Gene Symbol: Per2
Description: period circadian regulator 2
Alias: rPER2, period circadian protein homolog 2, circadian clock protein PERIOD 2, period circadian clock 2
Species: rat
Products:     Per2

Top Publications

  1. Chen R, Schirmer A, Lee Y, Lee H, Kumar V, Yoo S, et al. Rhythmic PER abundance defines a critical nodal point for negative feedback within the circadian clock mechanism. Mol Cell. 2009;36:417-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, constitutive expression of PER2 in the brain and SCN of transgenic mice caused a complete loss of behavioral circadian rhythms in a conditional and ..
  2. Sasaki M, Yoshitane H, Du N, Okano T, Fukada Y. Preferential inhibition of BMAL2-CLOCK activity by PER2 reemphasizes its negative role and a positive role of BMAL2 in the circadian transcription. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, PER2 showed a stronger inhibitory effect on BMAL2-CLOCK than on BMAL1-CLOCK...
  3. Ohsaki K, Oishi K, Kozono Y, Nakayama K, Nakayama K, Ishida N. The role of {beta}-TrCP1 and {beta}-TrCP2 in circadian rhythm generation by mediating degradation of clock protein PER2. J Biochem. 2008;144:609-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Circadian clock protein PERIOD2 (PER2) is shown to be the potential target of F-box protein beta-TrCP1, a component of ubiquitin E3 ligase...
  4. Brown S, Ripperger J, Kadener S, Fleury Olela F, Vilbois F, Rosbash M, et al. PERIOD1-associated proteins modulate the negative limb of the mammalian circadian oscillator. Science. 2005;308:693-6 pubmed
    The clock proteins PERIOD1 (PER1) and PERIOD2 (PER2) play essential roles in a negative transcriptional feedback loop that generates circadian rhythms in mammalian cells...
  5. Zhao W, Malinin N, Yang F, Staknis D, Gekakis N, Maier B, et al. CIPC is a mammalian circadian clock protein without invertebrate homologues. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:268-75 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that negative feedback in the mammalian circadian clock is divided into distinct pathways, and that the addition of new genes has contributed to the complexity of vertebrate clocks. ..
  6. Miyazaki K, Mesaki M, Ishida N. Nuclear entry mechanism of rat PER2 (rPER2): role of rPER2 in nuclear localization of CRY protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:6651-9 pubmed
    ..The present study used deletion mutants of rat PER2 (rPER2) to identify the functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) in rPER2...
  7. Verwey M, Khoja Z, Stewart J, Amir S. Differential regulation of the expression of Period2 protein in the limbic forebrain and dorsomedial hypothalamus by daily limited access to highly palatable food in food-deprived and free-fed rats. Neuroscience. 2007;147:277-85 pubmed
    ..restricted feeding, RF) and free-fed (restricted treat, RT) rats, on the expression of the clock protein, Period2 (PER2) in regions of the brain involved in motivational and emotional regulation; these include the oval nucleus of the ..
  8. Shieh K. Distribution of the rhythm-related genes rPERIOD1, rPERIOD2, and rCLOCK, in the rat brain. Neuroscience. 2003;118:831-43 pubmed
    High densities of mRNAs for three rhythm-related genes, rPeriod1 (rPer1), rPer2, and rClock, which share high homology in Drosophila and mice, were found in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
  9. Miki T, Xu Z, Chen Goodspeed M, Liu M, Van Oort Jansen A, Rea M, et al. PML regulates PER2 nuclear localization and circadian function. EMBO J. 2012;31:1427-39 pubmed publisher
    Studies have suggested that the clock regulator PER2 is a tumour suppressor. A cancer network involving PER2 raises the possibility that some tumour suppressors are directly involved in the mammalian clock...

More Information


  1. Bae K, Jin X, Maywood E, Hastings M, Reppert S, Weaver D. Differential functions of mPer1, mPer2, and mPer3 in the SCN circadian clock. Neuron. 2001;30:525-36 pubmed
    ..Thus, mPER1 influences rhythmicity primarily through interaction with other clock proteins, while mPER2 positively regulates rhythmic gene expression, and there is partial compensation between products of these two genes. ..
