effective in alleviating experimental parkinsonism...
  4. Meunier J, Mollereau C, Toll L, Suaudeau C, Moisand C, Alvinerie P, et al. Isolation and structure of the endogenous agonist of opioid receptor-like ORL1 receptor. Nature. 1995;377:532-5 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that the newly discovered heptadecapeptide is an endogenous agonist of the ORL1 receptor and that it may be endowed with pro-nociceptive properties. ..
  5. Liu E, Li C, Govindasamy M, Neo H, Lee T, Low C, et al. Elevated prepronociceptin, nociceptin/orphanin FQ and nocistatin concentrations in rat chronic constriction nerve injury and diabetic neuropathic pain models. Neurosci Lett. 2012;506:104-6 pubmed publisher
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and nocistatin are derived from the same precursor peptide, prepronociceptin. N/OFQ and nocistatin have been postulated to participate in pain modulation...
  6. Pettersson L, Sundler F, Danielsen N. Expression of orphanin FQ/nociceptin and its receptor in rat peripheral ganglia and spinal cord. Brain Res. 2002;945:266-75 pubmed
    Expression of the neuropeptide orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) and its receptor, the opioid receptor-like receptor (ORL1), have been found to have a wide distribution in the central nervous system, and in brain areas involved in sensory ..
  7. Cruz M, Herman M, Kallupi M, Roberto M. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor-induced gamma-aminobutyric acid release in central amygdala is enhanced after chronic ethanol exposure. Biol Psychiatry. 2012;71:666-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (nociceptin) regulate ethanol intake and anxiety-like behavior...
  8. Marti M, Mela F, Veronesi C, Guerrini R, Salvadori S, Federici M, et al. Blockade of nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor signaling in rat substantia nigra pars reticulata stimulates nigrostriatal dopaminergic transmission and motor behavior. J Neurosci. 2004;24:6659-66 pubmed
    A multidisciplinary approach was followed to investigate whether the opioid-like peptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) regulates the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway and motor behavior...
  9. Ciccocioppo R, Economidou D, Fedeli A, Angeletti S, Weiss F, Heilig M, et al. Attenuation of ethanol self-administration and of conditioned reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behaviour by the antiopioid peptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ in alcohol-preferring rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004;172:170-8 pubmed
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous ligand of the opioid-like orphan receptor NOP, was shown to reduce home-cage ethanol consumption, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-..

More Information

Publications60

  1. Mika J, Li Y, Weihe E, Schafer M. Relationship of pronociceptin/orphanin FQ and the nociceptin receptor ORL1 with substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in dorsal root ganglion of the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2003;348:190-4 pubmed
    Recent evidence suggests a role of prepronociceptin/orphanin FQ (preproN/OFQ) derived neuropeptides in nociceptive signaling...
  2. Fu X, Wang Y, Wang J, Yu J, Wu G. Changes in expression of nociceptin/orphanin FQ and its receptor in spinal dorsal horn during electroacupuncture treatment for peripheral inflammatory pain in rats. Peptides. 2007;28:1220-8 pubmed
    The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous agonist of the N/OFQ peptide receptor (NOP receptor), has been demonstrated to be involved in many physiological and pathological functions including pain modulation...
  3. Yüce B, Sibaev A, Haaken A, Saur D, Allescher H, Goke B, et al. ORL-1 receptor mediates the action of nociceptin on ascending myenteric reflex pathways in rats. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:574-86 pubmed
    b>Nociceptin is the endogenous agonist of the "orphan" opioid receptor-1 (ORL-1)...
  4. Acosta C, Davies A. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide regulates nociceptin expression in sensory neurons. J Neurosci Res. 2008;86:1077-86 pubmed
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an opioid-related peptide that is markedly up-regulated in sensory neurons in vivo following peripheral inflammation and plays a key role in pain physiology...
  5. Green M, Devine D. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ and NOP receptor gene regulation after acute or repeated social defeat stress. Neuropeptides. 2009;43:507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..This stress-induced upregulation of NOP receptor gene expression further supports the possibility that disregulation of the N/OFQ-NOP system may contribute to behavioral and hormonal disregulation following stress. ..
