Gene Symbol: Plcg1
Description: phospholipase C, gamma 1
Alias: PPLCA, 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase gamma-1, PLC-148, PLC-II, PLC-gamma-1, phosphoinositide phospholipase C, phosphoinositide phospholipase C-gamma-1
Species: rat
Products:     Plcg1

Top Publications

  1. Middlemas D, Meisenhelder J, Hunter T. Identification of TrkB autophosphorylation sites and evidence that phospholipase C-gamma 1 is a substrate of the TrkB receptor. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:5458-66 pubmed
    ..Since phosphorylation of Tyr-783 and Tyr-1254 results in activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1, we predict that neurotrophin-3 leads to activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1 following binding to TrkB in Rat-2 cells. ..
  2. Liao H, Kume T, McKay C, Xu M, Ihle J, Carpenter G. Absence of erythrogenesis and vasculogenesis in Plcg1-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:9335-41 pubmed
    Mice nullizygous for Plcg1 cease growing at early to mid-gestation...
  3. Kwon Y, Jang H, Kole S, He H, Bernier M. Role of the pleckstrin homology domain of PLCgamma1 in its interaction with the insulin receptor. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:375-84 pubmed
    ..Our results show that PLCgamma1 is a thiol-reactive protein whose association with the IR could contribute to the activation of MAPK signaling by insulin. ..
  4. Wolf D, Nestler E, Russell D. Regulation of neuronal PLCgamma by chronic morphine. Brain Res. 2007;1156:9-20 pubmed
    ..As chronic morphine treatment has been shown to increase ERK activity within the VTA, the current results suggest that increased PLCgamma1 activity may be an upstream mediator of this effect. ..
  5. Sekiya F, Poulin B, Kim Y, Rhee S. Mechanism of tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase C-gamma 1. Tyrosine 783 phosphorylation is not sufficient for lipase activation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:32181-90 pubmed
    ..Finally, concurrent production of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate was found to contribute to the activation of phosphorylated PLC-gamma 1. ..
  6. Kim M, Chang J, Park S, Hwang J, Ryu S, Suh P. Direct interaction of SOS1 Ras exchange protein with the SH3 domain of phospholipase C-gamma1. Biochemistry. 2000;39:8674-82 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to demonstrate that the PLC-gamma1 SH3 domain enhances p21Ras activity, and that the SH3 domain of PLC-gamma1 may be involved in the SOS1-mediated signaling pathway. ..
  7. Patterson R, van Rossum D, Ford D, Hurt K, Bae S, Suh P, et al. Phospholipase C-gamma is required for agonist-induced Ca2+ entry. Cell. 2002;111:529-41 pubmed
    ..Normal ACE was restored by transient expression of PLC-gamma2 or a lipase-inactive PLC-gamma2 mutant. The results indicate a lipase-independent role of PLC-gamma in the physiological agonist-induced activation of Ca2+ entry. ..
  8. Arteaga C, Johnson M, Todderud G, Coffey R, Carpenter G, Page D. Elevated content of the tyrosine kinase substrate phospholipase C-gamma 1 in primary human breast carcinomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:10435-9 pubmed
  9. Yun J, Kim S, Kim H. Prolonged protein turnover of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by phospholipase C-gamma 1 is critical for anchorage-independent growth and ATP synthesis in transformed cells. Cancer Invest. 2011;29:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that regulation of the turnover rate of GAPDH is critical for anchorage-independent growth and ATP synthesis of transformed cells. ..

More Information


  1. Lin D, Harris R, Stutzman R, Zampighi G, Davidson H, Takemoto D. Protein kinase C-gamma activation in the early streptozotocin diabetic rat lens. Curr Eye Res. 2007;32:523-32 pubmed
    ..Abnormal signaling from PKC-gamma to Cx43 in the epithelial cells/early fiber cells, observed within VHG diabetic lenses, may be responsible for fiber cell damage deeper in the lens cortex. ..
  2. Minichiello L, Calella A, Medina D, Bonhoeffer T, Klein R, Korte M. Mechanism of TrkB-mediated hippocampal long-term potentiation. Neuron. 2002;36:121-37 pubmed
    ..Our results provide genetic evidence that TrkB mediates hippocampal plasticity via recruitment of PLCgamma, and by subsequent phosphorylation of CaMKIV and CREB. ..
  3. Harita Y, Kurihara H, Kosako H, Tezuka T, Sekine T, Igarashi T, et al. Phosphorylation of Nephrin Triggers Ca2+ Signaling by Recruitment and Activation of Phospholipase C-{gamma}1. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:8951-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the profound effect of PLC-gamma in diverse cellular functions, regulation of the Ca(2+) signaling by Nephrin may be important in modulating the glomerular filtration barrier function. ..
