Gene Symbol: Per1
Description: period circadian regulator 1
Alias: rper1, period circadian protein homolog 1, circadian clock protein PERIOD 1, period 1, period circadian clock 1, period homolog 1
Species: rat
Products:     Per1

Top Publications

  1. Balsalobre A, Damiola F, Schibler U. A serum shock induces circadian gene expression in mammalian tissue culture cells. Cell. 1998;93:929-37 pubmed
    ..Oscillating genes include rper1 and rper2 (rat homologs of the Drosophila clock gene period), and the genes encoding the transcription factors Rev-..
  2. Verwey M, Lam G, Amir S. Circadian rhythms of PERIOD1 expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus in the absence of entrained food-anticipatory activity rhythms in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:2217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Wheel running activity and the expression of the clock protein, Period1 (PER1), in the DMH and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were assessed...
  3. Brown S, Ripperger J, Kadener S, Fleury Olela F, Vilbois F, Rosbash M, et al. PERIOD1-associated proteins modulate the negative limb of the mammalian circadian oscillator. Science. 2005;308:693-6 pubmed
    The clock proteins PERIOD1 (PER1) and PERIOD2 (PER2) play essential roles in a negative transcriptional feedback loop that generates circadian rhythms in mammalian cells...
  4. Bae K, Jin X, Maywood E, Hastings M, Reppert S, Weaver D. Differential functions of mPer1, mPer2, and mPer3 in the SCN circadian clock. Neuron. 2001;30:525-36 pubmed
    ..Thus, mPER1 influences rhythmicity primarily through interaction with other clock proteins, while mPER2 positively regulates rhythmic gene expression, and there is partial compensation between products of these two genes. ..
  5. Fang M, Zhang X, Zarbl H. Methylselenocysteine resets the rhythmic expression of circadian and growth-regulatory genes disrupted by nitrosomethylurea in vivo. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010;3:640-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that NMU disrupted the expression of core circadian genes (Per1, Per2, Cry1, Cry2, and RevErbAalpha) and circadian-controlled genes, including melatonin receptor 1alpha (MTNR1A), ..
  6. Duong H, Weitz C. Temporal orchestration of repressive chromatin modifiers by circadian clock Period complexes. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014;21:126-32 pubmed publisher
    ..PER proteins recruited HP1?-Suv39h to the Per1 and Per2 promoters, and HP1?-Suv39h proved important for circadian di- and trimethylation of histone H3 Lys9 (H3K9) ..
  7. Han D, Lee Y, Kim K, Kim C, Cho S. Modulation of glucocorticoid receptor induction properties by core circadian clock proteins. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014;383:170-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, we observe that PER1 and CRY1, the primary targets of CLOCK/BMAL1 action, reduce maximal GR transactivation while not affecting the ..
  8. Vosko A, Hagenauer M, Hummer D, Lee T. Period gene expression in the diurnal degu (Octodon degus) differs from the nocturnal laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R353-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study compared the 24-h oscillatory patterns of Per1 and Per2 mRNA in the SCN and putative striatum and cortex of Octodon degus (degu), a diurnal hystricognath rodent, ..
  9. Al Nuaimi Y, Hardman J, Biro T, Haslam I, Philpott M, Toth B, et al. A meeting of two chronobiological systems: circadian proteins Period1 and BMAL1 modulate the human hair cycle clock. J Invest Dermatol. 2014;134:610-619 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, our study identifies BMAL1 and Period1 as potential therapeutic targets for modulating human hair growth. ..

More Information


  1. Poletini M, Kennett J, McKee D, Freeman M. Central clock regulates the cervically stimulated prolactin surges by modulation of dopamine and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide release in ovariectomized rats. Neuroendocrinology. 2010;91:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..deoxyoligonucleotide cocktail for clock genes (generated against the 5' transcription start site and 3' cap site of per1, per2, and clock mRNA) or with a random-sequence deoxyoligonucleotide in the SCN...
