Gene Symbol: Pla2g4a
Description: phospholipase A2 group IVA
Alias: Pla2c, Pla2g4, cPLA2, cytosolic phospholipase A2, phospholipase A2 cytosolic, phospholipase A2, group IVA (cytosolic, calcium-dependent)
Species: rat
Products:     Pla2g4a

Top Publications

  1. Mariggio S, Sebastia J, Filippi B, Iurisci C, Volonte C, Amadio S, et al. A novel pathway of cell growth regulation mediated by a PLA2alpha-derived phosphoinositide metabolite. FASEB J. 2006;20:2567-9 pubmed
  2. Pickard R, Chiou X, Strifler B, DeFelippis M, Hyslop P, Tebbe A, et al. Identification of essential residues for the catalytic function of 85-kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2. Probing the role of histidine, aspartic acid, cysteine, and arginine. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:19225-31 pubmed
    b>Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) hydrolyzes the sn-2-acyl ester bond of phospholipids and shows a preference for arachidonic acid-containing substrates...
  3. Ghosh M, Loper R, Ghomashchi F, Tucker D, Bonventre J, Gelb M, et al. Function, activity, and membrane targeting of cytosolic phospholipase A(2)zeta in mouse lung fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:11676-86 pubmed
  4. Slomiany B, Slomiany A. Leptin modulates the detrimental effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced cytosolic phospholipase A2 activation on salivary mucin synthesis via ERK-signal transduction. Inflammopharmacology. 2006;14:250-5 pubmed
    Activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) by bacterial LPS is considered a key step in the generation of proinflammatory lipid messengers, including platelet-activating factor (PAF), recognized as the most proximal mediator of ..
  5. Shi Y, Cui L, Dai G, Chen J, Pan H, Song L, et al. Elevated prostaglandin E2 level via cPLA2--COX-2--mPGES-1 pathway involved in bladder carcinogenesis induced by terephthalic acid-calculi in Wistar rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006;74:309-15 pubmed
    ..Then, the mRNA level of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), cyclooxygenases (COX)-1 and -2, membrane-bound PGE2 synthases (mPGES)-1 and -2 was detected ..
  6. Li F, Malik K. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation is mediated by metabolites of arachidonic acid generated by CaMKII-stimulated Ca2(+)-dependent phospholipase A2. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288:H2306-16 pubmed
    ..Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent kinase II (CaMKII), and activates cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), which releases arachidonic acid (AA)...
  7. Gentili C, Morelli S, de Boland A. 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) signaling in rat intestinal cells: activation of cytosolic PLA2. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;89-90:297-301 pubmed
    In the current study, we have probed the role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) activity in the cellular response to the calciotropic hormones, 1alpha,25,dihydroxy-vitamin D(3) [1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)] and PTH...
  8. Karaa A, Kamoun W, Xu H, Zhang J, Clemens M. Differential effects of oxidative stress on hepatic endothelial and Kupffer cell eicosanoid release in response to endothelin-1. Microcirculation. 2006;13:457-66 pubmed
    ..Eicosanoid release was assessed in the media by enzyme immunoassay. Endothelin-1 mediated cPLA2 phosphorylation and increased prostaglandin (PG) I2, PGE2 and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) release in endothelial cells ..
  9. Fèvre C, Bellenger S, Pierre A, Minville M, Bellenger J, Gresti J, et al. The metabolic cascade leading to eicosanoid precursors--desaturases, elongases, and phospholipases A2--is altered in Zucker fatty rats. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1811:409-17 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Cybulsky A, Takano T, Papillon J, Khadir A, Liu J, Peng H. Complement C5b-9 membrane attack complex increases expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins in glomerular epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:41342-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, C5b-9 injures the ER and enhances ER stress protein expression, in part, via activation of cPLA(2). ER stress protein induction is a novel mechanism of protection from complement attack. ..
  2. Kurusu S, Tokunaga N, Yonezawa T, Kawaminami M. Group IVA phospholipase A(2) activity may mediate prostaglandin F(2alpha)-induced luteal regression in pseudopregnant rats. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2009;90:55-62 pubmed publisher
  3. Kurusu S, Sapirstein A, Sawada H, Kawaminami M, Bonventre J. Group IVA phospholipase A2 regulates testosterone biosynthesis by murine Leydig cells and is required for timely sexual maturation. Biochem J. 2011;439:403-11 pubmed publisher
    In the present paper, we report that PLA2G4A (Group IVA phospholipase A2) is important in the development and function of rodent testes...
