Gene Symbol: Pgr
Description: progesterone receptor
Alias: progesterone receptor, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 3
Species: rat
Products:     Pgr

Top Publications

  1. Vallejo G, Ballaré C, Barañao J, Beato M, Saragueta P. Progestin activation of nongenomic pathways via cross talk of progesterone receptor with estrogen receptor beta induces proliferation of endometrial stromal cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:3023-37 pubmed
    ..response of UIII rat uterine stromal cells to a short treatment with progestins requires active progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) as well as a rapid and transient activation of Erk1-2 and Akt ..
  2. Francis K, Meddle S, Bishop V, Russell J. Progesterone receptor expression in the pregnant and parturient rat hypothalamus and brainstem. Brain Res. 2002;927:18-26 pubmed
    ..Upregulation of PR expression in the MPA during pregnancy and parturition may relate to the onset of maternal behavior and/or regulation of GnRH neuronal activity. ..
  3. Kraus W, Montano M, Katzenellenbogen B. Cloning of the rat progesterone receptor gene 5'-region and identification of two functionally distinct promoters. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:1603-16 pubmed
    To examine some of the molecular mechanisms controlling transcription of the rat progesterone receptor (PR) gene, we have cloned and sequenced the 5'-region of the gene...
  4. Yoffou P, Edjekouane L, Meunier L, Tremblay A, Provencher D, Mes Masson A, et al. Subtype specific elevated expression of hyaluronidase-1 (HYAL-1) in epithelial ovarian cancer. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20705 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the mRNA expression of HYAL1, estrogen receptor (ER)-?, ER? and progesterone receptor (PR) in EOC tumor samples and cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR...
  5. Furuta M, Fukushima A, Chiba S, Sano A, Akema T, Kimura F, et al. Progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in the brains of ovariectomized aged rats. Neuroreport. 2010;21:777-81 pubmed publisher
    We examined the induction of progesterone receptor-immunoreactive (PR-ir) cells by estrogen in the rat preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus...
  6. Waters E, Torres Reveron A, McEwen B, Milner T. Ultrastructural localization of extranuclear progestin receptors in the rat hippocampal formation. J Comp Neurol. 2008;511:34-46 pubmed publisher
  7. Ismail P, DeMayo F, Amato P, Lydon J. Progesterone induction of calcitonin expression in the murine mammary gland. J Endocrinol. 2004;180:287-95 pubmed
  8. Vallejo G, La Greca A, Tarifa Reischle I, Mestre Citrinovitz A, Ballaré C, Beato M, et al. CDC2 mediates progestin initiated endometrial stromal cell proliferation: a PR signaling to gene expression independently of its binding to chromatin. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97311 pubmed publisher
    ..this control in UIII endometrial stromal cells via ERK1-2 and AKT activation mediated by interaction of Progesterone Receptor (PR) with Estrogen Receptor beta (ERb) and without transcriptional activity of endogenous PR and ER...
  9. Gonzales K, Quadros Mennella P, Tetel M, Wagner C. Anatomically-specific actions of oestrogen receptor in the developing female rat brain: effects of oestradiol and selective oestrogen receptor modulators on progestin receptor expression. J Neuroendocrinol. 2012;24:285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate the anatomically-specific actions of oestradiol and its receptor to induce PR in two brain regions controlling different aspects of female reproductive behaviours in adulthood. ..

More Information


  1. Quadros P, Schlueter L, Wagner C. Distribution of progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in the midbrain and hindbrain of postnatal rats. Dev Neurobiol. 2008;68:1378-90 pubmed publisher
  2. Qi C, Chang J, Zhu Y, Yeldandi A, Rao S, Zhu Y. Identification of protein arginine methyltransferase 2 as a coactivator for estrogen receptor alpha. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:28624-30 pubmed
    ..In this respect PRMT2 differs from coactivators PRMT1 and CARM1 (coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase). These results suggest that PRMT2 is a novel ERalpha coactivator. ..
  3. Quadros P, Lopez V, De Vries G, Chung W, Wagner C. Progesterone receptors and the sexual differentiation of the medial preoptic nucleus. J Neurobiol. 2002;51:24-32 pubmed
    ..These results, taken together with the expression of PR in the MPNc, suggest that PR may influence the sexual differentiation of the MPNc volume. ..
  4. Okada A, Ohta Y, Buchanan D, Sato T, Iguchi T. Effect of estrogens on ontogenetic expression of progesterone receptor in the fetal female rat reproductive tract. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002;195:55-64 pubmed
    Ontogenetic expression of progesterone receptor (PR) and effect of estrogens on PR expression in the fetal female rat reproductive tract were investigated...
