Gene Symbol: Plat
Description: plasminogen activator, tissue type
Alias: PATISS, tPA, tissue-type plasminogen activator, t-PA, t-plasminogen activator, tissue plasminogen activator
Species: rat
Products:     Plat

Top Publications

  1. Xu L, Yu W, Lin Z, Tan S, Bai X, Ding K, et al. Chemical sympathectomy attenuates inflammation, glycocalyx shedding and coagulation disorders in rats with acute traumatic coagulopathy. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2015;26:152-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, sympathectomy yielded anti-inflammatory, antifibrinolysis and endothelial protective effects in rats with ATC. The role of autonomic neuropathy in ATC should be explored further. ..
  2. Zhao G, Reynolds J, Flavin M. Temporal profile of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and inhibitor expression after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Neuroreport. 2003;14:1689-92 pubmed
    Altered tPA expression may influence the fate of neurons after cerebral ischemia...
  3. Mahmood A, Qu C, Ning R, Wu H, Goussev A, Xiong Y, et al. Treatment of TBI with collagen scaffolds and human marrow stromal cells increases the expression of tissue plasminogen activator. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:1199-207 pubmed publisher
    ..combination therapy of collagen scaffolds and human marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) on the expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats...
  4. Lochner J, Honigman L, Grant W, Gessford S, Hansen A, Silverman M, et al. Activity-dependent release of tissue plasminogen activator from the dendritic spines of hippocampal neurons revealed by live-cell imaging. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:564-77 pubmed
    b>Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) has been implicated in a variety of important cellular functions, including learning-related synaptic plasticity and potentiating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent signaling...
  5. Glowinska B, Urban M, Koput A, Galar M. New atherosclerosis risk factors in obese, hypertensive and diabetic children and adolescents. Atherosclerosis. 2003;167:275-86 pubmed
    ..Lp(a)), apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), homocysteine (Hcy), fibrinogen (FB), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)) in children and adolescents with ..
  6. Pannekoek H, van Meijer M, Schleef R, Loskutoff D, Barbas C. Functional display of human plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) on phages: novel perspectives for structure-function analysis by error-prone DNA synthesis. Gene. 1993;128:135-40 pubmed
    ..The method described here is applicable to other studies on the structure-function analysis of eukaryotic proteins. ..
  7. Bansal D, Klein R, Hausmann E, MacGregor R. Secretion of cardiac plasminogen activator during hypoxia-induced right ventricular hypertrophy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1997;29:3105-14 pubmed
    In the circulation, fibrinolytic activity is determined to a large degree by the relative levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and its major inhibitor (PAI-1)...
  8. Ehrlich H, Gebbink R, Keijer J, Linders M, Preissner K, Pannekoek H. Alteration of serpin specificity by a protein cofactor. Vitronectin endows plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 with thrombin inhibitory properties. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:13029-35 pubmed
    ..Therefore, vitronectin is the first protein described to function as a cofactor for serpin specificity. PAI-1 is proposed to be a versatile inhibitor which, in the presence of vitronectin, can modulate both coagulation and fibrinolysis. ..
  9. Parcq J, Bertrand T, Baron A, Hommet Y, Angles Cano E, Vivien D. Molecular requirements for safer generation of thrombolytics by bioengineering the tissue-type plasminogen activator A chain. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11:539-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to wild-type t-PA, the two mutants did not promote N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity. We designed t-PA mutants with molecular properties that, in contrast to t-PA, do not induce neurotoxicity. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Dab H, Hachani R, Dhaouadi N, Hodroj W, Sakly M, Randon J, et al. Physiological regulation of MMPs and tPA/PAI in the arterial wall of rats by noradrenergic tone and angiotensin II. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2012;13:36-45 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA, protein and activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and mRNA of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) were quantified in abdominal aorta (AA) and ..
  2. Chen L, Li X, Huang L, Li Y. [Expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue plasminogen activator in the kidney of KKAy mice with type 2 diabetes]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2005;27:344-8 pubmed
    To study the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the kidney of KKAy mice with type 2 diabetes...
  3. Warshofsky M, Dominguez M, Eisenberg M, Wasserman H, Sciacca R, Wang W, et al. Elevated plasma tissue plasminogen activator and anti-THP-1 antibodies are independently associated with decreased graft survival in cardiac transplant recipients. Am J Cardiol. 2001;88:30-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, the presence of anti-THP-1 cell antibodies in these patients is predictive of allograft failure. ..