  4. Kriem B, Sponne I, Fifre A, Malaplate Armand C, Lozac h Pillot K, Koziel V, et al. Cytosolic phospholipase A2 mediates neuronal apoptosis induced by soluble oligomers of the amyloid-beta peptide. FASEB J. 2005;19:85-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of the cytosolic Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), and its associated metabolic pathway, i.e...
  5. Ong W, Lu X, Ong B, Horrocks L, Farooqui A, Lim S. Quinacrine abolishes increases in cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 mRNA levels in the rat hippocampus after kainate-induced neuronal injury. Exp Brain Res. 2003;148:521-4 pubmed
    ..These results show that in addition to its well-known effect of inhibition of PLA(2) activity, quinacrine could also inhibit cPLA(2) expression, and further supports a role for PLA(2) in kainate-induced neuronal injury. ..
  6. Li J, Al Khalili O, Ramosevac S, Eaton D, Denson D. Protein-protein interaction between cPLA2 and splice variants of alpha-subunit of BK channels. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C251-62 pubmed publisher
  7. Silfani T, Freeman E. Phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase regulates angiotensin II-induced cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity and growth in vascular smooth muscle cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;402:84-93 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may play an important role in the Ang II-induced growth of VSMC. ..
  8. Szaingurten Solodkin I, Hadad N, Levy R. Regulatory role of cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha in NADPH oxidase activity and in inducible nitric oxide synthase induction by aggregated Abeta1-42 in microglia. Glia. 2009;57:1727-40 pubmed publisher
  9. Neeli I, Liu Z, Dronadula N, Ma Z, Rao G. An essential role of the Jak-2/STAT-3/cytosolic phospholipase A(2) axis in platelet-derived growth factor BB-induced vascular smooth muscle cell motility. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:46122-8 pubmed
    ..Together, these results for the first time show that PDGF-BB-induced VSMC motility requires activation of the Jak-2/STAT-3/cPLA(2) signaling axis. ..
  10. Lopez Vales R, Navarro X, Shimizu T, Baskakis C, Kokotos G, Constantinou Kokotou V, et al. Intracellular phospholipase A(2) group IVA and group VIA play important roles in Wallerian degeneration and axon regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. Brain. 2008;131:2620-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This work has implications for injury responses and recovery after peripheral nerve injuries in humans, as well as for understanding the slow clearance of myelin after CNS injury and its potential consequences for axon regeneration. ..
  11. Hsieh H, Wu C, Hwang T, Yen M, Parker P, Yang C. BK-induced cytosolic phospholipase A2 expression via sequential PKC-delta, p42/p44 MAPK, and NF-kappaB activation in rat brain astrocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2006;206:246-54 pubmed
    Bradykinin (BK), an inflammatory mediator, has been shown to induce cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) expression implicating in inflammatory responses in various cell types...
  12. Ni Z, Okeley N, Smart B, Gelb M. Intracellular actions of group IIA secreted phospholipase A2 and group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2 contribute to arachidonic acid release and prostaglandin production in rat gastric mucosal cells and transfected human embryonic kidney cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16245-55 pubmed
    ..These results clearly show that cytosolic and group IIA secreted phospholipases A(2) work together to liberate arachidonate from RGM1 cell phospholipids in response to cytokines. ..
  13. Ishihara K, Kanai S, Tanaka K, Kawashita E, Akiba S. Group IVA phospholipase A(2) deficiency prevents CCl4-induced hepatic cell death through the enhancement of autophagy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;471:15-20 pubmed publisher
    ..IVA-PLA2 may promote CCl4-induced cell death through the suppression of constitutive autophagy in hepatocytes. ..
  14. Aukema H, Adolphe J, Mishra S, Jiang J, Cuozzo F, Ogborn M. Alterations in renal cytosolic phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenases in polycystic kidney disease. FASEB J. 2003;17:298-300 pubmed
    b>Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) regulate the formation of physiologically active prostaglandins, the production of which is known to be elevated in several renal disorders...
  15. Steiner A, Ivanov A, Serrats J, Hosokawa H, Phayre A, Robbins J, et al. Cellular and molecular bases of the initiation of fever. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e284 pubmed
    ..This activation involved phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) and transcriptional up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2...
  16. Giurdanella G, Motta C, Muriana S, Arena V, Anfuso C, Lupo G, et al. Cytosolic and calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) mediate glioma-enhanced proangiogenic activity of brain endothelial cells. Microvasc Res. 2011;81:1-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work provides new insights in understanding EC metabolism and signaling during tumor angiogenesis. ..