  6. Klukovits A, Tekes K, Gunduz Cinar O, Benyhe S, Borsodi A, Deák B, et al. Nociceptin inhibits uterine contractions in term-pregnant rats by signaling through multiple pathways. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:36-41 pubmed publisher
    The actions of the endogenous peptide nociceptin (PNOC; previously abbreviated as N/OFQ) on the myometrium have not been investigated previously...
  7. Ciccocioppo R, Fedeli A, Economidou D, Policani F, Weiss F, Massi M. The bed nucleus is a neuroanatomical substrate for the anorectic effect of corticotropin-releasing factor and for its reversal by nociceptin/orphanin FQ. J Neurosci. 2003;23:9445-51 pubmed
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous ligand of the opioid N/OFQ receptor (NOP), possesses marked functional anti-stress and anti-corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) actions...
  8. Nagata T, Suzuki H, Zhang R, Ozaki M, Kawakami Y. Mechanical stimulation activates small fiber mediated nociceptive responses in the nucleus gigantocellularis. Exp Brain Res. 2003;149:505-11 pubmed
    We characterized nociceptive discharges induced by mechanical stimulation and the modulating effects of orphanin FQ on noxious responses in the rat brain stem gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi)...
  9. Buzas B. Regulation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ gene expression in astrocytes by ceramide. Neuroreport. 2002;13:1707-10 pubmed
    ..Since these stimuli dramatically increase nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) gene expression in astrocytes we evaluated the regulation of N/OFQ by ceramide and the signaling ..
  10. Rutten K, De Vry J, Bruckmann W, Tzschentke T. Pharmacological blockade or genetic knockout of the NOP receptor potentiates the rewarding effect of morphine in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;114:253-6 pubmed publisher
    The Nociceptin/OrphaninFQ (NOP) system is believed to be involved in drug abuse and addiction...
  11. Scoto G, Aricò G, Ronsisvalle S, Parenti C. Effects of intraplantar nocistatin and (±)-J 113397 injections on nociceptive behavior in a rat model of inflammation. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012;100:639-44 pubmed publisher
    Nocistatin (NST) and Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) are derived from the same precursor protein, pre-proN/OFQ, and exert opposite effects on the modulation of pain signals...
  12. Mollereau C, Simons M, Soularue P, Liners F, Vassart G, Meunier J, et al. Structure, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of the prepronociceptin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:8666-70 pubmed
    ..Nociceptin is derived from a larger precursor, prepronociceptin (PPNOC), whose human, mouse, and rat genes we have now isolated...
  13. Nazzaro C, Barbieri M, Varani K, Beani L, Valentino R, Siniscalchi A. Swim stress enhances nociceptin/orphanin FQ-induced inhibition of rat dorsal raphe nucleus activity in vivo and in vitro: role of corticotropin releasing factor. Neuropharmacology. 2010;58:457-64 pubmed publisher
    The effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ on putative serotonin (5HT) neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), known to modulate the behavioral responses to stress, were investigated in vivo and in vitro...
  14. Hiramatsu M, Miwa M, Hashimoto K, Kawai S, Nomura N. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ reverses mecamylamine-induced learning and memory impairment as well as decrease in hippocampal acetylcholine release in the rat. Brain Res. 2008;1195:96-103 pubmed publisher
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ is an endogenous neuropeptide that plays important roles in several physiological functions including pain, anxiety, locomotion, learning, and memory...
  15. Vazquez DeRose J, Stauber G, Khroyan T, Xie X, Zaveri N, Toll L. Retrodialysis of N/OFQ into the nucleus accumbens shell blocks cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine and locomotor activity. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;699:200-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Nociceptin (N/OFQ) has been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders, most notably in reward processes and drug abuse. N/OFQ suppresses extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) after intracerebroventricular injection...
  16. Thomas R, Bath M, Stover C, Lambert D, Thompson J. Exploring LPS-induced sepsis in rats and mice as a model to study potential protective effects of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ system. Peptides. 2014;61:56-60 pubmed publisher
    The nociceptin receptor (NOP) and its ligand nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) have been shown to exert a modulatory effect on immune cells during sepsis...
  17. Romualdi P, Di Benedetto M, D Addario C, Collins S, Wade D, Candeletti S, et al. Chronic cocaine produces decreases in N/OFQ peptide levels in select rat brain regions. J Mol Neurosci. 2007;31:159-64 pubmed
    ..b>Nociceptin/orphaninFQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous agonist at NOP receptors, attenuates the behavioral effects of cocaine...