  4. van der Poll T, Levi M, Dentener M, Jansen P, Coyle S, Braxton C, et al. Epinephrine exerts anticoagulant effects during human endotoxemia. J Exp Med. 1997;185:1143-8 pubmed
    ..Epinephrine, whether endogenously produced or administered as a component of treatment, may limit the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation during systemic infection. ..
  5. Kozai T, Yamanaka H, Dai Y, Obata K, Kobayashi K, Mashimo T, et al. Tissue type plasminogen activator induced in rat dorsal horn astrocytes contributes to mechanical hypersensitivity following dorsal root injury. Glia. 2007;55:595-603 pubmed
    ..b>Tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a well-known extracellular serine protease and is involved in the modification of the ..
  6. Kalani M, Silveira A, Blomback M, Apelqvist J, Eliasson B, Eriksson J, et al. Beneficial effects of dalteparin on haemostatic function and local tissue oxygenation in patients with diabetes, severe vascular disease and foot ulcers. Thromb Res. 2007;120:653-61 pubmed], prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) antigen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activity and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen were analysed before randomization (baseline value), and at the end of the treatment ..
  7. Burggraf D, Martens H, Jäger G, Hamann G. Recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator protects the basal lamina in experimental focal cerebral ischemia. Thromb Haemost. 2003;89:1072-80 pubmed
    While recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is successfully used in human ischemic stroke, it may also cause hemorrhagic complications...
  8. Fulde M, Bernardo García N, Rohde M, Nachtigall N, Frank R, Preissner K, et al. Pneumococcal phosphoglycerate kinase interacts with plasminogen and its tissue activator. Thromb Haemost. 2014;111:401-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on structural analysis data, a potential interaction of PGK with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was proposed and experimentally confirmed by binding studies, plasmin activity assays and ..
  9. Heegaard C, Rasmussen L, Andreasen P. The plasminogen activation system in bovine milk: differential localization of tissue-type plasminogen activator and urokinase in milk fractions is caused by binding to casein and urokinase receptor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1222:45-55 pubmed
    ..R. and Tritsch, G.L. (1993) Fibrinolysis 7, 229-236), and the observed t-PA/casein binding suggests that the casein micelle, which also contains plasminogen, may serve as a matrix for t-PA-catalyzed plasminogen activation in milk. ..
  10. Laurell H, Bouisson M, Berthelemy P, Rochaix P, Dejean S, Besse P, et al. Identification of biomarkers of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas by expression profiling and validation with gene expression analysis in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration samples. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:3344-51 pubmed
    ..RT-QPCR validated the increased expression of LCN2 (lipocalin 2) and for the first time PLAT (tissue-type plasminogen activator or tPA) in malignant pancreas as compared with normal pancreas...
  11. Cugno M, Cabibbe M, Galli M, Meroni P, Caccia S, Russo R, et al. Antibodies to tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome: evidence of interaction between the antibodies and the catalytic domain of tPA in 2 patients. Blood. 2004;103:2121-6 pubmed
    ..Anti-tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) antibodies may induce fibrinolytic defects and preliminary data indicate an association with thrombosis in APS...
  12. Laudes I, Chu J, Sikranth S, Huber Lang M, Guo R, Riedemann N, et al. Anti-c5a ameliorates coagulation/fibrinolytic protein changes in a rat model of sepsis. Am J Pathol. 2002;160:1867-75 pubmed
    ..of fibrinolysis was indicated by reduced plasma levels of plasminogen and increased levels of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor...
  13. Macchione E, Epifano O, Stefanini M, Belin D, Canipari R. Urokinase redistribution from the secreted to the cell-bound fraction in granulosa cells of rat preovulatory follicles. Biol Reprod. 2000;62:895-903 pubmed
    ..In fact, whereas in the rat, gonadotropins stimulate tissue-type PA (tPA) production, the same hormonal stimulation induces urokinase PA (uPA) secretion in mouse cells...
  14. Kamgar M, Nobakhthaghighi N, Shamshirsaz A, Estacio R, McFann K, Schrier R. Impaired fibrinolytic activity in type II diabetes: correlation with urinary albumin excretion and progression of renal disease. Kidney Int. 2006;69:1899-903 pubmed
    ..5 vs 72.3%, P < 0.07) in the diabetic patients with more impaired fibrinolysis and greater UAE. Thus a prospective, randomized clinical trial in type II diabetes with PAI-1 inhibitors is needed. ..
