Gene Symbol: Pdx1
Description: pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1
Alias: Idx1, Ipf1, Stf1, pancreas/duodenum homeobox protein 1, IDX-1, IPF-1, Insulin promoter factor 1, STF-1, insulin promotor factor 1, islet/duodenum homeobox-1, pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1, somatostatin transactivating factor 1
Species: rat
Products:     Pdx1

Top Publications

  1. Arantes V, Reis M, Latorraca M, Ferreira F, Stoppiglia L, Carneiro E, et al. Palmitic acid increase levels of pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 and p38/stress-activated protein kinase in islets from rats maintained on a low protein diet. Br J Nutr. 2006;96:1006-12 pubmed
  2. Moibi J, Gupta D, Jetton T, Peshavaria M, Desai R, Leahy J. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma regulates expression of PDX-1 and NKX6.1 in INS-1 cells. Diabetes. 2007;56:88-95 pubmed
    ..1. Additional studies are needed to determine whether there is a regulatory role for PPAR-gamma signaling in the beta-cell adaptation following a 60% Px in rats. ..
  3. Zertal Zidani S, Bounacer A, Scharfmann R. Regulation of pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation by sulphated proteoglycans. Diabetologia. 2007;50:585-95 pubmed
    ..exhibited a phenotype of mature cells with regard to the expression of the following genes: pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx1), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (Pcsk1; previously known as pro-hormone ..
  4. Hagman D, Latour M, Chakrabarti S, Fontes G, Amyot J, Tremblay C, et al. Cyclical and alternating infusions of glucose and intralipid in rats inhibit insulin gene expression and Pdx-1 binding in islets. Diabetes. 2008;57:424-31 pubmed
    ..We conclude that fatty acid inhibition of insulin gene expression, in the presence of high glucose, is an early functional defect that may contribute to beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. ..
  5. Li H, Li X, Lam K, Tam S, Xiao W, Xu R. Adeno-associated virus-mediated pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene-1 expression enhanced differentiation of hepatic oval stem cells to insulin-producing cells in diabetic rats. J Biomed Sci. 2008;15:487-97 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (pdx-1), a crucial transcription factor in pancreatic islet development and differentiation, has ..
  6. Perfetti R, Zhou J, Doyle M, Egan J. Glucagon-like peptide-1 induces cell proliferation and pancreatic-duodenum homeobox-1 expression and increases endocrine cell mass in the pancreas of old, glucose-intolerant rats. Endocrinology. 2000;141:4600-5 pubmed
    ..55 +/- 0.02 to 1.32 +/- 0.11 microg/mg total pancreatic protein. Therefore, GLP-1 would seem to be a unique therapy that can stimulate pancreatic cell proliferation and beta-cell differentiation in the pancreas of rodents. ..
  7. Gefen Halevi S, Rachmut I, Molakandov K, Berneman D, Mor E, Meivar Levy I, et al. NKX6.1 promotes PDX-1-induced liver to pancreatic ?-cells reprogramming. Cell Reprogram. 2010;12:655-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The individual and concerted effects of pancreatic transcription factors in adult extra-pancreatic cells, is expected to facilitate developing regenerative medicine approaches for cell replacement therapy in diabetics. ..
  8. Hagman D, Hays L, Parazzoli S, Poitout V. Palmitate inhibits insulin gene expression by altering PDX-1 nuclear localization and reducing MafA expression in isolated rat islets of Langerhans. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:32413-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that prolonged exposure of islets to palmitate inhibits insulin gene transcription by impairing nuclear localization of PDX-1 and cellular expression of MafA. ..
  9. Sun Y, Zhang L, Gu H, Han W, Ren M, Wang F, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha regulates the expression of pancreatic/duodenal homeobox-1 in rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells and ameliorates glucose-induced insulin secretion impaired by palmitate. Endocrinology. 2008;149:662-71 pubmed
    ..Our findings have potential clinical implications for the use of PPARalpha agonists in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. ..

