peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma


Gene Symbol: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma
Description: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Alias: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, PPAR-gamma, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 3, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor, gamma
Species: rat

Top Publications

  1. Sugawara A, Uruno A, Kudo M, Ikeda Y, Sato K, Taniyama Y, et al. Transcription suppression of thromboxane receptor gene by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma via an interaction with Sp1 in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:9676-83 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, PPAR-gamma suppresses TXR gene transcription via an interaction with Sp1. PPAR-gamma may possibly have an antiatherosclerotic action by inhibiting TXR gene expression in VSMCs. ..
  2. Sato K, Sugawara A, Kudo M, Uruno A, Ito S, Takeuchi K. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoform proteins in the rat kidney. Hypertens Res. 2004;27:417-25 pubmed
    ..Further studies will be needed to identify additional target genes for PPARs along the nephron segments. ..
  3. Oakes N, Thalén P, Hultstrand T, Jacinto S, Camejo G, Wallin B, et al. Tesaglitazar, a dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonist, ameliorates glucose and lipid intolerance in obese Zucker rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R938-46 pubmed
    ..The present work demonstrates that tesaglitazar ameliorates these abnormalities and enhances insulin sensitivity in this animal model. ..
  4. Yang B, Lin P, Carrick K, McNulty J, Clifton L, Winegar D, et al. PPARgamma agonists diminish serum VEGF elevation in diet-induced insulin resistant SD rats and ZDF rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;334:176-82 pubmed
  5. Shimazu T, Inoue I, Araki N, Asano Y, Sawada M, Furuya D, et al. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist reduces infarct size in transient but not in permanent ischemia. Stroke. 2005;36:353-9 pubmed
    ..Our data point to CuZn-SOD as the mediator of this neuroprotection. ..
  6. Ristow M, Muller Wieland D, Pfeiffer A, Krone W, Kahn C. Obesity associated with a mutation in a genetic regulator of adipocyte differentiation. N Engl J Med. 1998;339:953-9 pubmed
    ..These effects were similar to those of an in vitro mutation created directly at the Ser114 phosphorylation site. A Pro115Gln mutation in PPARgamma2 accelerates the differentiation of adipocytes and may cause obesity. ..
  7. Hong J, Hwang E, McManus M, Amsterdam A, Tian Y, Kalmukova R, et al. TAZ, a transcriptional modulator of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Science. 2005;309:1074-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that TAZ functions as a molecular rheostat that modulates MSC differentiation. ..
  8. Sugii S, Olson P, SEARS D, Saberi M, Atkins A, Barish G, et al. PPARgamma activation in adipocytes is sufficient for systemic insulin sensitization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:22504-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Li J, Dai A, Hu R, Zhu L, Tan S. Positive correlation between PPARgamma/PGC-1alpha and gamma-GCS in lungs of rats and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2010;42:603-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of the PPARgamma/PGC-1alpha pathway may protect against COPD progression by upregulating gamma-GCS and relieving oxidative stress. ..

More Information


  1. Lovekamp Swan T, Chaffin C. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligand troglitazone induces apoptosis and p53 in rat granulosa cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;233:15-24 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that PPARgamma is in the ovary is capable of binding DNA in the absence of pharmacological activation and provide evidence for a possible physiologic role for this receptor in regulating granulosa cell survival. ..
  2. Du J, Zhang L, Liu S, Zhang C, Huang X, Li J, et al. PPARgamma transcriptionally regulates the expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in primary neurons. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;383:485-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PPARgamma transcriptionally induces IDE expression which provides a novel mechanism for the use of PPARgamma agonists in both DM2 and AD therapies. ..
  3. Ahn K, Lim S, Yang H, Li C, Sugawara A, Ito S, et al. Induction of PPAR gamma mRNA and protein expression by rosiglitazone in chronic cyclosporine nephropathy in the rat. Yonsei Med J. 2007;48:308-16 pubmed
    ..Exogenous administration of RGTZ treatment upregulates PPARgamma expression and that this mechanism may play a role in protecting against CsA-induced renal injury. ..
  4. Li D, Kang Q, Wang D. Constitutive coactivator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARgamma), a novel coactivator of PPARgamma that promotes adipogenesis. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2320-33 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that CCPG is a bona fide coactivator and promotes adipogenesis in a PPARgamma-dependent manner. ..