  15. Zhang H, Bi F, Xiao C, Liu J, Wang Z, Liu J, et al. The Kringle-2 domain of tissue plasminogen activator significantly reduces mortality and brain infarction in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats. Int J Mol Med. 2010;26:225-30 pubmed
    b>Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) showed brain-protective activity within the first 15 min after cerebral ischemia in rats...
  16. Van Geet C, Proesmans W, Arnout J, Vermylen J, Declerck P. Activation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis in childhood hemolytic uremic syndrome. Kidney Int. 1998;54:1324-30 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that in children with diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome, limited intravascular coagulation occurs, without evidence of impaired fibrinolysis. ..
  17. Pu L, Huang S, Liu F. [Effects of losartan on expressions of plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 of rat proximal tubular epithelial cells cultured with high glucose]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2007;38:813-5 pubmed
    ..Compared with control group, the high glucose group decreased the expressions of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) mRNAs (P < 0...
  18. Mannucci P, Bettega D, Cattaneo M. Patterns of development of tachyphylaxis in patients with haemophilia and von Willebrand disease after repeated doses of desmopressin (DDAVP). Br J Haematol. 1992;82:87-93 pubmed
  19. Hou Y, Okamoto C, Okada K, Kawao N, Kawata S, Ueshima S, et al. c-Myc is essential for urokinase plasminogen activator expression on hypoxia-induced vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovasc Res. 2007;75:186-94 pubmed
    ..VSMCs were isolated from thoracic aorta of wild-type (WT), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and uPA-deficient mice...
  20. Akao M, Hasebe Y, Okumura N, Hagiwara H, Seki T, Ariga T. Plasminogen activator-plasmin system potentiates the proliferation of hepatocytes in primary culture. Thromb Res. 2002;107:169-74 pubmed
    ..We have examined the role of fibrinolytic factors, i.e., tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and their substrate, plasminogen, in the proliferation of ..
  21. Saidi S, Slamia L, Mahjoub T, Ammou S, Almawi W. Association of PAI-1 4G/5G and -844G/A gene polymorphism and changes in PAI-1/tPA levels in stroke: a case-control study. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2007;16:153-9 pubmed
    ..the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene, along with altered PAI-1 and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) levels, have been implicated in stroke pathogenesis...
  22. Oguzulgen I, Ekim N, Erkekol F, Altinok B, Akar N. Is tissue-plasminogen activator gene polymorphism a risk factor for venous thromboembolism in every population?. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2005;19:61-3 pubmed
    ..It was also found that genotype frequencies for t-PA in both VTE and control subjects seems different from those reported from western part of the world. ..
  23. Besbas N, Erbay A, Saatci U, Ozdemir S, Bakkaloglu A, Ozen S, et al. Thrombomodulin, tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1998;16:95-8 pubmed
    ..We suggest that increased levels of TM, t-PA, and PAI-1 activity may reflect the presence of endothelial injury and/or activation and fibrinolytic activation in patients with HSP. ..
  24. Zhou H, Wu X, Lu X, Chen G, Ye X, Huang J. Evaluation of plasma urokinase-type plasminogen activator and urokinase-type plasminogen-activator receptor in patients with acute and chronic hepatitis B. Thromb Res. 2009;123:537-42 pubmed publisher
  25. Joo S, Kwon K, Kim J, Kim J, Hasan M, Lee H, et al. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue plasminogen activator activity by alpha-synuclein in rat primary glial cells. Neurosci Lett. 2010;469:352-6 pubmed publisher
    ..major components of Lewy body that has been implicated in the modulation of neuroinflammation, regulates MMP-9 and tPA activity, which plays important roles in neurodegeneration as well as regeneration processes, in cultured rat ..
  26. Alizadeh Dehnavi R, Beishuizen E, van de Ree M, le Cessie S, Huisman M, Kluft C, et al. The impact of metabolic syndrome and CRP on vascular phenotype in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Intern Med. 2008;19:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..with mild dyslipidemia: sVCAM, sE-selectin, von Willebrand factor (VWF), fibrinogen, s-thrombomodulin (sTM), tPA, PAI-1, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and intima media thickness (IMT)...
  27. Paramo J, Rifon J, Fernandez J, Cuesta B, Rocha E. Thrombin activation and increased fibrinolysis in patients with chronic liver disease. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1991;2:227-30 pubmed
    ..liver disease by measuring thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen (tPA Ag) and fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products (FgDP and FbDP respectively) in 66 patients with liver disease ..