  4. Vossmeyer D, Hofmann W, Loster K, Reutter W, Danker K. Phospholipase Cgamma binds alpha1beta1 integrin and modulates alpha1beta1 integrin-specific adhesion. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:4636-43 pubmed
    ..Cells lacking the conserved domain of the alpha(1) subunit fail to respond to the PLC inhibition, indicating that this domain is necessary for PLC-dependent adhesion modulation of alpha(1)beta(1) integrin. ..
  5. Ma D, Ponnusamy K, Song M, Ming G, Song H. Molecular genetic analysis of FGFR1 signalling reveals distinct roles of MAPK and PLCgamma1 activation for self-renewal of adult neural stem cells. Mol Brain. 2009;2:16 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanism regulating adult NSC self-renewal, and pose implications for using these cells in potential therapeutic applications. ..
  6. Nakazawa T, Komai S, Watabe A, Kiyama Y, Fukaya M, Arima Yoshida F, et al. NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation modulates fear learning as well as amygdaloid synaptic plasticity. EMBO J. 2006;25:2867-77 pubmed
    ..We thus identify Tyr-1472 phosphorylation as a key mediator of fear learning and amygdaloid synaptic plasticity...
  7. Duchene J, Chauhan S, Lopez F, Pecher C, Esteve J, Girolami J, et al. Direct protein-protein interaction between PLCgamma1 and the bradykinin B2 receptor--importance of growth conditions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;326:894-900 pubmed
    ..Mutation of the key ITIM residue abolished this interaction with and activation of PLCgamma1. Finally we also identified bradykinin-induced PLCgamma1 recruitment and activation in primary culture renal mesangial cells. ..
  8. Kim S, Choi J, Suh P, Chang J. Pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-gamma1 directly binds to 68-kDa neurofilament light chain. Exp Mol Med. 2006;38:265-72 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that PLC-gamma1-associated NF-L sequesters the phospholipid from the PH domain of PLC-gamma1. ..
  9. He Z, Jia C, Feng S, Zhou K, Tai Y, Bai X, et al. TRPC5 channel is the mediator of neurotrophin-3 in regulating dendritic growth via CaMKII? in rat hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci. 2012;32:9383-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the Ca(2+) influx through TRPC6 induced by NT-4 promoted the dendritic growth. Thus, TRPC5 acts as a novel and specific mediator for NT-3 to regulate dendrite development through CaMKII?. ..
  10. Dwivedi Y, Mondal A, Rizavi H, Shukla P, Pandey G. Single and repeated stress-induced modulation of phospholipase C catalytic activity and expression: role in LH behavior. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005;30:473-83 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest different responsiveness at the level of PI-PLC after single vs repeated stress, and that reductions in PLC may be critical in the pathophysiology of depression and other stress-related disorders. ..
  11. Lee S, Ryu S, Suh P. Promoter region of the rat phospholipase C-gamma 1 gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;194:294-300 pubmed
    ..The transcriptional activities of various 5'-deleted fragments, fused with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, were examined after transfection into C2C12 myoblast. Multiple positive and negative regulatory sites were observed. ..
  12. Rong R, Ahn J, Chen P, Suh P, Ye K. Phospholipase activity of phospholipase C-gamma1 is required for nerve growth factor-regulated MAP kinase signaling cascade in PC12 cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52497-503 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that the lipase activity of PLC-gamma1 mediates NGF-regulated MAPK signaling upstream of Ras/Rap1 activation probably through second messenger DAG-activated Ras and Rap-GEFs. ..
  13. Wu D, Peng F, Zhang B, Ingram A, Kelly D, Gilbert R, et al. EGFR-PLCgamma1 signaling mediates high glucose-induced PKCbeta1-Akt activation and collagen I upregulation in mesangial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F822-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of EGFR or PLCgamma1 may provide attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. ..
  14. Suh P, Ryu S, Moon K, Suh H, Rhee S. Inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipase C: complete cDNA and protein sequences and sequence homology to tyrosine kinase-related oncogene products. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:5419-23 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this unexpected similarity raises the possibility that the 148-kDa phospholipase C and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases are modulated by common cellular component(s). ..
  15. Maffucci T, Raimondi C, Abu Hayyeh S, Dominguez V, Sala G, Zachary I, et al. A phosphoinositide 3-kinase/phospholipase Cgamma1 pathway regulates fibroblast growth factor-induced capillary tube formation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8285 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore these data unveil a novel role for PLCgamma1 as a mediator of PI3K-dependent Akt activation and as a novel key regulator of different Akt-dependent processes. ..