  5. Quadros P, Wagner C. Regulation of progesterone receptor expression by estradiol is dependent on age, sex and region in the rat brain. Endocrinology. 2008;149:3054-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Progesterone receptor (PR) expression is highly dependent on estradiol in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) of the adult rat brain...
  6. Leite C, Szawka R, Anselmo Franci J. Alpha-oestrogen and progestin receptor expression in the hypothalamus and preoptic area dopaminergic neurones during oestrous in cycling rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:110-9 pubmed
  7. González Arenas A, Neri Gomez T, Guerra Araiza C, Camacho Arroyo I. Sexual dimorphism in the content of progesterone and estrogen receptors, and their cofactors in the lung of adult rats. Steroids. 2004;69:351-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a sexual dimorphism in the content of PR, ER-beta, and SMRT in the rat lung as well as a relation of their content to the physiological levels of progesterone and estradiol. ..
  8. Wasserman L, Flatt S, Natarajan L, Laughlin G, Matusalem M, Faerber S, et al. Correlates of obesity in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: comparison of genetic, demographic, disease-related, life history and dietary factors. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004;28:49-56 pubmed
    ..The progesterone receptor (PR) and the steroid hormone receptor coactivator pCIP/ACTR/AIB1/TRAM1/RAC3 (AIB1) are hypothesized to ..
  9. Aguilar R, Bellido C, Sanchez Criado J. The role of estrogen-dependent progesterone receptor in protein kinase C-mediated LH secretion and GnRH self-priming in rat anterior pituitary glands. J Endocrinol Invest. 2003;26:527-32 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to explore the involvement of pituitary progesterone receptor (PR) in PKC-mediated LH secretion and LHRH self-priming and the role of the estrogen (E) environment...
  10. Steyn F, Anderson G, Grattan D. Expression of ovarian steroid hormone receptors in tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurones during pregnancy and lactation. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:788-93 pubmed
    ..steroid-regulation of these neurones, we investigated the level of oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression within TIDA neurones during pregnancy and lactation...
  11. Friberg P, Larsson D, Billig H. Transcriptional effects of progesterone receptor antagonist in rat granulosa cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;315:121-30 pubmed publisher
    Progesterone, acting via the nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR), reduces apoptosis in periovulatory granulosa cells, and is a likely mediator of the anti-atretic actions of LH...
  12. Guerra Araiza C, Gómora Arrati P, García Juárez M, Armengual Villegas A, Miranda Martinez A, Lima Hernández F, et al. Role of progesterone receptor isoforms in female sexual behavior induced by progestins in rats. Neuroendocrinology. 2009;90:73-81 pubmed publisher
    ..ring A reduced metabolites regulate female sexual behavior through the direct or indirect activation of progesterone receptor (PR) which has two isoforms with different function and regulation: PR-A and PR-B...
  13. Lantinga van Leeuwen I, van Garderen E, Rutteman G, Mol J. Cloning and cellular localization of the canine progesterone receptor: co-localization with growth hormone in the mammary gland. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2000;75:219-28 pubmed
    ..To elucidate the mechanism of progestin-induced mammary GH expression, the canine progesterone receptor (PR) is characterized and the cellular localization of the PR in normal and tumorous mammary tissues is ..
  14. Quadros P, Pfau J, Goldstein A, De Vries G, Wagner C. Sex differences in progesterone receptor expression: a potential mechanism for estradiol-mediated sexual differentiation. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3727-39 pubmed
    ..Around birth, these regions express dramatically higher levels of progesterone receptor immunoreactivity (PRir) in males than they do in females...
  15. Jahagirdar V, Quadros P, Wagner C. Endogenous oestradiol regulates progesterone receptor expression in the brain of female rat fetuses: what is the source of oestradiol?. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:359-65 pubmed publisher
    ..present study, anogential distance (AGD) in females was used as an androgen-dependent bioassay, whereas progesterone receptor (PR) expression within the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) was used as an E-dependent measure...
  16. González Flores O, Guerra Araiza C, Cerbón M, Camacho Arroyo I, Etgen A. The 26S proteasome participates in the sequential inhibition of estrous behavior induced by progesterone in rats. Endocrinology. 2004;145:2328-36 pubmed
    ..In contrast, PSI and TLCK significantly increased PR content in both structures. Our results suggest that PR degradation by the 26S proteasome participates in the expression of P-induced SI in female rats. ..