More Information


  1. Kitamura T, Nakae J, Kitamura Y, Kido Y, Biggs W, Wright C, et al. The forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 links insulin signaling to Pdx1 regulation of pancreatic beta cell growth. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:1839-47 pubmed
    ..proliferation and increased expression of the pancreatic transcription factor pancreas/duodenum homeobox gene-1 (Pdx1)...
  2. Shu T, Zhu Y, Wang H, Lin Y, Ma Z, Han X. AGEs decrease insulin synthesis in pancreatic ?-cell by repressing Pdx-1 protein expression at the post-translational level. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18782 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, AGEs induced nuclear accumulation of Foxo1; this in turn reduced Pdx-1 expression by decreasing its protein stability, ultimately affecting insulin synthesis. ..
  3. Ahlgren U, Jonsson J, Jonsson L, Simu K, Edlund H. beta-cell-specific inactivation of the mouse Ipf1/Pdx1 gene results in loss of the beta-cell phenotype and maturity onset diabetes. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1763-8 pubmed
    To study the late beta-cell-specific function of the homeodomain protein IPF1/PDX1 we have generated mice in which the Ipf1/Pdx1 gene has been disrupted specifically in beta cells...
  4. Humphrey R, Yu S, Flores L, Jhala U. Glucose regulates steady-state levels of PDX1 via the reciprocal actions of GSK3 and AKT kinases. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3406-16 pubmed publisher
    The pancreatic beta cell is sensitive to even small changes in PDX1 protein levels; consequently, Pdx1 haploinsufficiency can inhibit beta cell growth and decrease insulin biosynthesis and gene expression, leading to compromised glucose-..
  5. Ferber S, Halkin A, Cohen H, Ber I, Einav Y, Goldberg I, et al. Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 induces expression of insulin genes in liver and ameliorates streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia. Nat Med. 2000;6:568-72 pubmed
    ..The protein encoded by the pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) is central in regulating pancreatic development and islet cell function...
  6. Pino M, Ye D, Linning K, Green C, Wicksteed B, Poitout V, et al. Elevated glucose attenuates human insulin gene promoter activity in INS-1 pancreatic beta-cells via reduced nuclear factor binding to the A5/core and Z element. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:1343-60 pubmed
  7. Gauthier B, Wiederkehr A, Baquie M, Dai C, Powers A, Kerr Conte J, et al. PDX1 deficiency causes mitochondrial dysfunction and defective insulin secretion through TFAM suppression. Cell Metab. 2009;10:110-8 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the transcription factor Pdx1 cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young 4 (MODY4). Islet transduction with dominant-negative Pdx1 (RIPDN79PDX1) impairs mitochondrial metabolism and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS)...
  8. Spence J, Lange A, Lin S, Kaestner K, Lowy A, Kim I, et al. Sox17 regulates organ lineage segregation of ventral foregut progenitor cells. Dev Cell. 2009;17:62-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These pancreatobiliary progenitor cells coexpress the transcription factors PDX1 and SOX17 at E8...
  9. Schubert M, Brazil D, Burks D, Kushner J, Ye J, Flint C, et al. Insulin receptor substrate-2 deficiency impairs brain growth and promotes tau phosphorylation. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7084-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, dysregulation of the Irs2 branch of the insulin-Igf-signaling cascade reveals a molecular link between diabetes and neurodegenerative disease. ..
  10. Guo J, Wang J, Song S, Liu Q, Huang Y, Xu Y, et al. Sphallerocarpus gracilis polysaccharide protects pancreatic ?-cells via regulation of the bax/bcl-2, caspase-3, pdx-1 and insulin signalling pathways. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;93:829-836 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained in this study suggest that SGP may be a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. ..