  17. Zhang J, Liang W, Luo Z, Yang Z, Chan H, Huang Y. Involvement of p38 MAP kinase in burn-induced degradation of membrane phospholipids and upregulation of cPLA2 in cardiac myocytes. Shock. 2007;28:86-93 pubmed
    ..protein (MAP) kinase in the degradation of membrane phospholipids and the regulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in cardiac myocytes after burn trauma...
  18. Ma Z, Ramanadham S, Hu Z, Turk J. Cloning and expression of a group IV cytosolic Ca2+-dependent phospholipase A2 from rat pancreatic islets. Comparison of the expressed activity with that of an islet group VI cytosolic Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1391:384-400 pubmed
    ..that islets also express a protein recognized by antibodies against a Group IV, cytosolic, Ca2+-dependent PLA2 (cPLA2)...
  19. Hasegawa S, Kohro Y, Tsuda M, Inoue K. Activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in dorsal root ganglion neurons by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II after peripheral nerve injury. Mol Pain. 2009;5:22 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that spinal nerve injury induces the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons that contribute to tactile allodynia...
  20. Gracia Sancho J, Laviña B, Rodriguez Vilarrupla A, García Calderó H, Bosch J, García Pagán J. Enhanced vasoconstrictor prostanoid production by sinusoidal endothelial cells increases portal perfusion pressure in cirrhotic rat livers. J Hepatol. 2007;47:220-7 pubmed
    ..b>cPLA2 activity was determined in control and cirrhotic livers...
  21. Lupo G, Motta C, Giurdanella G, Anfuso C, Alberghina M, Drago F, et al. Role of phospholipases A2 in diabetic retinopathy: in vitro and in vivo studies. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013;86:1603-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Diabetic rats had also high retinal levels of VEGF, ICAM-1 and TNF? that were reduced by treatment with a cPLA2 inhibitor...
  22. Liu L. Regulation of lung surfactant secretion by phospholipase A2. J Cell Biochem. 1999;72:103-10 pubmed
    ..The cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) inhibitor, arachidonyl trifluoromethyl ketone, was found to inhibit ATP-stimulated PC secretion, whereas the ..
  23. Wei hua L, Jun Yu H, Chang qing S, Yong Jun G, Qiang X, Kai min L, et al. Study on the relationship of cPLA2, CK-MB, and membrane phospholipid content in acute myocardial infarction. Heart Vessels. 2011;26:64-8 pubmed publisher
    ..CK-MB) occurs in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but its underlying relationship with cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is poorly understood...
  24. Niknami M, Patel M, Witting P, Dong Q. Molecules in focus: cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:994-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of the enzyme may have been underestimated by the relatively normal phenotype in the enzyme knockout animals. A clear phenotype has emerged when these knockout animals are used as models of various diseases. ..
  25. San Pietro E, Capestrano M, Polishchuk E, DiPentima A, Trucco A, Zizza P, et al. Group IV phospholipase A(2)alpha controls the formation of inter-cisternal continuities involved in intra-Golgi transport. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000194 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify cPLA(2)alpha as the first component of the machinery that is responsible for the formation of intercisternal tubular continuities and support a role for these continuities in transport through the Golgi complex...
  26. Yaksh T, Kokotos G, Svensson C, Stephens D, Kokotos C, Fitzsimmons B, et al. Systemic and intrathecal effects of a novel series of phospholipase A2 inhibitors on hyperalgesia and spinal prostaglandin E2 release. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;316:466-75 pubmed
    ..The other agents, although demonstrating enzymatic activity in cell-free assays, appear unable to gain access to the intracellular PLA(2) toward which their action is targeted. ..
  27. Ni H, Zhao D, Tian T. Ketogenic diet change cPLA2/clusterin and autophagy related gene expression and correlate with cognitive deficits and hippocampal MFs sprouting following neonatal seizures. Epilepsy Res. 2016;120:13-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining the long-term expression of lipid membrane peroxidation-related cPLA2 and clusterin, its downstream autophagy marker Beclin-1, LC3 and p62, as well as its execution molecule Cathepsin-..
  28. Slomiany B, Slomiany A. Induction in gastric mucosal prostaglandin and nitric oxide by Helicobacter pylori is dependent on MAPK/ERK-mediated activation of IKK-? and cPLA2: modulatory effect of ghrelin. Inflammopharmacology. 2013;21:241-51 pubmed publisher that ERK activation by the LPS leads to phosphorylation of the inhibitory ?B kinase-? (IKK-?) and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), and is reflected in the upsurge in NF-?B nuclear translocation, induction in COX-2 and iNOS ..