  17. Agoulnik I, Krause W, Bingman W, Rahman H, Amrikachi M, Ayala G, et al. Repressors of androgen and progesterone receptor action. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:31136-48 pubmed
    ..We found that although DAX-1 is expressed in normal human prostate, its expression is strongly reduced in benign prostatic hyperplasia suggesting that DAX-1 plays a role in limiting AR activity in prostate. ..
  18. Rouleau N, Domans kyi A, Reeben M, Moilanen A, Havas K, Kang Z, et al. Novel ATPase of SNF2-like protein family interacts with androgen receptor and modulates androgen-dependent transcription. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:2106-19 pubmed
    ..ARIP4 mutants devoid of ATPase activity fail to alter DNA topology and behave as trans-dominant negative regulators of AR function in transient assays. ..
  19. Friberg P, Larsson D, Billig H. Dominant role of nuclear progesterone receptor in the control of rat periovulatory granulosa cell apoptosis. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:1160-7 pubmed publisher
    ..hypothesized that progesterone (P4) acts as a survival factor primarily by actions of the classic nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) signaling pathway in rat periovulatory granulosa cells...
  20. Provenzano E, Hopper J, Giles G, Marr G, Venter D, Armes J. Biological markers that predict clinical recurrence in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. Eur J Cancer. 2003;39:622-30 pubmed
    ..ERBB2-positivity and bcl-2-, oestrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negativity were individually associated with the risk of clinical recurrence...
  21. WIEHLE R, Lantvit D, Yamada T, Christov K. CDB-4124, a progesterone receptor modulator, inhibits mammary carcinogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:414-24 pubmed publisher
    CDB-4124 (Proellex or telapristone acetate) is a modulator of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling, which is currently employed in preclinical studies for prevention and treatment of breast cancer and has been used in clinical studies ..
  22. Lonstein J, Blaustein J. Immunocytochemical investigation of nuclear progestin receptor expression within dopaminergic neurones of the female rat brain. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004;16:534-43 pubmed
  23. Shirai M, Yamanaka M, Shiina H, Igawa M, Fujime M, Lue T, et al. Downregulation of androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptor genes and protein is involved in aging-related erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res. 2003;15:391-6 pubmed
    ..7 cm H(2)O, respectively. Gene and protein expressions for androgen receptor, estrogen receptor-beta and progesterone receptor were present in similar levels in 6-, 12- and 18-month-old rat crura, but significantly lower or absent in ..
  24. Cheon Y, DeMayo F, Bagchi M, Bagchi I. Induction of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-2beta, a cysteine protease inhibitor in decidua: a potential regulator of embryo implantation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:10357-63 pubmed markedly altered in pregnant uterus in response to RU486, a well characterized antagonist of the progesterone receptor (PR)...
  25. Meffre D, Labombarda F, Delespierre B, Chastre A, De Nicola A, Stein D, et al. Distribution of membrane progesterone receptor alpha in the male mouse and rat brain and its regulation after traumatic brain injury. Neuroscience. 2013;231:111-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to intracellular progesterone receptors, membrane receptors of the hormone such as membrane progesterone receptor (mPR) may also be involved in neuroprotection...
  26. Zheng H, Li H, Wang Z, Bai Z, Lu X. [The changes of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) mRNAs in endometrium with endometriosis]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2004;20:194-6 pubmed
    ..05). Ratio of ER/PR mRNA in ectopic endometrium was larger than that in eutopic and in normal endometrium (P < 0.01). The result illuminates that the increased ER plays a vital role in the onset of endometriosis. ..
  27. Gordon A, Garrido Gracia J, Aguilar R, Bellido C, Velasco J, Millan Y, et al. The ovary-mediated FSH attenuation of the LH surge in the rat involves a decreased gonadotroph progesterone receptor (PR) action but not PR expression. J Endocrinol. 2008;196:583-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The action of such a factor seemed to be due to a blockade of gonadotroph PR action rather than to an inhibition of PR expression. ..
  28. Funabashi T, Nakamura T, Kimura F. p-Nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol and bisphenol A increase the expression of progesterone receptor mRNA in the frontal cortex of adult ovariectomized rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004;16:99-104 pubmed
    ..We examined whether these endocrine disrupters affected progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA expression in the adult female rat neocortex. In one experiment, at 12...