  2. Varcoe T, Kennaway D. Activation of 5-HT2C receptors acutely induces Per1 gene expression in the rat SCN in vitro. Brain Res. 2008;1209:19-28 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist DOI and glutamate administration at various circadian times on c-fos and Per1 expressions was assessed...
  3. Nagano M, Adachi A, Masumoto K, Meyer Bernstein E, Shigeyoshi Y. rPer1 and rPer2 induction during phases of the circadian cycle critical for light resetting of the circadian clock. Brain Res. 2009;1289:37-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In our present study, we investigated whether light differentially induces the rat Per1 (rPer1) and Per2 (rPer2) genes to enable resetting of their circadian clocks...
  4. Kerman I, Clinton S, Simpson D, Bedrosian T, Bernard R, Akil H, et al. Inborn differences in environmental reactivity predict divergent diurnal behavioral, endocrine, and gene expression rhythms. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:256-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The gene Clock and related molecules (e.g. Per1, Per2) represent key regulators of circadian rhythmicity, and their targeted disruption in mutant mice produces ..
  5. Mattam U, Jagota A. Differential role of melatonin in restoration of age-induced alterations in daily rhythms of expression of various clock genes in suprachiasmatic nucleus of male Wistar rats. Biogerontology. 2014;15:257-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we investigated the effect of aging on daily rhythms of various clock genes such as rPer1, rPer2, rCry1, rCry2 and rBmal1 in the SCN of male Wistar rats...
  6. Duong H, Robles M, Knutti D, Weitz C. A molecular mechanism for circadian clock negative feedback. Science. 2011;332:1436-9 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitory complexes and that the PER complex thereby rhythmically delivers histone deacetylases to the Per1 promoter, which repress Per1 transcription...
  7. Barnes J, Tischkau S, Barnes J, Mitchell J, Burgoon P, Hickok J, et al. Requirement of mammalian Timeless for circadian rhythmicity. Science. 2003;302:439-42 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that mTim is required for rhythmicity and is a functional homolog of dTim on the negative-feedback arm of the mammalian molecular clockwork. ..
  8. Numano R, Yamazaki S, Umeda N, Samura T, Sujino M, Takahashi R, et al. Constitutive expression of the Period1 gene impairs behavioral and molecular circadian rhythms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3716-21 pubmed
    ..Molecular analysis revealed that the amplitudes of oscillation in the rat Per1 (rPer1) and rat Per2 (rPer2) mRNAs were significantly attenuated in the SCN and eyes of the transgenic rats...
  9. Hamaguchi H, Fujimoto K, Kawamoto T, Noshiro M, Maemura K, Takeda N, et al. Expression of the gene for Dec2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is regulated by a molecular clock system. Biochem J. 2004;382:43-50 pubmed
    ..exhibit a striking circadian oscillation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and Dec2 inhibits transcription from the Per1 promoter induced by Clock/Bmal1 [Honma, Kawamoto, Takagi, Fujimoto, Sato, Noshiro, Kato and Honma (2002) Nature (..
  10. Sumova A, Sladek M, Jác M, Illnerova H. The circadian rhythm of Per1 gene product in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus and its modulation by seasonal changes in daylength. Brain Res. 2002;947:260-70 pubmed
    ..light, 12-h dark cycle (LD12:12) as well as of those released into darkness exhibited the rhythm of a clock gene Per1 product, PER1 protein, with the maximum late in the subjective day and early night and minimum in the morning...
  11. Sellix M, Murphy Z, Menaker M. Excess androgen during puberty disrupts circadian organization in female rats. Endocrinology. 2013;154:1636-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Female period1-luciferase (per1-luc) rats were exposed to androgen (5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT]) or placebo for 4-6 weeks (short term) or 9-15 ..
  12. Hou T, Ward S, Murad J, Watson N, Israel M, Duffield G. ID2 (inhibitor of DNA binding 2) is a rhythmically expressed transcriptional repressor required for circadian clock output in mouse liver. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:31735-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a role for the transcriptional repressor ID2 as a circadian output regulator in the periphery. ..