  5. Ito E, Ozawa S, Takahashi K, Tanaka T, Katsuta H, Yamaguchi S, et al. PPAR-gamma overexpression selectively suppresses insulin secretory capacity in isolated pancreatic islets through induction of UCP-2 protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;324:810-4 pubmed
    ..And it is possible that its site of action can be located in the energy-consuming exocytotic process of insulin secretory granules, and that the reduction of ATP production through increased UCP-2 reduces insulin exocytosis. ..
  6. Saika S, Yamanaka O, Okada Y, Miyamoto T, Kitano A, Flanders K, et al. Effect of overexpression of PPARgamma on the healing process of corneal alkali burn in mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C75-86 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that overexpression of PPARgamma may represent an effective new strategy for treatment of ocular surface burns...
  7. Tang Q, Otto T, Lane M. Mitotic clonal expansion: a synchronous process required for adipogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:44-9 pubmed
    ..These results show that MCE is a prerequisite for differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. ..
  8. Adams M, Reginato M, Shao D, Lazar M, Chatterjee V. Transcriptional activation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is inhibited by phosphorylation at a consensus mitogen-activated protein kinase site. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:5128-32 pubmed
    ..This observation provides a potential mechanism whereby transcriptional activation by PPARgamma may be modulated by growth factor or cytokine-stimulated signal transduction pathways involved in adipogenesis. ..
  9. Hasegawa T, Oizumi K, Yoshiko Y, Tanne K, Maeda N, Aubin J. The PPARgamma-selective ligand BRL-49653 differentially regulates the fate choices of rat calvaria versus rat bone marrow stromal cell populations. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:71 pubmed publisher
    ..They also show that mechanisms beyond activation of PPARgamma by its ligand are required for changing the fate of committed osteoprogenitor cells and/or osteoblasts into adipocytes. ..
  10. Ma L, Marcantoni C, Linton M, Fazio S, Fogo A. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist troglitazone protects against nondiabetic glomerulosclerosis in rats. Kidney Int. 2001;59:1899-910 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR gamma) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcriptional factors with beneficial effects in diabetes mediated by improved insulin sensitivity and ..
  11. Larsen P, Jensen P, Sørensen R, Larsen L, Vrang N, Wulff E, et al. Differential influences of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and -alpha on food intake and energy homeostasis. Diabetes. 2003;52:2249-59 pubmed
    ..In a chronic-dosing study, equiefficacious antihyperglycemic doses of the PPAR gamma agonist pioglitazone and PPAR alpha/gamma dual activator ragaglitazar were administered to obesity-prone male ..
  12. Yoshimura R, Matsuyama M, Segawa Y, Tsuchida K, Takemoto Y, Kuratsukuri K, et al. Study of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transplant Proc. 2004;36:1946-8 pubmed
    ..Several hours after maximal of PPAR-gamma expression, maximal renal I/R injury was observed. These results may indicate a relationship between PPAR-gamma expression and renal I/R injury. ..
  13. Sarruf D, Yu F, Nguyen H, Williams D, Printz R, Niswender K, et al. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in key neuronal subsets regulating glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. Endocrinology. 2009;150:707-12 pubmed publisher
  14. Giaginis C, Katsamangou E, Tsourouflis G, Zizi Serbetzoglou D, Kouraklis G, Theocharis S. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and retinoid X receptor-alpha expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: association with clinicopathological parameters, tumor proliferative capacity, and patients' survival. Med Sci Monit. 2009;15:BR148-56 pubmed
    ..However, further molecular and clinical studies are required to delineate the potential clinical application of PPAR-gamma and RXR-alpha in the prognosis and management of pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients. ..
  15. Tontonoz P, Nagy L, Alvarez J, Thomazy V, Evans R. PPARgamma promotes monocyte/macrophage differentiation and uptake of oxidized LDL. Cell. 1998;93:241-52 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a novel signaling pathway controlling differentiation and lipid metabolism in monocytic cells, and suggest that endogenous PPARgamma ligands may be important regulators of gene expression during atherogenesis. ..
  16. Lee E, Lee J, Park J, Shin I, Koh H. Rosiglitazone, a PPAR-? agonist, protects against striatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration induced by 6-OHDA lesions in the substantia nigra of rats. Toxicol Lett. 2012;213:332-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide insight into the neuroprotective mechanisms of rosiglitazone against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal damages. ..