  18. Zhang Y, Gandhi P, Standifer K. Increased nociceptive sensitivity and nociceptin/orphanin FQ levels in a rat model of PTSD. Mol Pain. 2012;8:76 pubmed publisher
    ..Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), an endogenous ligand for the N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor, modulates various biological functions in ..
  19. Wang W, Cui Q, Li Y, Li B, Yang X, Cui L, et al. The role of ERK-1/2 in the N/OFQ-induced inhibition of delayed rectifier potassium currents. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:1058-62 pubmed publisher
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an endogenous opioid-like heptadecapeptide involved in many neurocognitive functions, including learning and memory...
  20. Nazzaro C, Marino S, Barbieri M, Siniscalchi A. Inhibition of serotonin outflow by nociceptin/orphaninFQ in dorsal raphe nucleus slices from normal and stressed rats: Role of corticotropin releasing factor. Neurochem Int. 2009;54:378-84 pubmed
    ..The effects exerted by two stress-related neuropeptides, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and nociceptin/orphaninFQ (N/OFQ), on the outflow of [(3)H]5- hydroxytryptamine were investigated in superfused rat dorsal ..
  21. Meis S, Munsch T, Pape H. Antioscillatory effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in synaptic networks of the rat thalamus. J Neurosci. 2002;22:718-27 pubmed
    Postsynaptic and presynaptic effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous ligand of the opioid-like orphan receptor, were investigated in an in vitro slice preparation of the rat thalamic reticular nucleus (NRT) and ..
  22. Polidori C, Massi M, Guerrini R, Grandi D, Lupo D, Morini G. Peripheral mechanisms involved in gastric mucosal protection by intracerebroventricular and intraperitoneal nociceptin in rats. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3861-7 pubmed
    b>Nociceptin (N/OFQ) exerts multiple effects in the gastrointestinal tract after central or peripheral administration. In the present study, we examined the possible peripheral mechanisms mediating gastric protection by N/OFQ in rats...
  23. Brookes Z, Stedman E, Guerrini R, Lawton B, Calo G, Lambert D. Proinflammatory and vasodilator effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in the rat mesenteric microcirculation are mediated by histamine. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;293:H2977-85 pubmed
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is the endogenous ligand for the N/OFQ peptide receptor (NOP). N/OFQ causes hypotension and vasodilation, and we aimed to determine the role of histamine in inflammatory microvascular responses to N/OFQ...
  24. Leone A, Spatola G, Cucco D, Tessitore V, Bonaventura G, Uzzo M. Immunohistochemical expression and distribution of orexin, orphanin and leptin in the major salivary glands of some mammals. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2012;50:504-12 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study was to determine by immunochemistry the expression of leptin, orexin A and orphanin FQ in the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular and sublingual) of rat, sheep and cow...
  25. Chesterfield M, Janik J, Murphree E, Lynn C, Schmidt E, Callahan P. Orphanin FQ/nociceptin is a physiological regulator of prolactin secretion in female rats. Endocrinology. 2006;147:5087-93 pubmed
    b>Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), the most recently identified endogenous opioid peptide, stimulates prolactin secretion in both male and female rats...
  26. An X, Yu J, Feng Y, Chen B, Zhang S. Role of hypothalamus nociceptin/orphanin FQ in pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge of estrogen and progesterone-primed, ovariectomized rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2007;28:1189-97 pubmed
    To investigate the role of hypothalamus nociceptin/orphanin FQ (OFQ) and its endogenous receptor, the opioid receptor-like1 receptor (ORL1 receptor) in the estrus cycle of female rats...
  27. Bomberg E, Grace M, Levine A, Olszewski P. Functional interaction between nociceptin/orphanin FQ and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the regulation of feeding. Peptides. 2006;27:1827-34 pubmed
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), an endogenous agonist of the opioid N/OFQ (NOP) receptor, increases food intake when administered centrally...
  28. Chen X, McClatchy D, Geller E, Liu Chen L, Tallarida R, Adler M. Possible mechanism of hypothermia induced by intracerebroventricular injection of orphanin FQ/nociceptin. Brain Res. 2001;904:252-8 pubmed
    Orphanin/nociceptin (OFQ/N), a 17-amino-acid peptide, is an endogenous peptide, the receptor for which is similar to mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid receptors ( approximately 65% homology)...