  13. Fahrenkrug J, Hannibal J, Georg B. Diurnal rhythmicity of the canonical clock genes Per1, Per2 and Bmal1 in the rat adrenal gland is unaltered after hypophysectomy. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:323-9 pubmed publisher
    ..via circadian release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone, we quantified the mRNAs for the canonical clock genes, Per1, Per2 and Bmal1 in the adrenal glands by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction during a 24-h-..
  14. Quintela T, Sousa C, Patriarca F, Goncalves I, Santos C. Gender associated circadian oscillations of the clock genes in rat choroid plexus. Brain Struct Funct. 2015;220:1251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that there is a 24-h rhythm in the expression of Per2 and Cry2 in males and females. Bmal1 and Per1 expression also varied along the day, but only in females...
  15. Angeles Castellanos M, Mendoza J, Escobar C. Restricted feeding schedules phase shift daily rhythms of c-Fos and protein Per1 immunoreactivity in corticolimbic regions in rats. Neuroscience. 2007;144:344-55 pubmed
    ..The second goal was to characterize diurnal rhythms of the clock protein protein Per1 (PER1) in corticolimbic structures and to determine the influence of RFS on the diurnal temporal pattern...
  16. Takekida S, Yan L, Maywood E, Hastings M, Okamura H. Differential adrenergic regulation of the circadian expression of the clock genes Period1 and Period2 in the rat pineal gland. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:4557-61 pubmed
    ..This rhythm is dependent upon an intact sympathetic innervation. Increases in rPer1 (r indicates rat) and rPer2, as well as rNAT, expression during subjective night were blocked completely by ..
  17. Schmutz I, Ripperger J, Baeriswyl Aebischer S, Albrecht U. The mammalian clock component PERIOD2 coordinates circadian output by interaction with nuclear receptors. Genes Dev. 2010;24:345-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The concept that PER2 may propagate clock information to metabolic pathways via nuclear receptors adds an important facet to the clock-dependent regulation of biological networks. ..
  18. Sugimoto T, Morioka N, Zhang F, Sato K, Abe H, Hisaoka Nakashima K, et al. Clock gene Per1 regulates the production of CCL2 and interleukin-6 through p38, JNK1 and NF-?B activation in spinal astrocytes. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2014;59:37-46 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, the role of Period1 (Per1), one of clock genes, in the expression of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which ..
  19. Shieh K, Yang S, Lu X, Akil H, Watson S. Diurnal rhythmic expression of the rhythm-related genes, rPeriod1, rPeriod2, and rClock, in the rat brain. J Biomed Sci. 2005;12:209-17 pubmed
    High densities of the mRNA of three rhythm-related genes, rPeriod1 (rPer1), rPer2, and rClock, which share high homology in Drosophila and mammals, are found in the rat hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
  20. Richards J, Cheng K, All S, Skopis G, Jeffers L, Lynch I, et al. A role for the circadian clock protein Per1 in the regulation of aldosterone levels and renal Na+ retention. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;305:F1697-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this finding, Per1 knockout mice exhibit dramatically lower blood pressure than wild-type mice...
  21. Matsuki T, Kiyama A, Kawabuchi M, Okada M, Nagai K. A novel protein interacts with a clock-related protein, rPer1. Brain Res. 2001;916:1-10 pubmed
    ..interacting protein of the suprachiasmatic nucleus) with the yeast two-hybrid system using PAS domain of rat Per1 (rPer1) as a bait...
  22. Al Safadi S, Al Safadi A, Branchaud M, Rutherford S, Dayanandan A, Robinson B, et al. Stress-induced changes in the expression of the clock protein PERIOD1 in the rat limbic forebrain and hypothalamus: role of stress type, time of day, and predictability. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e111166 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we characterized the effects of several different stressors on the expression of the core clock protein, PER1 and the activity marker, FOS in select forebrain and hypothalamic nuclei in rats...