  28. Imperatore F, Cuzzocrea S, De Lucia D, Sessa M, Rinaldi B, Capuano A, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy prevents coagulation disorders in an experimental model of multiple organ failure syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32:1881-8 pubmed
    ..affecting the coagulation cascade, as shown by a significant increase in plasma levels of fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator, inhibitor of tissue plasminogen activator of type 1, and plasma levels of fibrin degradation products ..
  29. Pham N, Franzen A, Levin E. NF1 regulatory element functions as a repressor of tissue plasminogen activator expression. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004;24:982-7 pubmed
    Analysis of the distribution of endothelial cell tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the vasculature of rodents and primates demonstrated that tPA is constitutively expressed predominantly in small artery endothelial cells of brain and ..
  30. Jackson C, Raines E, Ross R, Reidy M. Role of endogenous platelet-derived growth factor in arterial smooth muscle cell migration after balloon catheter injury. Arterioscler Thromb. 1993;13:1218-26 pubmed
  31. Miyata S, Nakatani Y, Hayashi N, Nakashima T. Matrix-degrading enzymes tissue plasminogen activator and matrix metalloprotease-3 in the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system. Brain Res. 2005;1058:1-9 pubmed localization and activity-dependent changes in the expression of matrix-degrading enzymes such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and matrix metalloprotease-3 (MMP-3)...
  32. Nezi L, Greco D, Nitsch L, Garbi C. The role of proteases in fibronectin matrix remodeling in thyroid epithelial cell monolayer cultures. Biol Chem. 2002;383:167-76 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that in the FN remodeling process, occurring during FRT epithelium maturation, both plasmin-dependent (tPA activated) and plasmin-independent proteolytic activities are involved.
  33. Ny T, Leonardsson G, Hsueh A. Cloning and characterization of a cDNA for rat tissue-type plasminogen activator. DNA. 1988;7:671-7 pubmed
    ..The site at Asn-187 is glycosylated in the human protein, revealing a different glycosylation pattern between the human and rat proteins. ..
  34. Mori Y, Nobukata H, Harada T, Kasahara T, Tajima N. Long-term administration of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester improves blood coagulation abnormalities and dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats. Endocr J. 2003;50:603-11 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that EPA-E beneficially altered certain factors known to promote thrombosis and atherosclerosis in this animal model. ..
  35. Hayakawa M, Gando S, Ono Y, Wada T, Yanagida Y, Sawamura A, et al. Noble-Collip Drum Trauma Induces Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation But Not Acute Coagulopathy of Trauma-Shock. Shock. 2015;43:261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes are collectively termed disseminated intravascular coagulation with the fibrinolytic phenotype. ..
  36. Hu K, Yang J, Tanaka S, Gonias S, Mars W, Liu Y. Tissue-type plasminogen activator acts as a cytokine that triggers intracellular signal transduction and induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2120-7 pubmed
    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease well known for generating plasmin, has been demonstrated to induce matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene expression and protein secretion in renal interstitial fibroblasts...
  37. Yang D, Sun Y, Nemkul N, Baumann J, Shereen A, Dunn R, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mitigates brain injury in a rat model of infection-sensitized neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Cereb Cortex. 2013;23:1218-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that LPS pre-exposure blocked the HI-induced proteolytic activity of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), but significantly enhanced NF-?B signaling, microglia activation, and the production of pro-inflammatory ..
  38. Huang K, Guo J, Chen J, Qiu G, Deng Z, Li L, et al. [Effects of Erigeron breviscapus injection on TNF-alpha, PAI-1 and tPA in rats with acute myocardial infarction]. Zhong Yao Cai. 2010;33:1592-5 pubmed
    To research the effects of Erigeron breviscapus injection (EBI) on TNF-alpha, PAI-1 and tPA in rats with acute myocardial infarction...
  39. Agostoni A, Gardinali M, Frangi D, Cafaro C, Conciato L, Sponzilli C, et al. Activation of complement and kinin systems after thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction. A comparison between streptokinase and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator. Circulation. 1994;90:2666-70 pubmed
  40. Liu B, Jian Y, Zhong M, Yu Y, Wang Q, Zhang J. [Value of coagulation function and fibrinolytic system assessment in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007;27:35-7 pubmed
    ..GDM patients may have elevated platelet activation and fibrinolyic activity as well as vascular endothelial injuries, and antenatal assessment of the coagulation function can be of value for prevention and treatment of GDM. ..