  17. Escher P, Braissant O, Basu Modak S, Michalik L, Wahli W, Desvergne B. Rat PPARs: quantitative analysis in adult rat tissues and regulation in fasting and refeeding. Endocrinology. 2001;142:4195-202 pubmed
    ..Finally, PPAR gamma 2 mRNA levels are decreased by 50% during fasting in both white and brown adipose tissue...
  18. Muranaka K, Yanagi Y, Tamaki Y, Usui T, Kubota N, Iriyama A, et al. Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and its ligand on blood-retinal barrier in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:4547-52 pubmed
    ..An endogenous pathway involving PPARgamma provides protection against retinal leukostasis and retinal leakage in diabetes and treatment with PPARgamma specific ligands inhibits retinal leukostasis and retinal leakage in diabetic rats. ..
  19. Hu E, Kim J, Sarraf P, Spiegelman B. Inhibition of adipogenesis through MAP kinase-mediated phosphorylation of PPARgamma. Science. 1996;274:2100-3 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that covalent modification of PPARgamma by serum and growth factors is a major regulator of the balance between cell growth and differentiation in the adipose cell lineage. ..
  20. Chandra V, Huang P, Hamuro Y, Raghuram S, Wang Y, Burris T, et al. Structure of the intact PPAR-gamma-RXR- nuclear receptor complex on DNA. Nature. 2008;456:350-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The PPAR-gamma LBD cooperates with both DNA-binding domains (DBDs) to enhance response-element binding. The A/B segments are highly dynamic, lacking folded substructures despite their gene-activation properties. ..
  21. Ravnskjaer K, Boergesen M, Rubi B, Larsen J, Nielsen T, Fridriksson J, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) potentiates, whereas PPARgamma attenuates, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3266-76 pubmed
    ..These results show a strong subtype specificity of the two PPAR subtypes alpha and gamma on lipid partitioning and insulin secretion when systematically compared in a beta-cell context. ..
  22. Santini E, Fallahi P, Ferrari S, Masoni A, Antonelli A, Ferrannini E. Effect of PPAR-gamma activation and inhibition on glucose-stimulated insulin release in INS-1e cells. Diabetes. 2004;53 Suppl 3:S79-83 pubmed
    ..0001 for both effects). In conclusion, INS-1e cells display a PPAR-gamma tone that is symmetrically modulated and competitively stimulated by oleate. ..
  23. Girnun G, Domann F, Moore S, Robbins M. Identification of a functional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor response element in the rat catalase promoter. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:2793-801 pubmed
    ..Thus, in addition to transrepression of proinflammatory transcription factors, PPARgamma may also be modulating catalase expression, and hence down-regulating the inflammatory response via scavenging of reactive oxygen species. ..
  24. Kliewer S, Sundseth S, Jones S, Brown P, Wisely G, Koble C, et al. Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:4318-23 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence that PPARs serve as physiological sensors of lipid levels and suggest a molecular mechanism whereby dietary fatty acids can modulate lipid homeostasis. ..
  25. El Midaoui A, Wu L, Wang R, de Champlain J. Modulation of cardiac and aortic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression by oxidative stress in chronically glucose-fed rats. Am J Hypertens. 2006;19:407-12 pubmed
  26. Fuenzalida K, Aguilera M, Piderit D, Ramos P, Contador D, Quinones V, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is a novel target of the nerve growth factor signaling pathway in PC12 cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9604-9 pubmed
  27. Costa V, Casamassimi A, Esposito K, Villani A, Capone M, Iannella R, et al. Characterization of a novel polymorphism in PPARG regulatory region associated with type 2 diabetes and diabetic retinopathy in Italy. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2009;2009:126917 pubmed publisher
    ..In the analyzed population, this variant represents a genetic risk factor for developing the diabetic retinopathy, whereas Pro12Ala and C1431T do not. ..
  28. Kliewer S, Forman B, Blumberg B, Ong E, Borgmeyer U, Mangelsdorf D, et al. Differential expression and activation of a family of murine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:7355-9 pubmed
    ..receptor (PPAR) isoforms in mammals, we have cloned and characterized two PPAR alpha-related cDNAs (designated PPAR gamma and -delta, respectively) from mouse...