  16. Blum S, Dash P. A cell-permeable phospholipase Cgamma1-binding peptide transduces neurons and impairs long-term spatial memory. Learn Mem. 2004;11:239-43 pubmed
    ..These results, along with previous studies on extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), implicate all three key growth factor receptor-activated intracellular signaling pathways in memory storage. ..
  17. Kim S, Shin H, Eom D, Huh J, Woo Y, Kim H, et al. Enhanced expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase and phospholipase C-gamma1 in regenerating murine neuronal cells by pulsed electromagnetic field. Exp Mol Med. 2002;34:53-9 pubmed
    ..Consistently, motor function was better recovered in PEMF-treated rats. The expression of nNOS and PLC-gamma1 was highly enhanced in the regenerated nerves. ..
  18. Choi J, Kim H, Kim S, Yang Y, Bae Y, Chang J, et al. Phospholipase Cgamma1 negatively regulates growth hormone signalling by forming a ternary complex with Jak2 and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:1389-97 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PLCgamma1 has a key function in the regulation of growth hormone-mediated signalling by negatively regulating Jak2 activation. ..
  19. Shin S, Choi H, Ahn B, Min D, Son S, Lee Y. Phospholipase Cgamma1 stimulates transcriptional activation of the matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene via the protein kinase C/Raf/ERK cascade. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;353:611-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that modulation of PLCgamma1 activity might be of value in controlling the activity of MMPs, which are important regulators of invasion and metastasis in malignant tumors. ..
  20. Varela D, Simon F, Olivero P, Armisen R, Leiva Salcedo E, Jørgensen F, et al. Activation of H2O2-induced VSOR Cl- currents in HTC cells require phospholipase Cgamma1 phosphorylation and Ca2+ mobilisation. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2007;20:773-80 pubmed
  21. Tang C, Yang R, Chen Y, Fu W. Basic fibroblast growth factor stimulates fibronectin expression through phospholipase C gamma, protein kinase C alpha, c-Src, NF-kappaB, and p300 pathway in osteoblasts. J Cell Physiol. 2007;211:45-55 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that bFGF increased Fn expression in rat osteoblasts via the FGFR2/PLCgamma2/PKCalpha/c-Src/NF-kappaB signaling pathway. ..
  22. Phillippe M, Sweet L, Bradley D, Engle D. Role of nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases during phospholipase C-gamma 1-related uterine contractions in the rat. Reprod Sci. 2009;16:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the Lck and c-Src kinases appear to play an important role in regulating tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C1 and contractile activity in the rat uterus. ..
  23. Bolanos C, Perrotti L, Edwards S, Eisch A, Barrot M, Olson V, et al. Phospholipase Cgamma in distinct regions of the ventral tegmental area differentially modulates mood-related behaviors. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7569-76 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these data also support a role for drug-induced elevations in PLCgamma1 expression in the VTA in mediating long-term adaptations to drugs of abuse and aversive stimuli. ..
  24. Hashmi F, Liu M, Shen S, Qiao L. EXPRESS: Phospholipase C gamma mediates endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor - regulated calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in colitis - induced visceral pain. Mol Pain. 2016;12: pubmed publisher
  25. Ishijima Y, Ohmori S, Uenishi A, Ohneda K. GATA transcription factors are involved in IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation by enhancing the expression of phospholipase C-?1. Genes Cells. 2012;17:285-301 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that PLC-?1 is a target gene of GATA factors in mast cells and provide evidence that GATA1 and GATA2 control antigen-mediated mast cell degranulation by regulating the expression of PLC-?1. ..
  26. Han S, Lee J, Kim C, Hong S. Identification of p115 as a PLCgamma1-binding protein and the role of Src homology domains of PLCgamma1 in the vesicular transport. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;300:649-55 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the SH2 and SH3 domains of PLCgamma1 may play a role(s) in the process of the vesicle transport via interaction with other vesicle-associated proteins such as p115. ..
  27. Jiang D, Zhuang J, Peng W, Lu Y, Liu H, Zhao Q, et al. Phospholipase Cγ1 Mediates Intima Formation Through Akt-Notch1 Signaling Independent of the Phospholipase Activity. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..This effect is attributable to PLCγ1-Akt interaction but not PLCγ1 phospholipase activity. Specific inhibition of the PLCγ1 and Akt interaction will be a promising therapeutic strategy for preventing vascular remodeling. ..