  2. Yagita K, Tamanini F, Yasuda M, Hoeijmakers J, van der Horst G, Okamura H. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and mCRY-dependent inhibition of ubiquitylation of the mPER2 clock protein. EMBO J. 2002;21:1301-14 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these data we propose a model in which shuttling mPER2 is ubiquitylated and degraded by the proteasome unless it is retained in the nucleus by mCRY proteins. ..
  3. Schmutz I, Ripperger J, Baeriswyl Aebischer S, Albrecht U. The mammalian clock component PERIOD2 coordinates circadian output by interaction with nuclear receptors. Genes Dev. 2010;24:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the core loop component PER2 can coordinate circadian output with the circadian oscillator...
  4. Harbour V, Weigl Y, Robinson B, Amir S. Comprehensive mapping of regional expression of the clock protein PERIOD2 in rat forebrain across the 24-h day. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76391 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed a high temporal resolution analysis of the expression of the circadian clock protein PERIOD2 (PER2) in the rat forebrain to characterize the distribution, amplitude and phase of PER2 rhythms across different ..
  5. Grimaldi B, Bellet M, Katada S, Astarita G, Hirayama J, Amin R, et al. PER2 controls lipid metabolism by direct regulation of PPAR?. Cell Metab. 2010;12:509-20 pubmed publisher
    Accumulating evidence highlights intriguing interplays between circadian and metabolic pathways. We show that PER2 directly and specifically represses PPAR?, a nuclear receptor critical in adipogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and ..
  6. Verwey M, Amir S. Nucleus-specific effects of meal duration on daily profiles of Period1 and Period2 protein expression in rats housed under restricted feeding. Neuroscience. 2011;192:304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..addition, daily rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes, such as rhythms in Period1 (PER1) or Period2 (PER2), are also shifted in many brain areas that are important for the regulation of motivation and emotion...
  7. Dudley C, Erbel Sieler C, Estill S, Reick M, Franken P, Pitts S, et al. Altered patterns of sleep and behavioral adaptability in NPAS2-deficient mice. Science. 2003;301:379-83 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that NPAS2 plays a substantive role in maintaining circadian behaviors in normal LD and feeding conditions and that NPAS2 is critical for adaptability to food restriction. ..
  8. Harbour V, Robinson B, Amir S. Variations in daily expression of the circadian clock protein, PER2, in the rat limbic forebrain during stable entrainment to a long light cycle. J Mol Neurosci. 2011;45:154-61 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of exposure to a 26-h T cycle (T26, 1 h:25 h LD) on patterns of expression of the clock protein, PERIOD2 (PER2), in the SCN and in four regions of the limbic forebrain known to exhibit robust circadian oscillations in PER2: ..
  9. Honma S, Kawamoto T, Takagi Y, Fujimoto K, Sato F, Noshiro M, et al. Dec1 and Dec2 are regulators of the mammalian molecular clock. Nature. 2002;419:841-4 pubmed
    ..A brief light pulse induced Dec1 but not Dec2 expression in the suprachiasmic nucleus in a phase-dependent manner. Dec1 and Dec2 are regulators of the mammalian molecular clock, and form a fifth clock-gene family. ..
  10. Toh K, Jones C, He Y, Eide E, Hinz W, Virshup D, et al. An hPer2 phosphorylation site mutation in familial advanced sleep phase syndrome. Science. 2001;291:1040-3 pubmed
    ..Thus, a variant in human sleep behavior can be attributed to a missense mutation in a clock component, hPER2, which alters the circadian period. ..
  11. Barnes J, Tischkau S, Barnes J, Mitchell J, Burgoon P, Hickok J, et al. Requirement of mammalian Timeless for circadian rhythmicity. Science. 2003;302:439-42 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that mTim is required for rhythmicity and is a functional homolog of dTim on the negative-feedback arm of the mammalian molecular clockwork. ..