  11. Chen S, Ding J, Yu C, Yang B, Wood D, Grayburn P. Reversal of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats by gene therapy with betacellulin and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1. Gene Ther. 2007;14:1102-10 pubmed
    ..microbubble destruction (UTMD) was used to direct betacellulin (BTC) and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX1) to rat pancreas 48 h after islet destruction by streptozotocin (STZ)...
  12. Jetton T, Lausier J, LaRock K, Trotman W, Larmie B, Habibovic A, et al. Mechanisms of compensatory beta-cell growth in insulin-resistant rats: roles of Akt kinase. Diabetes. 2005;54:2294-304 pubmed
  13. Ueda T, Furusawa T, Kurahashi T, Tessarollo L, Bustin M. The nucleosome binding protein HMGN3 modulates the transcription profile of pancreatic beta cells and affects insulin secretion. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5264-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that HMGN3 and the transcription factor PDX1 mutually reinforce their specific binding to the chromatin in the promoter of the Glut2 gene, thereby regulating ..
  14. Goulart Silva F, Serrano Nascimento C, Texeira S, Nunes M. Triiodothyronine (T3) induces proinsulin gene expression by activating PI3K: possible roles for GSK-3? and the transcriptional factor PDX-1. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2013;121:14-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering that PDX-1 is one of the most important transcriptional factors for proinsulin gene expression, its enhancement may underlie the increased proinsulin mRNA content acutely induced by T3. ..
  15. Taguchi M, Otsuki M. Co-localization of nestin and PDX-1 in small evaginations of the main pancreatic duct in adult rats. J Mol Histol. 2004;35:785-9 pubmed
    ..These cells of the main duct were also positive for the ductal cell marker, cytokeratin 19. Our results suggest that the double positive cells for PDX-1 and nestin might be important candidates for pancreatic stem cells in adult rats. ..
  16. Yamada S, Yamamoto Y, Nagasawa M, Hara A, Kodera T, Kojima I. In vitro transdifferentiation of mature hepatocytes into insulin-producing cells. Endocr J. 2006;53:789-95 pubmed
    ..In this condition, transfer of PDX-1/VP16 also induced the expression of insulin. These results clearly indicate that hepatocytes possess a potential to transdifferentiate into insulin-producing cells in vitro. ..
  17. Li L, Yi Z, Seno M, Kojima I. Activin A and betacellulin: effect on regeneration of pancreatic beta-cells in neonatal streptozotocin-treated rats. Diabetes. 2004;53:608-15 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that, in neonatal STZ-treated rats, a combination of activin A and BTC promoted regeneration of pancreatic beta-cells and improved glucose metabolism in adults. ..
  18. Rooman I, Heremans Y, Heimberg H, Bouwens L. Modulation of rat pancreatic acinoductal transdifferentiation and expression of PDX-1 in vitro. Diabetologia. 2000;43:907-14 pubmed
  19. Hale M, Kagami H, Shi L, Holland A, Elsässer H, Hammer R, et al. The homeodomain protein PDX1 is required at mid-pancreatic development for the formation of the exocrine pancreas. Dev Biol. 2005;286:225-37 pubmed
    The homeoprotein PDX1 is expressed throughout pancreatic development and is thought to play important roles at multiple stages. We describe the properties of a tet-off regulatory scheme to manage the expression of Pdx1 in utero...
  20. Ihm S, Moon H, Kang J, Park C, Oh K, Jeong I, et al. Effect of aging on insulin secretory function and expression of beta cell function-related genes of islets. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;77 Suppl 1:S150-4 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, with increasing age, insulin secretory function of islets deteriorates accompanied with a decrease in expression of beta cell-specific genes including PDX-1. ..
  21. Pedersen A, Petersen H, Videbaek N, Skak K, Michelsen B. PDX-1 mediates glucose responsiveness of GAD(67), but not GAD(65), gene transcription in islets of Langerhans. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;295:243-8 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest that PDX-1 is involved in glucose-regulated expression of GAD(67). ..