  28. Wang P, Wang S, Xiao L, Chen J, Wang J, Rao J. c-Jun enhances intestinal epithelial restitution after wounding by increasing phospholipase C-γ1 transcription. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2017;312:C367-C375 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that c-Jun induces PLCγ1 expression transcriptionally and enhances rapid epithelial restitution after injury by activating Ca2+ signal. ..
  29. Li Y, Shao Y, Liu Z, Xia Q, Ma K. [Overexpression of PEMT2 inhibits the phosphorylation and translocation of PLC gamma 1]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2006;14:514-6 pubmed
    ..The effects of PEMT2 transfection on phosphorylation and translocation from cytosol to plasma membrane of PLC gamma 1 in cells were studied using SDS-PAGE and Western blot techniques...
  30. Baldassare J, Henderson P, Fisher G. Isolation and characterization of one soluble and two membrane-associated forms of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C from human platelets. Biochemistry. 1989;28:6010-6 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that platelets contain membrane-associated phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases C that are distinct from at least one cytosolic form (PLC-II) of the enzyme. ..
  31. Xie Y, Hong Y, Ma X, Ren X, Ackerman S, Mei L, et al. DCC-dependent phospholipase C signaling in netrin-1-induced neurite elongation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2605-11 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that netrin-1 regulates phosphatidylinositol turnover and demonstrate a crucial role of PLC signaling in netrin-1-induced neurite elongation. ..
  32. Buckley C, Sekiya F, Kim Y, Rhee S, Caldwell K. Identification of phospholipase C-gamma1 as a mitogen-activated protein kinase substrate. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41807-14 pubmed
    ..These studies have uncovered a previously unidentified mechanism for the integration of PLC-gamma1- and ERK2-dependent signaling. ..
  33. Song M, Kim M, Ha S, Park J, Ryu S, Suh P. Inositol 5'-phosphatase, SHIP1 interacts with phospholipase C-gamma1 and modulates EGF-induced PLC activity. Exp Mol Med. 2005;37:161-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that SHIP1 may function as an adaptor protein which can potentiate EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation without regards to its inositol 5'-phosphatase activity. ..
  34. Litjens T, Nguyen T, Castro J, Aromataris E, Jones L, Barritt G, et al. Phospholipase C-gamma1 is required for the activation of store-operated Ca2+ channels in liver cells. Biochem J. 2007;405:269-76 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the PLC-gamma1 protein, independently of IP3 generation and STIM1, is required to couple endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release to the activation of SOCs in the plasma membrane of H4IIE liver cells. ..
  35. Cuozzo F, Mishra S, Jiang J, Aukema H. Overexpression of kidney phosphatidylinositol 4-kinasebeta and phospholipase C(gamma1) proteins in two rodent models of polycystic kidney disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1587:99-106 pubmed
    ..The consistency of these alterations in two accepted models of PKD indicates the importance of the phosphoinositide signalling pathway in the evolution of this disorder, and represents a potential site for therapeutic intervention. ..
  36. Gao G, He J, Nong L, Xie H, Huang Y, Xu N, et al. Periodic mechanical stress induces the extracellular matrix expression and migration of rat nucleus pulposus cells by upregulating the expression of intergrin ?1 and phosphorylation of downstream phospholipase C?1. Mol Med Rep. 2016;14:2457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide novel information to aid the understanding of the pathogenesis and development of IDD. ..
  37. Huang Z, Marsiglia W, Basu Roy U, Rahimi N, Ilghari D, Wang H, et al. Two FGF Receptor Kinase Molecules Act in Concert to Recruit and Transphosphorylate Phospholipase Cγ. Mol Cell. 2016;61:98-110 pubmed publisher
  38. Rakotoarisoa L, Carricaburu V, Leblanc C, Mironneau C, Mironneau J, Macrez N. Angiotensin II-induced delayed stimulation of phospholipase C gamma1 requires activation of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase gamma and tyrosine kinase in vascular myocytes. J Cell Mol Med. 2006;10:734-48 pubmed
  39. Wang Y, Tomar A, George S, Khurana S. Obligatory role for phospholipase C-gamma(1) in villin-induced epithelial cell migration. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C1775-86 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that villin provides an important link between the activation of phosphoinositide signal transduction pathway and epithelial cell migration. ..
  40. Nguyen T, Ye K, Cho S, Ahn J. Overexpression of phospholipase C-gamma1 inhibits NGF-induced neuronal differentiation by proliferative activity of SH3 domain. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:2083-92 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the proliferation activity of PLC gamma1 via its SH3 domain may be coupled with the flight from growth arrest by NGF, thereby inhibiting neuronal differentiation. ..