  23. Muhlbauer E, Wolgast S, Finckh U, Peschke D, Peschke E. Indication of circadian oscillations in the rat pancreas. FEBS Lett. 2004;564:91-6 pubmed
    ..transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used in analysis of the expression of the major clock genes Per1, Per2, Bmal1, Cry1, Tim (timeless) and Clock, as well as of the output genes Dbp and Rev-erbalpha in the pancreatic ..
  24. Shirogane T, Jin J, Ang X, Harper J. SCFbeta-TRCP controls clock-dependent transcription via casein kinase 1-dependent degradation of the mammalian period-1 (Per1) protein. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:26863-72 pubmed
    ..In this work, we have identified components of the machinery involved in regulating the abundance of human Per1 in tissue culture cells...
  25. Dzirbíková Z, Kiss A, Okuliarová M, Kopkan L, Cervenka L. Expressions of per1 clock gene and genes of signaling peptides vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and oxytocin in the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nuclei of hypertensive TGR[mREN2]27 rats. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011;31:225-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of the clock gene per1, a marker of circadian timing, was measured in the SCN and PVN...
  26. Akiyama S, Ohta H, Watanabe S, Moriya T, Hariu A, Nakahata N, et al. The uterus sustains stable biological clock during pregnancy. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2010;221:287-98 pubmed
    ..By using a Period1-luciferase (Per1-luc) rat, whose tissues express luciferase corresponding to activation of Period1, a "key clock gene", we ..
  27. Nakashima A, Kawamoto T, Honda K, Ueshima T, Noshiro M, Iwata T, et al. DEC1 modulates the circadian phase of clock gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4080-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of Dec1 delayed the phase of clock genes such as Dec1, Dec2, Per1, and Dbp that contain E boxes in their regulatory regions, whereas it had little effect on the circadian phase of ..
  28. Christiansen S, Bouzinova E, Fahrenkrug J, Wiborg O. Altered Expression Pattern of Clock Genes in a Rat Model of Depression. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;19: pubmed publisher
    ..animal model of depression was used to investigate rhythmic expression of three clock genes: period genes 1 and 2 (Per1 and Per2) and Bmal1. Brain and liver tissue was collected from 96 animals after 3...
  29. Masumoto K, Fujioka A, Nakahama K, Inouye S, Shigeyoshi Y. Effect of phosphodiesterase type 4 on circadian clock gene Per1 transcription. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;306:781-5 pubmed
    ..Here, we showed that the amount of the rat Per1 (rPer1) transcript induced by forskolin (FK) was significantly upregulated by the inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 4 (..
  30. Kandalepas P, Mitchell J, Gillette M. Melatonin Signal Transduction Pathways Require E-Box-Mediated Transcription of Per1 and Per2 to Reset the SCN Clock at Dusk. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0157824 pubmed publisher
    ..Using real-time RT-PCR, we found that melatonin induces an increase in the expression of two clock genes, Period 1 (Per1) and Period 2 (Per2)...
  31. Liska F, Gosele C, Rivkin E, TRES L, Cardoso M, Domaing P, et al. Rat hd mutation reveals an essential role of centrobin in spermatid head shaping and assembly of the head-tail coupling apparatus. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:1196-205 pubmed publisher
    ..Cntrob may represent a novel candidate gene for presently unexplained hereditary forms of teratozoospermia and the "easily decapitated sperm syndrome" in humans. ..
  32. Li S, Liu L, Jiang W, Sun L, Zhou S, Le Foll B, et al. Circadian alteration in neurobiology during protracted opiate withdrawal in rats. J Neurochem. 2010;115:353-62 pubmed publisher
    ..every 4 h for 24 h to examine circadian rhythms in blood hormone and peptide levels and brain expression of rPER1, rPER2, and rPER3 clock genes...
  33. Mifsud K, Reul J. Acute stress enhances heterodimerization and binding of corticosteroid receptors at glucocorticoid target genes in the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:11336-11341 pubmed
    ..hippocampal RNA expression levels of the glucocorticoid-responsive genes FK506-binding protein 5 (Fkbp5), Period 1 (Per1), and serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (Sgk1)...