  12. Segall L, Perrin J, Walker C, Stewart J, Amir S. Glucocorticoid rhythms control the rhythm of expression of the clock protein, Period2, in oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala in rats. Neuroscience. 2006;140:753-7 pubmed
  13. Hood S, Cassidy P, Cossette M, Weigl Y, Verwey M, Robinson B, et al. Endogenous dopamine regulates the rhythm of expression of the clock protein PER2 in the rat dorsal striatum via daily activation of D2 dopamine receptors. J Neurosci. 2010;30:14046-58 pubmed publisher
    ..a direct relationship between extracellular DA levels and the rhythm of expression of the clock protein PERIOD2 (PER2) in the dorsal striatum of the male Wistar rat...
  14. Duong H, Robles M, Knutti D, Weitz C. A molecular mechanism for circadian clock negative feedback. Science. 2011;332:1436-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a function for the PER complex and a molecular mechanism for circadian clock negative feedback. ..
  15. Sanggaard K, Hannibal J, Fahrenkrug J. Serotonin inhibits glutamate- but not PACAP-induced per gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus at night. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:1245-52 pubmed
    ..Two clock genes, per1 and per2, have been attributed a role in light-induced phase shift...
  16. Kawamoto T, Noshiro M, Sato F, Maemura K, Takeda N, Nagai R, et al. A novel autofeedback loop of Dec1 transcription involved in circadian rhythm regulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;313:117-24 pubmed
    ..of Clock/Bmal increased endogenous Dec1 mRNA level, and overexpression of Dec1 resulted in suppression of Dec2, Per2, and Dbp expression...
  17. Jiang W, Li S, Zhou S, Sun Y, Shi J, Lu L. Chronic unpredictable stress induces a reversible change of PER2 rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Brain Res. 2011;1399:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..system in mammals is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) within the anterior hypothalamus, where Per1 and Per2 are essential core components of circadian rhythm oscillation...
  18. Hennig S, Strauss H, Vanselow K, Yildiz O, Schulze S, Arens J, et al. Structural and functional analyses of PAS domain interactions of the clock proteins Drosophila PERIOD and mouse PERIOD2. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e94 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we identify the PAS-B beta-sheet surface as a versatile interaction site mediating mPER2 homodimerization in the mammalian system and dPER-dTIM heterodimer formation in the Drosophila system. ..
  19. Nishide S, Hashimoto K, Nishio T, Honma K, Honma S. Organ-specific development characterizes circadian clock gene Per2 expression in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014;306:R67-74 pubmed publisher clock gene expression were examined in 12 organs in transgenic rats carrying a bioluminescence reporter for Per2. Organ slices were obtained from different developmental stages starting at postnatal day 5 and tissue was cultured ..
  20. Zhanfeng N, Yanhui L, Zhou F, Shaocai H, Guangxing L, Hechun X. Circadian genes Per1 and Per2 increase radiosensitivity of glioma in vivo. Oncotarget. 2015;6:9951-8 pubmed
    Per1 and Per2 play a key role in regulating the circadian rhythm in mammals...
  21. Hamaguchi H, Fujimoto K, Kawamoto T, Noshiro M, Maemura K, Takeda N, et al. Expression of the gene for Dec2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is regulated by a molecular clock system. Biochem J. 2004;382:43-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, Cry and Per may also modulate Dec2 transcription. ..
  22. Gravotta L, Gavrila A, Hood S, Amir S. Global depletion of dopamine using intracerebroventricular 6-hydroxydopamine injection disrupts normal circadian wheel-running patterns and PERIOD2 expression in the rat forebrain. J Mol Neurosci. 2011;45:162-71 pubmed publisher
    ..into the medial forebrain bundle that DA signaling regulates daily expression of the clock protein, PERIOD2 (PER2), in the dorsal striatum of the rat...
  23. Bouchard Cannon P, Mendoza Viveros L, Yuen A, Kærn M, Cheng H. The circadian molecular clock regulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis by controlling the timing of cell-cycle entry and exit. Cell Rep. 2013;5:961-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings may have broad implications for the circadian clock in timing cell-cycle events of other stem cell populations throughout the body. ..
  24. Lee C, Weaver D, Reppert S. Direct association between mouse PERIOD and CKIepsilon is critical for a functioning circadian clock. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:584-94 pubmed
    ..We thus propose that the CKIepsilon-binding domain is critical not only for mPER phosphorylation but also for a functioning circadian clock. ..