  29. Kho S, Lopez I, Evans C, Ishiyama A, Ishiyama G. Immunolocalization of orphanin FQ in rat cochlea. Brain Res. 2006;1113:146-52 pubmed
    b>Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) and its receptor (ORL-1) have been proposed to play a role in the regulation of hearing. In this study, we investigate the localization of OFQ/N-like immunoreactivity in the mammalian cochlea...
  30. Parsons M, Hirasawa M. GIRK channel-mediated inhibition of melanin-concentrating hormone neurons by nociceptin/orphanin FQ. J Neurophysiol. 2011;105:1179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study investigated the cellular effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), an endogenous opioid with anxiolytic and antireward properties, on MCH neurons...
  31. Lin J, Sui J, Luo J, Li X. [Effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia on spatial learning, memory and its relationship with orphanin FQ of hippocampus in rats]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2004;20:11-4 pubmed
    To study the relationship between changes of learning, memory and orphanin FQ (OFQ) in hippocampus of rats in acute hypobaric hypoxia at two different altitude levels of 4 500 m(moderate) and 7 500 m(serious)...
  32. Zhou W, Mahajan A, Longhurst J. Spinal nociceptin mediates electroacupuncture-related modulation of visceral sympathoexcitatory reflex responses in rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H859-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is an endogenous ligand for a G protein-coupled receptor, called the N/OFQ peptide (NOP) receptor, ..
  33. Buzas B, Rosenberger J, Kim K, Cox B. Inflammatory mediators increase the expression of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in rat astrocytes in culture. Glia. 2002;39:237-46 pubmed
    ..We report the profound upregulation of the opioid-related nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) by inflammatory mediators in astrocytes...
  34. Olszewski P, Grace M, Fard S, Le Grevès M, Klockars A, Massi M, et al. Central nociceptin/orphanin FQ system elevates food consumption by both increasing energy intake and reducing aversive responsiveness. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R655-63 pubmed publisher
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor ligand, increases feeding when injected centrally. Initial data suggest that N/OFQ blocks the development of a conditioned taste aversion (CTA)...
  35. Nothacker H, Reinscheid R, Mansour A, Henningsen R, Ardati A, Monsma F, et al. Primary structure and tissue distribution of the orphanin FQ precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:8677-82 pubmed
    The heptadecapeptide orphanin FQ (OFQ) is a recently discovered neuropeptide that exhibits structural features reminiscent of the opioid peptides and that is an endogenous ligand to a G protein-coupled receptor sequentially related to ..
  36. Sinchak K, Dewing P, Cook M, Micevych P. Release of orphanin FQ/nociceptin in the medial preoptic nucleus and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus facilitates lordosis. Horm Behav. 2007;51:406-12 pubmed
    ..the role of opioid receptor-like 1 receptor (NOP; also referred to as ORL-1 and OP4) and its endogenous ligand orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) have received less attention despite their extensive distribution throughout nuclei of the ..
  37. Ploj K, Roman E, Nylander I. Effects of maternal separation on brain nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide levels in male Wistar rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;73:123-9 pubmed
    ..investigated the long-term effects of daily maternal separation, Days 1-21, on brain immunoreactive nociceptin/orphanin FQ (ir-N/OFQ) levels in male Wistar rats...
  38. Wang Y, Yue W, Wang W, Yu J, Liu R, Wang P, et al. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ-induced inhibition of delayed rectifier potassium currents by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II. Neuroreport. 2014;25:1227-31 pubmed publisher
    The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) has been shown to inhibit delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) in acutely dissociated rat parietal cortical neurons...
  39. Maolood N, Meister B. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide in hypothalamic neurones associated with the control of feeding behaviour. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:75-82 pubmed publisher
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), an endogenous peptide agonist of the opioid N/OFQ receptor, has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance...
  40. Crisostomo M, Li P, Tjen A Looi S, Longhurst J. Nociceptin in rVLM mediates electroacupuncture inhibition of cardiovascular reflex excitatory response in rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;98:2056-63 pubmed
    ..Because nociceptin also may regulate cardiovascular activity through its action in the brain stem, we hypothesized that this ..