  34. Pretzmann C, Fahrenkrug J, Georg B. Differentiation of PC12 cells results in enhanced VIP expression and prolonged rhythmic expression of clock genes. J Mol Neurosci. 2008;36:132-40 pubmed publisher
    To examine for circadian rhythmicity, the messenger RNA (mRNA) amount of the clock genes Per1 and Per2 was measured in undifferentiated and nerve-growth-factor-differentiated PC12 cells harvested every fourth hour...
  35. Bertolucci C, Cavallari N, Colognesi I, Aguzzi J, Chen Z, Caruso P, et al. Evidence for an overlapping role of CLOCK and NPAS2 transcription factors in liver circadian oscillators. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3070-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide the first evidence in peripheral oscillators for an overlapping role of CLOCK and NPAS2 in the regulation of circadianly controlled genes. ..
  36. Honma S, Kawamoto T, Takagi Y, Fujimoto K, Sato F, Noshiro M, et al. Dec1 and Dec2 are regulators of the mammalian molecular clock. Nature. 2002;419:841-4 pubmed
    ..and Dec2, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, repressed Clock/Bmal1-induced transactivation of the mouse Per1 promoter through direct protein-protein interactions with Bmal1 and/or competition for E-box elements...
  37. Mateju K, Sumova A, Bendova Z. Expression and light sensitivity of clock genes Per1 and Per2 and immediate-early gene c-fos within the retina of early postnatal Wistar rats. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:3630-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether, when, and where the transcripts of the clock genes Per1 and Per2 and the immediate early gene c-fos are spontaneously expressed and/or induced by light in the newborn rat ..
  38. Akhisaroglu M, Ahmed R, Kurtuncu M, Manev H, Uz T. Diurnal rhythms in cocaine sensitization and in Period1 levels are common across rodent species. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2004;79:37-42 pubmed
    ..inbred mice, we recently reported that both cocaine sensitization and striatal "clock" gene Period1 (PER1 for protein) levels demonstrate a diurnal pattern that is maintained by the rhythm of pineal products N-..
  39. Verwey M, Amir S. Nucleus-specific effects of meal duration on daily profiles of Period1 and Period2 protein expression in rats housed under restricted feeding. Neuroscience. 2011;192:304-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, daily rhythms in the expression of circadian clock genes, such as rhythms in Period1 (PER1) or Period2 (PER2), are also shifted in many brain areas that are important for the regulation of motivation and ..
  40. Abraham U, Prior J, Granados Fuentes D, Piwnica Worms D, Herzog E. Independent circadian oscillations of Period1 in specific brain areas in vivo and in vitro. J Neurosci. 2005;25:8620-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the mammalian brain comprises a diverse set of SCN-dependent and SCN-independent circadian oscillators. ..
  41. Sanggaard K, Hannibal J, Fahrenkrug J. Serotonin inhibits glutamate- but not PACAP-induced per gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus at night. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;17:1245-52 pubmed
    ..Two clock genes, per1 and per2, have been attributed a role in light-induced phase shift...
  42. Tischkau S, Mitchell J, Tyan S, Buchanan G, Gillette M. Ca2+/cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-dependent activation of Per1 is required for light-induced signaling in the suprachiasmatic nucleus circadian clock. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:718-23 pubmed
    ..Nocturnal light elevates mRNA of the Period1 (Per1) gene and induces long term state changes, expressed as phase shifts of circadian rhythms...
  43. Zmrzljak U, Korencic A, Kosir R, Golicnik M, Sassone Corsi P, Rozman D. Inducible cAMP early repressor regulates the Period 1 gene of the hepatic and adrenal clocks. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:10318-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, Crem loss-of-function mutation resulted in fine-tuning of all measured adrenal clock genes (Per1/2/3, Cry1/2, Bmal1, and Rev-erb?), whereas only Per1 and Cry1 were affected in the liver...