  25. Li G, Li H, Zhang Q, Liu H, Liu H, Shido O. [Effects of heat stress on Per2 mRNA expression in the liver of rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2012;32:215-7 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of acute heat stress on the day-night circadian gene Per2 mRNA expression in the liver of rats...
  26. Chutabhakdikul N, Surakul P. Prenatal stress increased Snk Polo-like kinase 2, SCF ?-TrCP ubiquitin ligase and ubiquitination of SPAR in the hippocampus of the offspring at adulthood. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2013;31:560-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, an involvement of the UPS system in the prenatal stress model has led to a greater understanding of the effects of prenatal stress later on in life. ..
  27. Szántóová K, Zeman M, Veselá A, Herichova I. Effect of phase delay lighting rotation schedule on daily expression of per2, bmal1, rev-erb?, ppar?, and pdk4 genes in the heart and liver of Wistar rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;348:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of metabolic genes was influenced more in the liver than in the heart. Results indicate that frequent shifts of LD cycle may interfere with control of lipid metabolism. ..
  28. Anafi R, Lee Y, Sato T, Venkataraman A, Ramanathan C, Kavakli I, et al. Machine learning helps identify CHRONO as a circadian clock component. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001840 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CHRONO is a functional clock component providing a new layer of control on circadian molecular dynamics. ..
  29. Isobe Y, Nishino H. Signal transmission from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to the pineal gland via the paraventricular nucleus: analysed from arg-vasopressin peptide, rPer2 mRNA and AVP mRNA changes and pineal AA-NAT mRNA after the melatonin injection during light and dar. Brain Res. 2004;1013:204-11 pubmed
    ..p.) during light and dark periods on Per2 and AVP mRNAs in the SCN and PVN, in addition to arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) and inducible cAMP ..
  30. Uchikawa M, Kawamura M, Yamauchi N, Hattori M. Down-regulation of circadian clock gene period 2 in uterine endometrial stromal cells of pregnant rats during decidualization. Chronobiol Int. 2011;28:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..As revealed by analyses of cultured UESCs from pregnant Per2 promoter-dLuc transgenic rats, Per2 oscillation of ?24 ?h was observed in response to dexamethasone...
  31. Duong H, Weitz C. Temporal orchestration of repressive chromatin modifiers by circadian clock Period complexes. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014;21:126-32 pubmed publisher
    ..PER proteins recruited HP1?-Suv39h to the Per1 and Per2 promoters, and HP1?-Suv39h proved important for circadian di- and trimethylation of histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9) at the ..
  32. Baeza Raja B, Eckel Mahan K, Zhang L, Vagena E, Tsigelny I, Sassone Corsi P, et al. p75 neurotrophin receptor is a clock gene that regulates oscillatory components of circadian and metabolic networks. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10221-34 pubmed publisher Clock-deficient and mutant mice, is E-box dependent, and is in phase with clock genes, such as Per1 and Per2. Intriguingly, p75(NTR) is required for circadian clock oscillation, since loss of p75(NTR) alters the circadian ..
  33. Natsubori A, Honma K, Honma S. Differential responses of circadian Per2 expression rhythms in discrete brain areas to daily injection of methamphetamine and restricted feeding in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;37:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Circadian Per2 rhythms were measured in the cultured brain tissues containing one of the following structures: the olfactory bulb; ..
  34. Zhang X, Zarbl H. Chemopreventive doses of methylselenocysteine alter circadian rhythm in rat mammary tissue. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2008;1:119-27 pubmed publisher
    ..on the selenium-enriched diet showed a progressive, time-dependent increase in the expression of circadian gene Per2 and circadian-regulated transcription factor DBP...
  35. Muhlbauer E, Wolgast S, Finckh U, Peschke D, Peschke E. Indication of circadian oscillations in the rat pancreas. FEBS Lett. 2004;564:91-6 pubmed
    ..chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used in analysis of the expression of the major clock genes Per1, Per2, Bmal1, Cry1, Tim (timeless) and Clock, as well as of the output genes Dbp and Rev-erbalpha in the pancreatic ..