  22. Claiborn K, Sachdeva M, Cannon C, Groff D, Singer J, Stoffers D. Pcif1 modulates Pdx1 protein stability and pancreatic ? cell function and survival in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3713-21 pubmed publisher
    The homeodomain transcription factor pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) is a major mediator of insulin transcription and a key regulator of the ? cell phenotype...
  23. Andersen F, Jensen J, Heller R, Petersen H, Larsson L, Madsen O, et al. Pax6 and Pdx1 form a functional complex on the rat somatostatin gene upstream enhancer. FEBS Lett. 1999;445:315-20 pubmed
    ..The distal A-element contains overlapping Pdx1 and Pbx binding sites...
  24. Kerckaert J, Bayard B, Debray H, Sautiere P, Biserte G. Rat alpha-fetoprotein heterogeneity. Comparative chemical study of the two electrophoretic variants and their Ricinus lectin-binding properties. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977;493:293-303 pubmed
    ..The slow moving alpha-fetoprotein could be further fractionated on RCAI-sepharose column in two components, AFPA1 and AFPA2 differing by their sialic acid content. ..
  25. Mao X, Wang S, Pan Y, He B, Chen J, Jiang H, et al. Roles of inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in protecting rat RINm5F cell line against free fatty acid-induced apoptosis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2009;117:274-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that low-potency inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases could protect rat RINm5F cell line against free fatty acid-induced apoptosis, and it was through regulatory pathway of regulating PDX-1 expression. ..
  26. Shternhall Ron K, Quintana F, Perl S, Meivar Levy I, Barshack I, Cohen I, et al. Ectopic PDX-1 expression in liver ameliorates type 1 diabetes. J Autoimmun. 2007;28:134-42 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest a beneficial therapeutic effect of the PDX-1 gene therapy for treating autoimmune type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). ..
  27. Moritoh Y, Takeuchi K, Asakawa T, Kataoka O, Odaka H. Combining a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, alogliptin, with pioglitazone improves glycaemic control, lipid profiles and beta-cell function in db/db mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2009;157:415-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Combination treatment also increased expression of insulin and pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), maintained normal beta-cell/alpha-cell distribution in islets and restored pancreatic insulin content to levels ..
  28. Lebrun P, Montminy M, Van Obberghen E. Regulation of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 protein by DNA-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38203-10 pubmed
    ..e. glut2 and glucokinase. Our study demonstrates that radiation, through the activation of DNA-PK, may regulate PDX-1 protein expression. ..
  29. Owen K, Evans J, Frayling T, Hattersley A, McCarthy M, Walker M, et al. Role of the D76N polymorphism of insulin promoter factor-1 in predisposing to Type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2004;47:957-8 pubmed
  30. Leonard J, Peers B, Johnson T, Ferreri K, Lee S, Montminy M. Characterization of somatostatin transactivating factor-1, a novel homeobox factor that stimulates somatostatin expression in pancreatic islet cells. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:1275-83 pubmed
  31. Gerrish K, Van Velkinburgh J, Stein R. Conserved transcriptional regulatory domains of the pdx-1 gene. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:533-48 pubmed
    ..Our data suggests that pdx-1 transcription is also regulated by factors acting upon conserved area IV sequences. ..
  32. Annicotte J, Fayard E, Swift G, Selander L, Edlund H, Tanaka T, et al. Pancreatic-duodenal homeobox 1 regulates expression of liver receptor homolog 1 during pancreas development. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6713-24 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that PDX-1 controls LRH-1 expression and identify LRH-1 as a novel downstream target in the PDX-1 regulatory cascade governing pancreatic development, differentiation, and function. ..
  33. Zhou J, Pineyro M, Wang X, Doyle M, Egan J. Exendin-4 differentiation of a human pancreatic duct cell line into endocrine cells: involvement of PDX-1 and HNF3beta transcription factors. J Cell Physiol. 2002;192:304-14 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that EX-4 activates adenylyl cyclase and MAP kinase which, in turn, may lead to activation of transcription factors necessary for an endocrine phenotype. ..