  44. Mateju K, Bendová Z, El Hennamy R, Sladek M, Sosniyenko S, Sumova A. Development of the light sensitivity of the clock genes Period1 and Period2, and immediate-early gene c-fos within the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:490-501 pubmed publisher
    ..the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus has two light-sensitive components, namely the clock genes Per1 and Per2. Besides, light induces the immediate-early gene c-fos...
  45. Chernysheva M, Romanova I, Mikhrina A. [Effect of retinol on interaction of the protein period1, oxytocin, and GABA at the prenatal period of formation of the circadian clock-mechanism in rats]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2012;48:481-6 pubmed
    ..stage is characterized by a high level of oxytocin and selective expression of the first protein of the clock-genes PER1. The foal of the present study was to check the suggestion about the positive feedback between PER1 and oxytocin at ..
  46. Gilhooley M, Pinnock S, Herbert J. Rhythmic expression of per1 in the dentate gyrus is suppressed by corticosterone: implications for neurogenesis. Neurosci Lett. 2011;489:177-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper reports the diurnal expression the 'clock' gene per1 in the dentate gyrus, and how it is altered by clamping the diurnal rhythm in corticosterone...
  47. Woodruff E, Chun L, Hinds L, Spencer R. Diurnal Corticosterone Presence and Phase Modulate Clock Gene Expression in the Male Rat Prefrontal Cortex. Endocrinology. 2016;157:1522-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we characterized over the course of the day the mRNA expression pattern of the core clock genes Per1, Per2, and Bmal1 in the male rat PFC and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) under different diurnal CORT conditions...
  48. Novakova M, Polidarova L, Sladek M, Sumova A. Restricted feeding regime affects clock gene expression profiles in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of rats exposed to constant light. Neuroscience. 2011;197:65-71 pubmed publisher
    ..On the last day in constant light, daily expression profiles of the clock genes Per1, Per2, Bmal1, and Rev-erb? were determined in the SCN of both groups by in situ hybridization...
  49. Na J, Lee K, Kim H, Shin J, Na W, Jeong H, et al. Role of type II protein arginine methyltransferase 5 in the regulation of Circadian Per1 gene. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48152 pubmed publisher
    ..the Prmt5 gene was constitutively expressed, increased interaction of PRMT5 with CRY1 was observed when the Per1 gene was repressed both in synchronized mouse liver and NIH3T3 cells...
  50. Hirota T, Okano T, Kokame K, Shirotani Ikejima H, Miyata T, Fukada Y. Glucose down-regulates Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels and induces circadian gene expression in cultured Rat-1 fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44244-51 pubmed exchange of the culture medium triggered circadian gene expression that was preceded by slow down-regulation of Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels...
  51. Shieh K. Distribution of the rhythm-related genes rPERIOD1, rPERIOD2, and rCLOCK, in the rat brain. Neuroscience. 2003;118:831-43 pubmed
    High densities of mRNAs for three rhythm-related genes, rPeriod1 (rPer1), rPer2, and rClock, which share high homology in Drosophila and mice, were found in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)...
  52. Richards J, Ko B, All S, Cheng K, Hoover R, Gumz M. A role for the circadian clock protein Per1 in the regulation of the NaCl co-transporter (NCC) and the with-no-lysine kinase (WNK) cascade in mouse distal convoluted tubule cells. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:11791-806 pubmed publisher
    ..We have demonstrated that the circadian protein Per1 regulates multiple genes involved in sodium transport in the collecting duct of the kidney...
  53. Eun B, Kim H, Kim S, Kim T, Hong S, Choi K, et al. Induction of Per1 expression following an experimentally induced epilepsy in the mouse hippocampus. Neurosci Lett. 2011;498:110-3 pubmed publisher
    The Period1 (Per1) is a clock-oscillating gene product that plays an essential role in the generation and modulation of circadian rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of hypothalamus...