  36. Herichová I, AmbruÅ¡ová J, Molčan Ä, Veselá A, Svitok P, Zeman M. Different effects of phase advance and delay in rotating light-dark regimens on clock and natriuretic peptide gene expression in the rat heart. Physiol Res. 2014;63 Suppl 4:S573-84 pubmed
    ..of phase advances and delays in light regimens mimicking shift work, we analyzed the expression of clock genes (per2, bmal1) and natriuretic peptides (anp, bnp) in the heart of male rats...
  37. Hirota T, Okano T, Kokame K, Shirotani Ikejima H, Miyata T, Fukada Y. Glucose down-regulates Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels and induces circadian gene expression in cultured Rat-1 fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44244-51 pubmed
    ..of the culture medium triggered circadian gene expression that was preceded by slow down-regulation of Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels...
  38. Christiansen S, Bouzinova E, Fahrenkrug J, Wiborg O. Altered Expression Pattern of Clock Genes in a Rat Model of Depression. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;19: pubmed publisher
    ..of depression was used to investigate rhythmic expression of three clock genes: period genes 1 and 2 (Per1 and Per2) and Bmal1. Brain and liver tissue was collected from 96 animals after 3...
  39. Gavrila A, Robinson B, Hoy J, Stewart J, Bhargava A, Amir S. Double-stranded RNA-mediated suppression of Period2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus disrupts circadian locomotor activity in rats. Neuroscience. 2008;154:409-14 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PER2, the protein product of the clock gene, Period 2 (Per2), is expressed rhythmically in the SCN [Beaule C, Houle LM, ..
  40. Devos J, Weselake S, Wevrick R. Magel2, a Prader-Willi syndrome candidate gene, modulates the activities of circadian rhythm proteins in cultured cells. J Circadian Rhythms. 2011;9:12 pubmed publisher
    ..Magel2 represses the activity of the Clock:Bmal1 heterodimer in a Per2-luciferase assay...
  41. Quintela T, Sousa C, Patriarca F, Goncalves I, Santos C. Gender associated circadian oscillations of the clock genes in rat choroid plexus. Brain Struct Funct. 2015;220:1251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that there is a 24-h rhythm in the expression of Per2 and Cry2 in males and females. Bmal1 and Per1 expression also varied along the day, but only in females...
  42. Pretzmann C, Fahrenkrug J, Georg B. Differentiation of PC12 cells results in enhanced VIP expression and prolonged rhythmic expression of clock genes. J Mol Neurosci. 2008;36:132-40 pubmed publisher
    To examine for circadian rhythmicity, the messenger RNA (mRNA) amount of the clock genes Per1 and Per2 was measured in undifferentiated and nerve-growth-factor-differentiated PC12 cells harvested every fourth hour...
  43. Yelamanchili S, Pendyala G, Brunk I, Darna M, Albrecht U, Ahnert Hilger G. Differential sorting of the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 into a defined vesicular pool is regulated by light signaling involving the clock gene Period2. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15671-9 pubmed
    ..A reduced amount of VGLUT1 per vesicle is probably achieved by means of selective sorting controlled by clock genes. ..
  44. Chun L, Woodruff E, Morton S, Hinds L, Spencer R. Variations in Phase and Amplitude of Rhythmic Clock Gene Expression across Prefrontal Cortex, Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Suprachiasmatic Nuclei of Male and Female Rats. J Biol Rhythms. 2015;30:417-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined basal clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, Bmal1 mRNA) in the SCN, prefrontal cortex (PFC), rostral agranular insula, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (..
  45. Zhao Z, Xu H, Liu Y, Mu L, Xiao J, Zhao H. Diurnal Expression of the Per2 Gene and Protein in the Lateral Habenular Nucleus. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:16740-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined LHb tissue in rats to determine Period2 (Per2) gene and protein expression at six zeitgeber time points (ZT2, ZT6, ZT10, ZT14, ZT18, and ZT22) in a 12-h light ..
  46. Lamia K, Papp S, Yu R, Barish G, Uhlenhaut N, Jonker J, et al. Cryptochromes mediate rhythmic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nature. 2011;480:552-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a specific mechanism through which cryptochromes couple the activity of clock and receptor target genes to complex genomic circuits underpinning normal metabolic homeostasis. ..