  29. Rodriguez Cuenca S, Monjo M, Frontera M, Gianotti M, Proenza A, Roca P. Sex steroid receptor expression profile in brown adipose tissue. Effects of hormonal status. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2007;20:877-86 pubmed
  30. Treloar S, Zhao Z, Armitage T, Duffy D, Wicks J, O Connor D, et al. Association between polymorphisms in the progesterone receptor gene and endometriosis. Mol Hum Reprod. 2005;11:641-7 pubmed
    The progesterone receptor (PR) is a candidate gene for the development of endometriosis, a complex disease with strong hormonal features, common in women of reproductive age...
  31. Joseph V, Niane L, Bairam A. Antagonism of progesterone receptor suppresses carotid body responses to hypoxia and nicotine in rat pups. Neuroscience. 2012;207:103-9 pubmed publisher
    We tested the hypothesis that antagonism of progesterone receptor (PR) in newborn rats alters carotid body and respiratory responses to hypoxia and nicotinic receptor agonists...
  32. Turgeon J, Waring D. Progesterone regulation of the progesterone receptor in rat gonadotropes. Endocrinology. 2000;141:3422-9 pubmed
    For rat pituitary cells, progesterone receptor (PR) protein localizes to gonadotropes and PR messenger RNA is induced by E2 and rapidly but transiently down-regulated by progesterone...
  33. González Flores O, Etgen A, Komisaruk B, Gómora Arrati P, Macias Jimenez A, Lima Hernández F, et al. Antagonists of the protein kinase A and mitogen-activated protein kinase systems and of the progestin receptor block the ability of vaginocervical/flank-perineal stimulation to induce female rat sexual behaviour. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:1361-7 pubmed publisher
  34. Bali N, Arimoto J, Iwata N, Lin S, Zhao L, Brinton R, et al. Differential responses of progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (Pgrmc1) and the classical progesterone receptor (Pgr) to 17?-estradiol and progesterone in hippocampal subregions that support synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis. Endocrinology. 2012;153:759-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the neuronal expression of progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (Pgrmc1) and the classical progesterone receptor (Pgr), by in situ hybridization and ..
  35. Quintela T, Goncalves I, Martinho A, Alves C, Saraiva M, Rocha P, et al. Progesterone enhances transthyretin expression in the rat choroid plexus in vitro and in vivo via progesterone receptor. J Mol Neurosci. 2011;44:152-8 pubmed publisher
    ..response of TTR to P was investigated, and we provide evidence that this response is achieved through a progesterone receptor-mediated mechanism...
  36. Schwarz J, Nugent B, McCarthy M. Developmental and hormone-induced epigenetic changes to estrogen and progesterone receptor genes in brain are dynamic across the life span. Endocrinology. 2010;151:4871-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Estrogen receptor (ER)-? and ER-? and progesterone receptor are expressed at high levels within the preoptic area (POA) and the mediobasal hypothalamus, two brain ..
  37. Park O, Mayo K. Transient expression of progesterone receptor messenger RNA in ovarian granulosa cells after the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. Mol Endocrinol. 1991;5:967-78 pubmed
    ..itself is a target tissue for progesterone action, we have examined the localization and regulation of progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA in the rat ovary...
  38. Brisken C, Heineman A, Chavarria T, Elenbaas B, Tan J, Dey S, et al. Essential function of Wnt-4 in mammary gland development downstream of progesterone signaling. Genes Dev. 2000;14:650-4 pubmed
    Female reproductive hormones control mammary gland morphogenesis. In the absence of the progesterone receptor (PR) from the mammary epithelium, ductal side-branching fails to occur...
  39. Zurvarra F, Salvetti N, Mason J, Velazquez M, Alfaro N, Ortega H. Disruption in the expression and immunolocalisation of steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes in letrozole-induced polycystic ovaries in rat. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2009;21:827-39 pubmed publisher
    ..of steroid receptors (oestrogen receptor-alpha and -beta (ERalpha, ERbeta), androgen receptor (AR) and progesterone receptor (PR)) and steroidogenic enzymes (P450 aromatase (P450arom), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) ..
  40. Guerra Araiza C, Coyoy Salgado A, Camacho Arroyo I. Sex differences in the regulation of progesterone receptor isoforms expression in the rat brain. Brain Res Bull. 2002;59:105-9 pubmed
    We studied the effects of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) on progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms gene expression in the brain of ovariectomised female and gonadectomised male rats by RT-PCR analysis...
  41. Connaghan Jones K, Heneghan A, Miura M, Bain D. Thermodynamic analysis of progesterone receptor-promoter interactions reveals a molecular model for isoform-specific function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:2187-92 pubmed
    ..From a functional perspective, the differences in microscopic affinities predict receptor-promoter occupancies that accurately correlate with the transcriptional activation profiles seen for each isoform. ..