  54. Butler M, Honma S, Fukumoto T, Kawamoto T, Fujimoto K, Noshiro M, et al. Dec1 and Dec2 expression is disrupted in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of Clock mutant mice. J Biol Rhythms. 2004;19:126-34 pubmed
    ..DEC1 and DEC2 can inhibit CLOCK:BMAL1 transactivation of the clock gene Per1, suggesting that these transcription factors may help regulate circadian timing...
  55. Conway Campbell B, Sarabdjitsingh R, McKenna M, Pooley J, Kershaw Y, Meijer O, et al. Glucocorticoid ultradian rhythmicity directs cyclical gene pulsing of the clock gene period 1 in rat hippocampus. J Neuroendocrinol. 2010;22:1093-1100 pubmed publisher synthetic glucocorticoid response element oligonucleotide binding, and verified for the Clock gene Period 1 promoter region by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays...
  56. Salgado Delgado R, Nadia S, Angeles Castellanos M, Buijs R, Escobar C. In a rat model of night work, activity during the normal resting phase produces desynchrony in the hypothalamus. J Biol Rhythms. 2010;25:421-31 pubmed publisher
    ..and activity during the normal resting phase lead to a shift in the diurnal rhythms of c-Fos and induce a rhythm of PER1 in the arcuate and dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, both associated with metabolism and regulation of the ..
  57. Yamaguchi Y, Okada K, Mizuno T, Ota T, Yamada H, Doi M, et al. Real-Time Recording of Circadian Per1 and Per2 Expression in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus of Freely Moving Rats. J Biol Rhythms. 2016;31:108-11 pubmed publisher
    ..expression is generated by a transcription-translation feedback loop of clock genes including 2 oscillatory genes, Per1 and Per2...
  58. Lee C, Weaver D, Reppert S. Direct association between mouse PERIOD and CKIepsilon is critical for a functioning circadian clock. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:584-94 pubmed
    ..We thus propose that the CKIepsilon-binding domain is critical not only for mPER phosphorylation but also for a functioning circadian clock. ..
  59. Vielhaber E, Duricka D, Ullman K, Virshup D. Nuclear export of mammalian PERIOD proteins. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:45921-7 pubmed
    ..In mammals, nuclear localization of the circadian regulators PER1-3 is controlled by multiple mechanisms, including multimerization with PER and CRY proteins...
  60. Varcoe T, Kennaway D, Voultsios A. Activation of 5-HT2C receptors acutely induces Per gene expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus at night. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;119:192-200 pubmed
    ..the effect of 5-HT2C receptor activation on various clock genes within the suprachiasmatic nucleus, including Per1 and Per2, which have previously been demonstrated as necessary for phase shifts...
  61. Baeza Raja B, Eckel Mahan K, Zhang L, Vagena E, Tsigelny I, Sassone Corsi P, et al. p75 neurotrophin receptor is a clock gene that regulates oscillatory components of circadian and metabolic networks. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10221-34 pubmed publisher disrupted in Clock-deficient and mutant mice, is E-box dependent, and is in phase with clock genes, such as Per1 and Per2...
  62. Wongchitrat P, Govitrapong P, Phansuwan Pujito P. The expression of Per1 and Aa-nat genes in the pineal gland of postnatal rats. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012;95 Suppl 12:S69-75 pubmed
    ..The Period (Per1), one of clock gene develops gradually during postnatal ontogenesis in the rat SCN and is also expressed in the ..
  63. Gräs S, Georg B, Jørgensen H, Fahrenkrug J. Expression of the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 during follicle development in the rat ovary. Effects of gonadotropin stimulation and hypophysectomy. Cell Tissue Res. 2012;350:539-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study has been to examine the spatio-temporal expression of the clock genes Per1 and Bmal1 during gonadotropin-independent and gonadotropin-dependent follicle development in the rat ovary...
  64. Szántóová K, Zeman M, Veselá A, Herichova I. Effect of phase delay lighting rotation schedule on daily expression of per2, bmal1, rev-erb?, ppar?, and pdk4 genes in the heart and liver of Wistar rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;348:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of metabolic genes was influenced more in the liver than in the heart. Results indicate that frequent shifts of LD cycle may interfere with control of lipid metabolism. ..