  29. Kitayama S, Shimada S, Uhl G. Parkinsonism-inducing neurotoxin MPP+: uptake and toxicity in nonneuronal COS cells expressing dopamine transporter cDNA. Ann Neurol. 1992;32:109-11 pubmed
    ..By documenting that the dopamine transporter can confer MPP+ sensitivity to nonneural cells, these results highlight the key role that this transporter could play in mechanisms underlying parkinsonism. ..
  30. Sagy Bross C, Kasianov K, Solomonov Y, Braiman A, Friedman A, Hadad N, et al. The role of cytosolic phospholipase A2 α in amyloid precursor protein induction by amyloid beta1-42 : implication for neurodegeneration. J Neurochem. 2015;132:559-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study aimed to determine whether cytosolic phospholipase A2 α (cPLA2 α) plays a role in elevated APP protein expression induced by aggregated amyloid-β1-42 ..
  31. Xie Z, Gong M, Su W, Turk J, Guo Z. Group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2beta) participates in angiotensin II-induced transcriptional up-regulation of regulator of g-protein signaling-2 in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25278-89 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that iPLA2beta participates in Ang II-induced transcriptional up-regulation of RGS2 in VSMC. ..
  32. Moon K, Tajuddin N, Brown J, Neafsey E, Kim H, Collins M. Phospholipase A2, oxidative stress, and neurodegeneration in binge ethanol-treated organotypic slice cultures of developing rat brain. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014;38:161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..binge EtOH-induced neurotoxicity and in AA release, but surprisingly, Ca(2+) -dependent cytosolic PLA2 (group IV cPLA2) did not appear important...
  33. Mícová P, Hahnova K, Hlaváčková M, Elsnicova B, Chytilová A, Holzerova K, et al. Chronic intermittent hypoxia affects the cytosolic phospholipase A2?/cyclooxygenase 2 pathway via ?2-adrenoceptor-mediated ERK/p38 stimulation. Mol Cell Biochem. 2016;423:151-163 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that adaptive changes induced in the myocardium by CIH may include activation of cPLA2? and COX-2 via ?2-AR/Gi-mediated stimulation of the ERK/p38 pathway. ..
  34. Gentili C, Morelli S, de Boland A. PTH and phospholipase A2 in the aging process of intestinal cells. J Cell Biochem. 2004;93:312-26 pubmed
    ..We also found that hormone-induced AA release in young animals is Ca2+-dependent via cPLA2, while AA released by PTH in cells from aged rats is due to the activation of cPLA2 and the Ca2+-independent PLA2 (..
  35. Fonteh A, Atsumi G, Laporte T, Chilton F. Secretory phospholipase A2 receptor-mediated activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in murine bone marrow-derived mast cells. J Immunol. 2000;165:2773-82 pubmed
    ..The hypothesis that the release of AA by sPLA2 involved activation of cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) was next tested...
  36. Ribeiro R, Wen J, Li S, Zhang Y. Involvement of ERK1/2, cPLA2 and NF-?B in microglia suppression by cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2013;100-101:1-14 pubmed publisher
  37. Shanker G, Hampson R, Aschner M. Methylmercury stimulates arachidonic acid release and cytosolic phospholipase A2 expression in primary neuronal cultures. Neurotoxicology. 2004;25:399-406 pubmed
    b>Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) plays an important role in the stimulus-dependent hydrolysis of sn-2 ester bond from membrane phospholipids, releasing arachidonic acid (AA), which along with its metabolites is involved in a number of ..
  38. Tu B, Bazan N. Hippocampal kindling epileptogenesis upregulates neuronal cyclooxygenase-2 expression in neocortex. Exp Neurol. 2003;179:167-75 pubmed
    ..Moreover the COX-2 selective inhibitor nimesulide attenuated kindling development. We conclude that neuronal COX-2 gene induction and cPLA(2) activation are key signaling events in epileptogenesis. ..
  39. Nakatani Y, Hara S, Murakami M, Kudo I, Inoue K. Characterization of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in rat mastocytoma RBL-2H3. Biol Pharm Bull. 1994;17:47-50 pubmed
    ..RBL-2H3 cells on several column chromatographies were indistinguishable from those of 85-kDa cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2) characterized so far...