  41. Mandal M, Borowski C, Palomero T, Ferrando A, Oberdoerffer P, Meng F, et al. The BCL2A1 gene as a pre-T cell receptor-induced regulator of thymocyte survival. J Exp Med. 2005;201:603-14 pubmed
    ..Finally, we suggest that pre-TCR-induced A1 overexpression can contribute to T cell leukemia in both mice and humans. ..
  42. Liu Z, Luo S, Zhao Y. [Exploration of the alternative splicing variants of rat phospholipase C-gamma 1 pre-mRNA]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007;27:191-4 pubmed
    ..According to the sequence of human PLCG1 splicing variant, specific primers for rat PLC-gamma1 were designed and synthesized...
  43. Kang J, Chang C, Nam H, Kim S, Ahn K, Seok H, et al. Downregulation of erythropoietin receptor by overexpression of phospholipase C-gamma 1 is critical for decrease on focal adhesion in transformed cells. Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2011;34:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The Epo/EpoR complex plays a critical role in the adhesion and migration of rat fibroblasts, and its functional inactivation is associated with PLC-?l-dependent reduction of cell-matrix adhesion and this also affects cell migration. ..
  44. Kim S, Wee S, Chang J, Kwon T, Min D, Lee Y, et al. Point mutations in the split PLC-gamma1 PH domain modulate phosphoinositide binding. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;37:720-5 pubmed
    ..Together, our data reveal that the amino acid residues Pro(500) and His(503) are critical for binding of PLC-gamma1 to one of its substrates, PI(4,5)P(2) in the membrane. ..
  45. Ying W, Aaron K, Sanders P. Sodium and potassium regulate endothelial phospholipase C-? and Bmx. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;307:F58-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments elucidated an endothelial cell signaling mechanism regulated by electrolytes, further demonstrating an integral relationship between endothelial cell function and dietary Na(+) and K(+) content. ..
  46. Xiao J, Chen X, Xu L, Zhang Y, Yin Q, Wang F. PDGF regulates chondrocyte proliferation through activation of the GIT1- and PLCγ1-mediated ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Mol Med Rep. 2014;10:2409-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that PDGF was able to activate the GIT1‑PLCγ1‑mediated ERK1/2 pathway to control chondrocyte proliferation. ..
  47. Chang J, Seok H, Kwon T, Min D, Ahn B, Lee Y, et al. Interaction of elongation factor-1alpha and pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase C-gamma 1 with activating its activity. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19697-702 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data show that EF-1alpha plays a direct role in phosphoinositide metabolism of cellular signaling by regulating PLC-gamma1 activity via a split PH domain. ..
  48. Holmes K, Roberts O, Thomas A, Cross M. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2: structure, function, intracellular signalling and therapeutic inhibition. Cell Signal. 2007;19:2003-12 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of VEGFR-2 action is now having an impact in the clinic for the treatment of a number of diseases. ..
  49. Di Fruscio M, Chen T, Richard S. Characterization of Sam68-like mammalian proteins SLM-1 and SLM-2: SLM-1 is a Src substrate during mitosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2710-5 pubmed
    ..The identification of SLM-1 and SLM-2 demonstrates the presence of a Sam68/SLM family whose members have the potential to link signaling pathways with RNA metabolism. ..
  50. Jang I, Lee S, Park J, Kim J, Lee C, Hur E, et al. The direct interaction of phospholipase C-gamma 1 with phospholipase D2 is important for epidermal growth factor signaling. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:18184-90 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that, upon EGF stimulation, PLC-gamma1 directly interacts with PLD2 and this interaction is important for PLC-gamma1 activity. ..
  51. Raimondi C, Chikh A, Wheeler A, Maffucci T, Falasca M. A novel regulatory mechanism links PLC?1 to PDK1. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:3153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This is likely to have profound consequences for our understanding of several cellular functions that are dependent on phosphoinositides and controlled by PDK1 and PLC?1...
  52. Birchmeier C, Birchmeier W, Gherardi E, Vande Woude G. Met, metastasis, motility and more. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2003;4:915-25 pubmed
  53. Kumei Y, Shimokawa H, Ohya K, Katano H, Akiyama H, Hirano M, et al. Small GTPase Ras and Rho expression in rat osteoblasts during spaceflight. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1095:292-9 pubmed
    ..Microgravity signals may involve two pathways (G protein-coupled receptor-mediated pathway and tyrosine phosphorylation-mediated pathway) that activate Ras, Raf, and MAPK cascades in rat osteoblasts. ..