  34. Sheng F, Ren X, Dai X, Xu X, Dong M, Pei Q, et al. Effect of nicotinamide mononucleotide on insulin secretion and gene expressions of PDX-1 and FoxO1 in RIN-m5f cells. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011;36:958-63 pubmed publisher
    ..05). NMN can stimulate insulin secretion and upregulate the mRNA expression of PDX-1 in RIN-m5f cells. ..
  35. Park S, Hong S, Lee J, Sung S. Exercise improves glucose homeostasis that has been impaired by a high-fat diet by potentiating pancreatic beta-cell function and mass through IRS2 in diabetic rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;103:1764-71 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that dietary fat contents and exercise modulate beta-cell function and mass to overcome insulin resistance in two different pathways. ..
  36. Seeberger K, Anderson S, Ellis C, Yeung T, Korbutt G. Identification and differentiation of PDX1 ?-cell progenitors within the human pancreatic epithelium. World J Diabetes. 2014;5:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..was controlled by the rat Insulin 1 promoter and the monomeric red fluorescent protein was controlled by the mouse PDX1 promoter...
  37. Krishnamurthy M, Ayazi F, Li J, Lyttle A, Woods M, Wu Y, et al. c-Kit in early onset of diabetes: a morphological and functional analysis of pancreatic beta-cells in c-KitW-v mutant mice. Endocrinology. 2007;148:5520-30 pubmed
    ..Our results clearly demonstrate that the c-Kit receptor is involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism, likely through an important role in beta-cell development and function. ..
  38. O Reilly L, Gu D, Sarvetnick N, Edlund H, Phillips J, Fulford T, et al. alpha-Cell neogenesis in an animal model of IDDM. Diabetes. 1997;46:599-606 pubmed
    ..These ducts also expressed the homeobox gene product, insulin promoter factor 1. Ductal cell proliferation and expression of these markers was not observed in transgenic NOD mice (NOD-..
  39. Stanojevic V, Habener J, Thomas M. Pancreas duodenum homeobox-1 transcriptional activation requires interactions with p300. Endocrinology. 2004;145:2918-28 pubmed
    ..Impairment of interactions between PDX-1 and p300 in pancreatic beta-cells may limit insulin production and lead to the development of diabetes. ..
  40. Lim J, Lee J, Hwang J, Shin C, Yang S. Non-catch-up growth in intrauterine growth-retarded rats showed glucose intolerance and increased expression of PDX-1 mRNA. Pediatr Int. 2011;53:181-6 pubmed publisher
    ..IUGR rats that failed to undergo catch-up growth might be prone to abnormal glucose tolerance, decreased islet size, and increased PDX-1 mRNA levels in early adult life. ..
  41. Muharram G, Beucher A, Moerman E, Belaich S, Gmyr V, Vandewalle B, et al. Endocrine pancreatic tissue plasticity in obese humans is associated with cytoplasmic expression of PBX-1 in pancreatic ductal cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;333:1153-9 pubmed
    ..cDNA microarray analysis also showed up-regulation of other genes implicated in islet regeneration, including betacellulin, laminin, TGFa, NeuroD1, Pax6, substantiating the role of the islet neogenesis pathway in human obesity. ..
  42. Ogata T, Li L, Yamada S, Yamamoto Y, Tanaka Y, Takei I, et al. Promotion of beta-cell differentiation by conophylline in fetal and neonatal rat pancreas. Diabetes. 2004;53:2596-602 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that conophylline induces differentiation of pancreatic precursor cells and increases the formation of beta-cells. ..
  43. Cao L, Tang D, Horb M, Li S, Yang L. High glucose is necessary for complete maturation of Pdx1-VP16-expressing hepatic cells into functional insulin-producing cells. Diabetes. 2004;53:3168-78 pubmed
    b>Pdx1 has been shown to convert hepatocytes into both exocrine and endocrine pancreatic cells in mice, but it fails to selectively convert hepatocytes into pure insulin-producing cells (IPCs)...