  40. Liu Y, Taylor C. Stimulation of arachidonic acid release by vasopressin in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells mediated by Ca2+-stimulated phospholipase A2. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:4114-20 pubmed
    ..inhibited the 3H-AA release evoked by vasopressin, though not the underlying Ca2+ signals, and established that cPLA2 mediates the release of AA...
  41. Gabryel B, Chalimoniuk M, Stolecka A, Langfort J. Activation of cPLA2 and sPLA2 in astrocytes exposed to simulated ischemia in vitro. Cell Biol Int. 2007;31:958-65 pubmed
    ..It was proved that simultaneous pharmacological blockade of enzymatic activity of cPLA(2) and sPLA(2) during OGD by AACOCF(3) and 12-epi-scalaradial substantially improves survival of ischemic injured glial cells. ..
  42. Perisic O, Fong S, Lynch D, Bycroft M, Williams R. Crystal structure of a calcium-phospholipid binding domain from cytosolic phospholipase A2. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:1596-604 pubmed
    b>Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is a calcium-sensitive 85-kDa enzyme that hydrolyzes arachidonic acid-containing membrane phospholipids to initiate the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor, potent inflammatory ..
  43. Dronadula N, Liu Z, Wang C, Cao H, Rao G. STAT-3-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 expression is required for thrombin-induced vascular smooth muscle cell motility. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3112-20 pubmed
    ..Together, these results show that thrombin-induced VSMC motility requires STAT-3-dependent induction of expression of cPLA(2). ..
  44. Kurusu S, Iwao M, Kawaminami M, Hashimoto I. Involvement of cytosolic phospholipase A2 in the ovulatory process in gonadotropin-primed immature rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1998;58:405-11 pubmed
    ..We investigated whether cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) has a role in this PG production in PMSG/hCG-primed immature rats...
  45. Tong L, Dong L, Liu M. GTP-binding protein mediated phospholipase A2 activation in rat liver during the progression of sepsis. Mol Cell Biochem. 1998;189:55-61 pubmed
    ..of GTP-binding proteins on the activation of secretory phospholipaseA2 (sPLA2) and cytosolic phospholipaseA2 (cPLA2) in rat liver during two different phases of sepsis were studied...
  46. Reed K, Tucker D, Aloulou A, Adler D, Ghomashchi F, Gelb M, et al. Functional characterization of mutations in inherited human cPLA? deficiency. Biochemistry. 2011;50:1731-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results define how the mutations negatively influence cPLA(2)? function and explain the inability of the proband to release arachidonic acid for eicosanoid production. ..
  47. Yakubov E, Gottlieb M, Gil S, Dinerman P, Fuchs P, Yavin E. Overexpression of genes in the CA1 hippocampus region of adult rat following episodes of global ischemia. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004;127:10-26 pubmed
    ..Most robustly expressed were gene sequences NFI-B, ATP1B1, RHOGAP, PLA2G4A, BAX, CASP3, P53, MAO-A, FRA1, HSP70.2, and NR4A1 (NUR77), as well as sequence tags of unknown function...
  48. Woo C, You H, Cho S, Eom Y, Chun J, Yoo Y, et al. Leukotriene B(4) stimulates Rac-ERK cascade to generate reactive oxygen species that mediates chemotaxis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8572-8 pubmed
  49. Xu G, McDonagh T, Yu H, Nalefski E, Clark J, Cumming D. Solution structure and membrane interactions of the C2 domain of cytosolic phospholipase A2. J Mol Biol. 1998;280:485-500 pubmed
    The amino-terminal, 138 amino acid C2 domain of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2-C2) mediates an initial step in the production of lipid mediators of inflammation: the Ca2+-dependent translocation of the enzyme to intracellular membranes ..
  50. Kang J, Kim N, Kim B, Kim J, Lee B, Park J, et al. Gastroprotective action of Cochinchina momordica seed extract is mediated by activation of CGRP and inhibition of cPLA(2)/5-LOX pathway. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:2549-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, CGRP-NO pathway was found to play an important role in these gastroprotective effects of SK-MS10...
  51. Engelbrecht A, Ellis B. Apoptosis is mediated by cytosolic phospholipase A2 during simulated ischaemia/reperfusion-induced injury in neonatal cardiac myocytes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007;77:37-43 pubmed
    ..9+/-8.15% to 154.7+/-2.24%, p<0.001) cleavage during SI/R. This study provides evidence for a role for cPLA(2) during SI/R-induced injury. It appears that p38 MAPK is a central role player in the signalling pathway involved. ..