  29. Lim H, Lee E, Kim J, Park M, Kim D, Choi Y, et al. PPAR? activation by baicalin suppresses NF-?B-mediated inflammation in aged rat kidney. Biogerontology. 2012;13:133-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that baicalin is a novel PPAR? activator and that this agent may have the potential to minimize inflammation. ..
  30. Mersmann J, Tran N, Zacharowski P, Grotemeyer D, Zacharowski K. Rosiglitazone is cardioprotective in a murine model of myocardial I/R. Shock. 2008;30:64-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide further evidence that rosiglitazone exerts protective effects during myocardial I/R and might contribute to the reevaluation of the approved drug rosiglitazone. ..
  31. Taneja G, Mahadevan N, Balakumar P. Fish oil blunted nicotine-induced vascular endothelial abnormalities possibly via activation of PPAR?-eNOS-NO signals. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2013;13:110-22 pubmed publisher
  32. Zhao C, Jiang L, Li L, Deng Z, Liang B, Li J. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma in pathogenesis of experimental fatty liver disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:1329-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, activating PPARgamma by its ligand can be anticipated to provide a therapy target for FLD. ..
  33. Gong K, Xing D, Li P, Aksut B, Ambalavanan N, Yang Q, et al. Hypoxia induces downregulation of PPAR-? in isolated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and in rat lung via transforming growth factor-? signaling. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2011;301:L899-907 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide strong evidence that activation of TGF-?/Smad signaling, via transcriptional suppression of PPAR-? expression, mediates chronic hypoxia-induced downregulation of PPAR-? expression in lung...
  34. Wang X, Pan L, Lu J, Li N, Li J. N-3 PUFAs attenuate ischemia/reperfusion induced intestinal barrier injury by activating I-FABP-PPAR? pathway. Clin Nutr. 2012;31:951-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings firstly indicate that n-3 PUFAs protect the intestinal barrier by modifying intracellular I-FABP, activating the PPAR? pathway, and then upregulating TJ protein expression. ..
  35. Wang S, Sun Z, Guo Y, Yuan Y, Li L. PPARgamma-mediated advanced glycation end products regulation of neural stem cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;307:176-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings extend our understanding of the central role of PPARgamma in AGEs-related neurogenesis impairment, which probably increased risks of cognitive deficits or AD in diabetic patients. ..
  36. Bao Y, Li R, Jiang J, Cai B, Gao J, Le K, et al. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits endothelin-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy via the calcineurin/NFAT signaling pathway. Mol Cell Biochem. 2008;317:189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ET-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy is inhibited by activation of PPAR-gamma, which is at least partly due to cross-talk between PPAR-gamma and calcineurin/NFAT. ..
  37. Shen L, Child A, Weber G, Folkman J, Aiello L. Rosiglitazone and delayed onset of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:793-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Future clinical investigations should consider analysis of this potential benefit along with ongoing evaluation of potential cardiac risk in studies where the risk-benefit profiles are deemed appropriate. ..
  38. Laplante M, Festuccia W, Soucy G, Gélinas Y, Lalonde J, Berger J, et al. Mechanisms of the depot specificity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma action on adipose tissue metabolism. Diabetes. 2006;55:2771-8 pubmed
  39. Zhang Y, Zou X, Wu J, Yu X, Yang X. Rosiglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-γ Agonist, Attenuates Inflammation Via NF-κB Inhibition in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Peritonitis. Inflammation. 2015;38:2105-15 pubmed publisher
    ..PPAR-γ might be considered a potential therapeutic target against peritonitis. ..
  40. Lin C, Hsu Y, Lee P, Lei C, Wang J, Huang Y, et al. Cannabinoid receptor 1 disturbance of PPAR?2 augments hyperglycemia induction of mesangial inflammation and fibrosis in renal glomeruli. J Mol Med (Berl). 2014;92:779-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of CB1R function alleviates diabetes-mediated renal deterioration. PPAR? agonist decreases CB1R expression in diabetic renal glomeruli. Ras and ERK mediated CB1R promotion of fibrosis matrix deposition in mesangial cells. ..
  41. Ye P, Wu S, Liu Y. [The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in proliferation of cardiac non myocytes]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2006;22:159-62 pubmed
    ..Pioglitazone and 15d-PGJ2, as the activators of PPARgamma, inhibit proliferation of CNM from neonatal rats, the effect may be related to the activation of PPARgamma. ..