  47. Yamaguchi Y, Okada K, Mizuno T, Ota T, Yamada H, Doi M, et al. Real-Time Recording of Circadian Per1 and Per2 Expression in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus of Freely Moving Rats. J Biol Rhythms. 2016;31:108-11 pubmed publisher generated by a transcription-translation feedback loop of clock genes including 2 oscillatory genes, Per1 and Per2. Here we have succeeded in real-time monitoring of Per1 and Per2 transcription separately by detecting the ..
  48. Fahrenkrug J, Georg B, Hannibal J, Hindersson P, Gräs S. Diurnal rhythmicity of the clock genes Per1 and Per2 in the rat ovary. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3769-76 pubmed
    ..Here we investigated the daily expression of the two core clock genes, Per1 and Per2, in the rat ovary using real-time RT-PCR, in situ hybridization histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry...
  49. Ye R, Selby C, Ozturk N, Annayev Y, Sancar A. Biochemical analysis of the canonical model for the mammalian circadian clock. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:25891-902 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support some aspects of the canonical model, but also suggest that some key features of the model need to be revised. ..
  50. Mattam U, Jagota A. Differential role of melatonin in restoration of age-induced alterations in daily rhythms of expression of various clock genes in suprachiasmatic nucleus of male Wistar rats. Biogerontology. 2014;15:257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on daily rhythms of various clock genes such as rPer1, rPer2, rCry1, rCry2 and rBmal1 in the SCN of male Wistar rats...
  51. Garmabi B, Vousooghi N, Vosough M, Yoonessi A, Bakhtazad A, Zarrindast M. Effect of circadian rhythm disturbance on morphine preference and addiction in male rats: Involvement of period genes and dopamine D1 receptor. Neuroscience. 2016;322:104-14 pubmed publisher
    ..light on morphine voluntary consumption and withdrawal symptoms and also investigated the involvement of Per1, Per2 and dopamine D1 receptor in these processes...
  52. Kerman I, Clinton S, Simpson D, Bedrosian T, Bernard R, Akil H, et al. Inborn differences in environmental reactivity predict divergent diurnal behavioral, endocrine, and gene expression rhythms. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:256-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene Clock and related molecules (e.g. Per1, Per2) represent key regulators of circadian rhythmicity, and their targeted disruption in mutant mice produces ..
  53. Koyanagi S, Hamdan A, Horiguchi M, Kusunose N, Okamoto A, Matsunaga N, et al. cAMP-response element (CRE)-mediated transcription by activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) is essential for circadian expression of the Period2 gene. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:32416-23 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that among the ATF/CREB family proteins, ATF4 is essential for the circadian expression of the Period2 (Per2) gene, a key component of the circadian clock...
  54. Huang X, Chen W, Yuan J, Yang Y, Mei Q, Huang L. Altered diurnal variation and localization of clock proteins in the remnant kidney of 5/6 nephrectomy rats. Nephrology (Carlton). 2013;18:555-62 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the localization and diurnal variation of clock proteins (BMAL1, PER2) and clock output protein (DBP) in the remnant kidney of 5/6 nephrectomy rats (STNx)...
  55. Nagano M, Adachi A, Masumoto K, Meyer Bernstein E, Shigeyoshi Y. rPer1 and rPer2 induction during phases of the circadian cycle critical for light resetting of the circadian clock. Brain Res. 2009;1289:37-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In our present study, we investigated whether light differentially induces the rat Per1 (rPer1) and Per2 (rPer2) genes to enable resetting of their circadian clocks...
  56. Bonney S, Kominsky D, Brodsky K, Eltzschig H, Walker L, Eckle T. Cardiac Per2 functions as novel link between fatty acid metabolism and myocardial inflammation during ischemia and reperfusion injury of the heart. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71493 pubmed publisher
    ..Studies on circadian rhythm proteins in the heart indicated a role for Clock or Per2 in cardiac metabolism...
  57. Fahrenkrug J, Hannibal J, Georg B. Diurnal rhythmicity of the canonical clock genes Per1, Per2 and Bmal1 in the rat adrenal gland is unaltered after hypophysectomy. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:323-9 pubmed publisher
    ..via circadian release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone, we quantified the mRNAs for the canonical clock genes, Per1, Per2 and Bmal1 in the adrenal glands by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction during a 24-h-cycle in ..