  41. Wainford R, Kapusta D. Chronic high-NaCl intake prolongs the cardiorenal responses to central N/OFQ and produces regional changes in the endogenous brain NOP receptor system. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R280-8 pubmed publisher
    Intracerebroventricular nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) produces cardiovascular depressor, diuretic, and renal sympathoinhibitory responses in conscious rats...
  42. Roozendaal B, Lengvilas R, McGaugh J, Civelli O, Reinscheid R. Orphanin FQ/nociceptin interacts with the basolateral amygdala noradrenergic system in memory consolidation. Learn Mem. 2007;14:29-35 pubmed
    ..As the BLA also expresses a high density of receptors for orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N), an opioid-like peptide with anxiolytic and amnestic properties, the present experiments ..
  43. Bewick G, Dhillo W, Darch S, Murphy K, Gardiner J, Jethwa P, et al. Hypothalamic cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons coexpress the NOP1 receptor and nociceptin alters CART and AgRP release. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3526-34 pubmed
    Nociceptin or orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and its receptor NOP1 are expressed in hypothalamic nuclei involved in energy homeostasis...
  44. Moriyama K, Liu J, Jang Y, Chae Y, Wang Y, Mitchell J, et al. Receptor mediation and nociceptin inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the knee joint of the rat. Inflamm Res. 2009;58:873-80 pubmed publisher
    ..1-1.0 microM), and histamine H1 antagonist mepyramine (0.1-1.0 microM) were used. Nociceptin (0.0001-1.0 microM) and antagonist J-113397 were tested for modulation of BK-induced PE...
  45. Claiborne J, Nag S, Mokha S. Estrogen-dependent, sex-specific modulation of mustard oil-induced secondary thermal hyperalgesia by orphanin FQ in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2009;456:59-63 pubmed publisher
    Activation of opioid receptor-like 1 receptor (ORL(1)) by intrathecal administration of orphanin FQ (OFQ), an endogenous ligand for the ORL(1) receptor, has been shown to produce antinociception...
  46. Cifani C, Kloting I, Morini G, Grandi D, Massi M, Polidori C. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ-induced food intake and cocaine amphetamine regulated transcript gene expression in strains derived from rats prone (WOKW) and resistant (Dark Agouti) to metabolic syndrome. Peptides. 2009;30:727-34 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparable trend was observed with N/OFQ hypothalamic immunostaining. This anomaly may be due to other satiety-related factors involved in N/OFQ-induced feeding. ..
  47. Zhao H, Wu G, Cao X. Immunomodulatory activity of orphanin FQ/nociceptin on traumatic rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2002;23:343-8 pubmed
    To explore the neuro-immune modulatory effect of orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ) and opioid receptor like 1 (ORL1) receptor on the traumatic rats...
  48. Guo Z, Yao T, Wang J, Ding J. Acute myocardial ischemia up-regulates nociceptin/orphanin FQ in dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord of rats. Neurosci Lett. 2008;433:274-8 pubmed publisher
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) possesses modulatory effects on somatic noxious signals in spinal cord, while the potential role in visceral nociception remains elusive...
  49. Tao R, Ma Z, Thakkar M, McCarley R, Auerbach S. Nociceptin/orphanin FQ decreases serotonin efflux in the rat brain but in contrast to a kappa-opioid has no antagonistic effect on mu-opioid-induced increases in serotonin efflux. Neuroscience. 2007;147:106-16 pubmed
    Similar to kappa-opioids, nociceptin/orphanin FQ (OFQ) exerts anti-mu-opioid actions...
  50. Borgquist A, Kachani M, Tavitian N, Sinchak K, Wagner E. Estradiol negatively modulates the pleiotropic actions of orphanin FQ/nociceptin at proopiomelanocortin synapses. Neuroendocrinology. 2013;98:60-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) inhibits the activity of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) that regulate female sexual behavior and energy balance...
  51. Qu L, Li Y, Tian H, Wang Z, Cui L, Jin H, et al. Effects of PKC on inhibition of delayed rectifier potassium currents by N/OFQ. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;356:582-6 pubmed
    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is the endogenous ligand for the opioid receptor-like-1 (ORL-1) orphan receptor, which is responsible for inhibition of delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K))...