  65. Masubuchi S, Kataoka N, Sassone Corsi P, Okamura H. Mouse Period1 (mPER1) acts as a circadian adaptor to entrain the oscillator to environmental light/dark cycles by regulating mPER2 protein. J Neurosci. 2005;25:4719-24 pubmed
  66. Fahrenkrug J, Georg B, Hannibal J, Hindersson P, Gräs S. Diurnal rhythmicity of the clock genes Per1 and Per2 in the rat ovary. Endocrinology. 2006;147:3769-76 pubmed
    ..Here we investigated the daily expression of the two core clock genes, Per1 and Per2, in the rat ovary using real-time RT-PCR, in situ hybridization histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry...
  67. Masubuchi S, Honma S, Abe H, Ishizaki K, Namihira M, Ikeda M, et al. Clock genes outside the suprachiasmatic nucleus involved in manifestation of locomotor activity rhythm in rats. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:4206-14 pubmed
    ..was completely phase-reversed with respect to a light dark-cycle, 24 h profiles were examined for the clock gene (rPer1, rPer2, rBMAL1, rClock) expressions in several brain structures by in situ hybridization, and for the pineal as ..
  68. Jin X, Shearman L, Weaver D, Zylka M, de Vries G, Reppert S. A molecular mechanism regulating rhythmic output from the suprachiasmatic circadian clock. Cell. 1999;96:57-68 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the transcriptional machinery of the core clockwork directly regulates a clock-controlled output rhythm. ..
  69. Dardente H, Poirel V, Klosen P, Pevet P, Masson Pévet M. Per and neuropeptide expression in the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei: compartmentalization and differential cellular induction by light. Brain Res. 2002;958:261-71 pubmed
    b>Per1 and Per2, two clock genes rhythmically expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), are implicated in the molecular mechanism of the circadian pacemaker and play a major role in its entrainment by light...
  70. Chun L, Woodruff E, Morton S, Hinds L, Spencer R. Variations in Phase and Amplitude of Rhythmic Clock Gene Expression across Prefrontal Cortex, Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Hypothalamic Paraventricular and Suprachiasmatic Nuclei of Male and Female Rats. J Biol Rhythms. 2015;30:417-36 pubmed publisher
    ..circadian clock is a self-regulating transcription/translation cycle of positive (Bmal1, Clock/Npas2) and negative (Per1,2,3, Cry1,2) regulatory components...
  71. Garmabi B, Vousooghi N, Vosough M, Yoonessi A, Bakhtazad A, Zarrindast M. Effect of circadian rhythm disturbance on morphine preference and addiction in male rats: Involvement of period genes and dopamine D1 receptor. Neuroscience. 2016;322:104-14 pubmed publisher
    ..constant light on morphine voluntary consumption and withdrawal symptoms and also investigated the involvement of Per1, Per2 and dopamine D1 receptor in these processes...
  72. Matagne V, Kim J, Ryu B, Hur M, Kim M, Kim K, et al. Thyroid transcription factor 1, a homeodomain containing transcription factor, contributes to regulating periodic oscillations in GnRH gene expression. J Neuroendocrinol. 2012;24:916-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Rat GnRH neurones in situ contain key proteins components of the positive (BMAL1, CLOCK) and negative (PER1) limbs of the circadian oscillator, and these proteins repress Ttf1 promoter activity in vitro...
  73. Sangoram A, Saez L, Antoch M, Gekakis N, Staknis D, Whiteley A, et al. Mammalian circadian autoregulatory loop: a timeless ortholog and mPer1 interact and negatively regulate CLOCK-BMAL1-induced transcription. Neuron. 1998;21:1101-13 pubmed
    ..Importantly, hTIM interacts with the Drosophila PERIOD (dPER) protein as well as the mouse PER1 and PER2 proteins in vitro. In Drosophila (S2) cells, hTIM and dPER interact and translocate into the nucleus...