  58. Segall L, Verwey M, Amir S. Timed restricted feeding restores the rhythms of expression of the clock protein, Period2, in the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala in adrenalectomized rats. Neuroscience. 2008;157:52-6 pubmed publisher availability to a set time of day are powerful synchronizers of the rhythms of expression of the circadian clock protein Period 2 (PER2) in the limbic forebrain in rats...
  59. Oishi K, Sakamoto K, Okada T, Nagase T, Ishida N. Antiphase circadian expression between BMAL1 and period homologue mRNA in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and peripheral tissues of rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;253:199-203 pubmed
    ..was observed, and the expression pattern was antiphase to those of two period (per) homologues, rPer1 and rPer2. However, no circadian oscillation for rat Clock mRNA was detected...
  60. Takashima N, Fujioka A, Hayasaka N, Matsuo A, Takasaki J, Shigeyoshi Y. Gq/11-induced intracellular calcium mobilization mediates Per2 acute induction in Rat-1 fibroblasts. Genes Cells. 2006;11:1039-49 pubmed
    ..In our present study, we demonstrate that Gq/11 coupled receptors mediate serum-induced immediate rat Per2 (rPer2) transactivation in Rat-1 fibroblasts via intracellular Ca2+ mobilization...
  61. Herichova I, Zeman M, Stebelova K, Ravingerova T. Effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes on daily expression of per2 and dbp in the heart and liver and melatonin rhythm in the pineal gland of Wistar rat. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;270:223-9 pubmed
    ..diabetes mellitus on function of the circadian system at the level of melatonin synthesis and expression of per2 and dbp in the heart and liver in 8-week-old Wistar rats...
  62. Kandalepas P, Mitchell J, Gillette M. Melatonin Signal Transduction Pathways Require E-Box-Mediated Transcription of Per1 and Per2 to Reset the SCN Clock at Dusk. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0157824 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that melatonin induces an increase in the expression of two clock genes, Period 1 (Per1) and Period 2 (Per2). This effect occurs at CT 10, when melatonin advances SCN phase, but not at CT 6, when it does not...
  63. Sakakida Y, Miyamoto Y, Nagoshi E, Akashi M, Nakamura T, Mamine T, et al. Importin alpha/beta mediates nuclear transport of a mammalian circadian clock component, mCRY2, together with mPER2, through a bipartite nuclear localization signal. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13272-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the importin alpha/beta system is involved in nuclear entry of mammalian clock components, which is indispensable to transcriptional oscillation of clock genes. ..
  64. Hou T, Ward S, Murad J, Watson N, Israel M, Duffield G. ID2 (inhibitor of DNA binding 2) is a rhythmically expressed transcriptional repressor required for circadian clock output in mouse liver. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:31735-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a role for the transcriptional repressor ID2 as a circadian output regulator in the periphery. ..
  65. Harbour V, Weigl Y, Robinson B, Amir S. Phase differences in expression of circadian clock genes in the central nucleus of the amygdala, dentate gyrus, and suprachiasmatic nucleus in the rat. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103309 pubmed publisher
    We performed a high temporal resolution analysis of the transcript level of two core clock genes, Period2 (Per2) and Bmal1, and a clock output gene, Dbp, in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock, and in two ..
  66. Frederick A, Goldsmith J, de Zavalía N, Amir S. Mapping the co-localization of the circadian proteins PER2 and BMAL1 with enkephalin and substance P throughout the rodent forebrain. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0176279 pubmed publisher
    ..Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, we quantified the co-expression of the clock proteins BMAL1 and PER2 with two neuropeptides, Substance P (SubP) and Enkephalin (Enk), expressed in distinct neuronal populations ..
  67. Miyazaki K, Wakabayashi M, Chikahisa S, Sei H, Ishida N. PER2 controls circadian periods through nuclear localization in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Genes Cells. 2007;12:1225-34 pubmed
    ..To address this issue, we generated transgenic (TG) mice lines harboring either rat PER2 (rPER2) with a deleted nuclear localizing domain [NLD(-)] or intact PER2...