  41. Allan E, Hamilton J, Medcalf R, Kubota M, Martin T. Cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent effects on tissue-type plasminogen activator activity in osteogenic sarcoma cells; evidence from phosphodiesterase inhibition and parathyroid hormone antagonists. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986;888:199-207 pubmed
    ..and in osteoblast-rich rat calvarial cells has been characterized using specific antibodies to be tissue-type PA (tPA)...
  42. Zheng S, Yin Z, Zeng Y. Developmental profile of tissue plasminogen activator in postnatal Long Evans rat visual cortex. Mol Vis. 2008;14:975-82 pubmed
    To investigate the distribution, expression, and activity of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in the visual cortex of the Long Evans rat during postnatal development, and to explore the relationship between tPA levels and the critical ..
  43. Hu K, Wu C, Mars W, Liu Y. Tissue-type plasminogen activator promotes murine myofibroblast activation through LDL receptor-related protein 1-mediated integrin signaling. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3821-32 pubmed
    ..Here we describe a signaling pathway that leads to this activation. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) promoted TGF-beta1-mediated alpha-SMA and type I collagen expression in rat kidney interstitial fibroblasts...
  44. Liang W, Chuan Zhen L, Qiang D, Jian Q, Hui Min R, Bao Guo X. Reductions in mRNA of the neuroprotective agent, neuroserpin, after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in diabetic rats. Brain Res. 2004;1015:175-80 pubmed
    ..Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in normal and diabetic rats was accompanied by increased expression of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and ..
  45. . Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke. N Engl J Med. 1995;333:1581-7 pubmed
    ..We performed a randomized, double-blind trial of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) for ischemic stroke after recent pilot studies suggested that t-PA was beneficial when treatment ..
  46. O Connell M, Canipari R, Strickland S. Hormonal regulation of tissue plasminogen activator secretion and mRNA levels in rat granulosa cells. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:2339-44 pubmed
    Granulosa cells from immature rats produce tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in response to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH) both in vitro and in vivo...
  47. Raoult E, Roussel B, Benard M, Lefebvre T, Ravni A, Ali C, et al. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) stimulates the expression and the release of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in neuronal cells: involvement of tPA in the neuroprotective effect of PACAP. J Neurochem. 2011;119:920-31 pubmed publisher
    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) play important roles in neuronal migration and survival...
  48. Fredriksson L, Li H, Fieber C, Li X, Eriksson U. Tissue plasminogen activator is a potent activator of PDGF-CC. EMBO J. 2004;23:3793-802 pubmed
    b>Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease involved in the degradation of blood clots through the activation of plasminogen to plasmin...
  49. Cho K, Kwon K, Choi C, Jeon S, Kim K, Park J, et al. Valproic acid induces astrocyte-dependent neurite outgrowth from cultured rat primary cortical neuron via modulation of tPA/PAI-1 activity. Glia. 2013;61:694-709 pubmed publisher
    b>Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is expressed in several regions of brain and plays regulatory roles such as neurite outgrowth, synaptic plasticity and long term potentiation...
  50. Nakasaki T, Wada H, Mori Y, Okugawa Y, Watanabe R, Nishikawa M, et al. Decreased tissue factor and tissue-plasminogen activator antigen in relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia. Am J Hematol. 2000;64:145-50 pubmed
    ..TF and tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen levels in leukemic cell lysate were significantly increased in both groups, and they ..
  51. Longstaff C, Kolev K. Basic mechanisms and regulation of fibrinolysis. J Thromb Haemost. 2015;13 Suppl 1:S98-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Suitable models are at an early stage of development, but may improve as model clots increase in complexity to incorporate the components and interactions listed above. ..
  52. Zhu H, Fan X, Yu Z, Liu J, Murata Y, Lu J, et al. Annexin A2 combined with low-dose tPA improves thrombolytic therapy in a rat model of focal embolic stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2010;30:1137-46 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies showed that soluble annexin A2 dramatically increases tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-mediated plasmin generation in vitro, and reduces thrombus formation in vivo...
  53. Hagiwara H, Kaizu K, Uriu K, Noguchi T, Takagi I, Qie Y, et al. Expression of type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor in the kidney of diabetic rat models. Thromb Res. 2003;111:301-9 pubmed
    ..Renal gene expressions of type-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), tissue-type PA (tPA), and urokinase-type PA (uPA) were examined by real-time PCR...