  42. Quadros P, Goldstein A, de Vries G, Wagner C. Regulation of sex differences in progesterone receptor expression in the medial preoptic nucleus of postnatal rats. J Neuroendocrinol. 2002;14:761-7 pubmed
    ..b>Progesterone receptor (PR) expression is sexually dimorphic in the prenatal MPN...
  43. Curran Rauhut M, Petersen S. The distribution of progestin receptor mRNA in rat brainstem. Brain Res Gene Expr Patterns. 2002;1:151-7 pubmed
    Hypothalamic sites wherein P4, through progestin receptor, (Pgr; commonly abbreviated PR), maximizes the expression of female sexual behaviors and gonadotropin surge release have been studied intensively...
  44. Auger C, Forbes Lorman R. Progestin receptor-mediated reduction of anxiety-like behavior in male rats. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3606 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that progesterone can act upon progestin receptors to regulate anxiety-like behavior in the male rat brain. ..
  45. Roa J, Vigo E, Castellano J, Gaytan F, Garcia Galiano D, Navarro V, et al. Follicle-stimulating hormone responses to kisspeptin in the female rat at the preovulatory period: modulation by estrogen and progesterone receptors. Endocrinology. 2008;149:5783-90 pubmed publisher
    ..analyses on the consequences of selective blockade of estrogen receptors (ER)-alpha and -beta, as well as progesterone receptor (PR), on the ovulatory surges of FSH and their modulation by kisspeptin...
  46. Quadros P, Pfau J, Wagner C. Distribution of progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in the fetal and neonatal rat forebrain. J Comp Neurol. 2007;504:42-56 pubmed
    ..Using immunocytochemistry, the present study documented the distribution of progesterone receptor (PR) expression in the rat forebrain from embryonic day (E) 17 through postnatal day (P) 28...
  47. Sandhi J, Singh J, Kaur T, Ghuman S, Singh A. Involvement of progesterone receptors in ascorbic acid-mediated protection against ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. J Surg Res. 2014;187:278-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In separate groups, mifepristone, the progesterone receptor antagonist was administered to rats before progesterone (10 mg/kg) and AA treatment (5 d)...
  48. Yellon S, Dobyns A, Beck H, Kurtzman J, Garfield R, Kirby M. Loss of progesterone receptor-mediated actions induce preterm cellular and structural remodeling of the cervix and premature birth. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81340 pubmed publisher
    A decline in serum progesterone or antagonism of progesterone receptor function results in preterm labor and birth...
  49. Hsieh Y, Chan I, Wang H, Chang C, Huang C, Lin C. PROGINS Alu sequence insertion is associated with hyperprolactinaemia but not leiomyoma susceptibility. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005;62:492-7 pubmed
    ..Hormone-related genes, such as the progesterone receptor (PGR), might be involved in their pathogenesis...
  50. Hsu S, Chen T, Chou Y, Chen L, Kuo C, Lee T, et al. Extra-nuclear activation of progesterone receptor in regulating arterial smooth muscle cell migration. Atherosclerosis. 2011;217:83-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect is blocked by pretreatment with progesterone receptor (PR) antagonist, RU486...
  51. Natraj U, Richards J. Hormonal regulation, localization, and functional activity of the progesterone receptor in granulosa cells of rat preovulatory follicles. Endocrinology. 1993;133:761-9 pubmed
    ..various agonists (LH, FSH, forskolin, and GnRH) known to stimulate ovulation on their abilities to induce progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA and protein in rat preovulatory follicles and in cultured rat granulosa cells exhibiting a ..
  52. Mills R, Romeo H, Lu J, Micevych P. Site-specific decrease of progesterone receptor mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of middle-aged persistently estrus rats. Brain Res. 2002;955:200-6 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that the PE state may develop due to a diminished level of estrogen-induced progesterone receptor (PR) expression in the hypothalamus that prevents progesterone from stimulating LH regulating circuits...
  53. Bruno R, Boulanger C, Rosenfield S, Anderson L, Lydon J, Smith G. Paracrine-rescued lobulogenesis in chimeric outgrowths comprising progesterone-receptor-null mammary epithelium and redirected wild-type testicular cells. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we tested the hypothesis that paracrine signals from mammary epithelial cells expressing progesterone receptor (PR) are dispensable for redirection of testicular cells, and that re-directed wild-type testicular-..