  68. Fang M, Zhang X, Zarbl H. Methylselenocysteine resets the rhythmic expression of circadian and growth-regulatory genes disrupted by nitrosomethylurea in vivo. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010;3:640-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Methylselenocysteine also increased the expression of Period 2 (Per2) and D-binding protein (DBP), providing evidence for a link between circadian rhythm and chemoprevention...
  69. Verwey M, Amir S. Variable restricted feeding disrupts the daily oscillations of Period2 expression in the limbic forebrain and dorsal striatum in rats. J Mol Neurosci. 2012;46:258-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that contrary to the synchronizing effects of predictable restricted feeding, VRF blunts the daily corticosterone rhythm and disrupts daily rhythms of PER2 expression in a region-specific and mealtime-dependent manner.
  70. Monosíková J, Herichova I, Mravec B, Kiss A, Zeman M. Effect of upregulated renin-angiotensin system on per2 and bmal1 gene expression in brain structures involved in blood pressure control in TGR(mREN-2)27 rats. Brain Res. 2007;1180:29-38 pubmed
    ..the generation of the inverted pattern of blood pressure in TGR rats, we analyzed daily expression of clock genes per2 and bmal1 in the brain areas involved in the regulation of the blood pressure...
  71. Mateju K, Bendová Z, El Hennamy R, Sladek M, Sosniyenko S, Sumova A. Development of the light sensitivity of the clock genes Period1 and Period2, and immediate-early gene c-fos within the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:490-501 pubmed publisher
    ..nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus has two light-sensitive components, namely the clock genes Per1 and Per2. Besides, light induces the immediate-early gene c-fos...
  72. Vosko A, Hagenauer M, Hummer D, Lee T. Period gene expression in the diurnal degu (Octodon degus) differs from the nocturnal laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R353-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study compared the 24-h oscillatory patterns of Per1 and Per2 mRNA in the SCN and putative striatum and cortex of Octodon degus (degu), a diurnal hystricognath rodent, with ..
  73. Nishii K, Yamanaka I, Yasuda M, Kiyohara Y, Kitayama Y, Kondo T, et al. Rhythmic post-transcriptional regulation of the circadian clock protein mPER2 in mammalian cells: a real-time analysis. Neurosci Lett. 2006;401:44-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that a post-transcriptional/translational mechanism itself is capable of generating the circadian mPER2 accumulation cycle, and thus this type of regulation may function in the circadian clock system in mammals. ..
  74. Torres Farfan C, Mendez N, Abarzua Catalan L, Vilches N, Valenzuela G, Seron Ferre M. A circadian clock entrained by melatonin is ticking in the rat fetal adrenal. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1891-900 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in the rat, the fetal adrenal is a strong peripheral clock potentially amenable to regulation by maternal melatonin...
  75. Beaule C, Houle L, Amir S. Expression profiles of PER2 immunoreactivity within the shell and core regions of the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus: lack of effect of photic entrainment and disruption by constant light. J Mol Neurosci. 2003;21:133-47 pubmed
    ..clock are not well understood, but evidence suggests that the Period2 gene, which encodes a key clock regulator (PER2), might be involved...
  76. Herichova I, Šoltésová D, Szántóová K, Mravec B, Neupauerová D, Veselá A, et al. Effect of angiotensin II on rhythmic per2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and heart and daily rhythm of activity in Wistar rats. Regul Pept. 2013;186:49-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study focused on angiotensin II (angII)-mediated regulation of Per2 expression in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and heart and spontaneous locomotor activity in Wistar rats under ..
  77. Sakamoto K, Nagase T, Fukui H, Horikawa K, Okada T, Tanaka H, et al. Multitissue circadian expression of rat period homolog (rPer2) mRNA is governed by the mammalian circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:27039-42 pubmed
    ..A homolog of Drosophila per was isolated from rat and designated as rPer2. The rPER2 protein showed 39 and 95% amino acid identity with mPER1 and mPER2 (mouse homologs of per) proteins, ..
  78. Engelen E, Janssens R, Yagita K, Smits V, van der Horst G, Tamanini F. Mammalian TIMELESS is involved in period determination and DNA damage-dependent phase advancing of the circadian clock. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56623 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that co-expression of PER2 abolishes the formation of the TIM/CRY1 complex through affinity binding competition to the C-terminal tail of CRY1...