  42. Ye Y, Hu Z, Lin Y, Zhang C, Perez Polo J. Downregulation of microRNA-29 by antisense inhibitors and a PPAR-gamma agonist protects against myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;87:535-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The modulation of miRNAs can be achieved by pharmacological intervention. These findings provide a rationale for the development of miRNA-based strategies for the attenuation of IR injury. ..
  43. Fuenzalida K, Quintanilla R, Ramos P, Piderit D, Fuentealba R, Martinez G, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma up-regulates the Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein in neurons and induces mitochondrial stabilization and protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37006-15 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data suggest that PPARgamma supports survival in neurons in part through a mechanism involving increased expression of Bcl-2. ..
  44. Guardiola Diaz H, Rehnmark S, Usuda N, Albrektsen T, Feltkamp D, Gustafsson J, et al. Rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and brown adipose tissue function during cold acclimatization. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:23368-77 pubmed
  45. Way J, Harrington W, Brown K, Gottschalk W, Sundseth S, Mansfield T, et al. Comprehensive messenger ribonucleic acid profiling reveals that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation has coordinate effects on gene expression in multiple insulin-sensitive tissues. Endocrinology. 2001;142:1269-77 pubmed
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) agonists, including the glitazone class of drugs, are insulin sensitizers that reduce glucose and lipid levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus...
  46. Liu S, Yang C, Pan H, Sung Y, Liao K, Chen W, et al. IL-13 downregulates PPAR-gamma/heme oxygenase-1 via ER stress-stimulated calpain activation: aggravation of activated microglia death. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:1465-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that an ER stress-related calpain-down-regulated PPAR-gamma/HO-1 pathway is involved in the IL-13-enhanced activated death of microglia. ..
  47. Al Shali K, House A, Hanley A, Khan H, Harris S, Zinman B, et al. Genetic variation in PPARG encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma associated with carotid atherosclerosis. Stroke. 2004;35:2036-40 pubmed
    ..Also, whereas IMT and TPV are somewhat correlated with each other, they might also represent distinct traits with discrete determinants representing different stages of atherogenesis. ..
  48. Shi Q, Lin Y, Zhou X, Lin Y, Yan S. [Interaction among peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha, cytochrome P450 oxysterol 7?-hydroxylase and estrogen receptor and its association with intrahepatic cholestasis in pregnant rats]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2010;45:440-4 pubmed
    ..Abnormal expression of PPAR?, CYP7B1 and ER may play a role in the pathogenesis of estrogen-induced intrahepatic cholestasis. ..
  49. Wang S, Guo Y, Yuan Y, Li L, Li F, Ye K, et al. PPAR?-mediated advanced glycation end products regulate neural stem cell proliferation but not neural differentiation through the BDNF-CREB pathway. Toxicol Lett. 2011;206:339-46 pubmed publisher
    ..There was no significant difference between NSCs and PPAR?-silenced NSCs in the presence of AGE-BSA. PPAR? plays roles in the AGE-mediated regulation of NSC proliferation but not neural differentiation through the BDNF-CREB pathway. ..
  50. Damiano F, Gnoni G, Siculella L. Citrate carrier promoter is target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma in hepatocytes and adipocytes. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:659-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The binding of PPRE of CiC promoter by PPAR? and PPAR?in vivo was confirmed by ChIP assay in BRL-3A and 3T3-L1 cells, respectively. ..
  51. Bennett C, Longo K, Wright W, Suva L, Lane T, Hankenson K, et al. Regulation of osteoblastogenesis and bone mass by Wnt10b. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:3324-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, Wnt10b-/- mice have decreased trabecular bone and serum osteocalcin, confirming that Wnt10b is an endogenous regulator of bone formation. ..
  52. Yin R, Li X, Song M, Wang H. [Study of effects of procyanidin on the pathway of PPARgamma-NF-kappaB of thoracic aorta of hyperlipemia rats]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2009;38:472-5 pubmed
    ..05). PC can reduce the levels of TG, TC and PC can reduce the activities of NF-kappaB of thoracic aorta of hyperlipemia rats by preventing the expressions of PPARgamma mRNA downregulating. ..
  53. Park M, Park J, Lee H, Kim D, Park D, Jeong H, et al. Potent anti-diabetic effects of MHY908, a newly synthesized PPAR ?/? dual agonist in db/db mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78815 pubmed publisher