  44. Yang Y, Chang B, Samson S, Li M, Chan L. The Krüppel-like zinc finger protein Glis3 directly and indirectly activates insulin gene transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:2529-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Glis3 physically and functionally interacts with Pdx1, MafA and NeuroD1 to modulate Ins2 promoter activity...
  45. Zhang Y, Wang H, Liu W, Wei B, Bing L, Gao Y. Insulin-producing cells derived from rat bone marrow and their autologous transplantation in the duodenal wall for treating diabetes. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2009;292:728-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results on autologous transplantation of IPCs derived from BMSCs into the duodenal wall could offer a novel potential therapeutical protocol for DM. ..
  46. Thomas M, Lee J, Rastalsky N, Habener J. Hedgehog signaling regulation of homeodomain protein islet duodenum homeobox-1 expression in pancreatic beta-cells. Endocrinology. 2001;142:1033-40 pubmed
  47. Miller C, McGehee R, Habener J. IDX-1: a new homeodomain transcription factor expressed in rat pancreatic islets and duodenum that transactivates the somatostatin gene. EMBO J. 1994;13:1145-56 pubmed
  48. Inagaki T, Tajiri T, Tate G, Kunimura T, Morohoshi T. Dynamic morphologic change and differentiation from fetal to mature pancreatic acinar cells in rats. J Nippon Med Sch. 2012;79:335-42 pubmed
    ..Expression of PdX-1 and MIB-5 was markedly decreased in acinar cells. Our findings indicate dynamic PdX-1-associated morphologic change from fetal to mature pancreatic acinar cells between 48 and 72 hours after birth. ..
  49. Liu T, Wang C, Gou S, Wu H, Xiong J, Zhou J. PDX-1 expression and proliferation of duct epithelial cells after partial pancreatectomy in rats. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2007;6:424-9 pubmed
    ..Pancreatic stem cells in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells are involved in the regeneration of remnant pancreas and the expression of PDX-1 in ductal cells is due to posttranscriptional regulation. ..
  50. Kojima H, Nakamura T, Fujita Y, Kishi A, Fujimiya M, Yamada S, et al. Combined expression of pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 and islet factor 1 induces immature enterocytes to produce insulin. Diabetes. 2002;51:1398-408 pubmed
    ..In summary, our results indicated that immature intestinal stem cells can differentiate into insulin-producing cells given the ability to express the transcription factors Pdx-1 and Isl-1. ..
  51. Wolf G, Hessabi B, Karkour A, Henrion U, Dahlhaus M, Ostmann A, et al. The activation of the rat insulin gene II by BETA2 and PDX-1 in rat insulinoma cells is repressed by Pax6. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:2331-42 pubmed publisher
    ..From the results, it is suggested that at low concentrations of glucose, Pax6 is localized in the nucleus and prevents the activation of the insulin gene by occupying the PDX-1 binding site and by interacting with BETA2. ..
  52. Maedler K, Schumann D, Schulthess F, Oberholzer J, Bosco D, Berney T, et al. Aging correlates with decreased beta-cell proliferative capacity and enhanced sensitivity to apoptosis: a potential role for Fas and pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1. Diabetes. 2006;55:2455-62 pubmed
    ..These data provide a possible explanation for the increased incidence of type 2 diabetes at an older age and support the use of islets from older rats as a more appropriate model to study glucose-induced beta-cell apoptosis. ..
  53. Jensen J, Heller R, Funder Nielsen T, Pedersen E, Lindsell C, Weinmaster G, et al. Independent development of pancreatic alpha- and beta-cells from neurogenin3-expressing precursors: a role for the notch pathway in repression of premature differentiation. Diabetes. 2000;49:163-76 pubmed
    ..beta-cells have been suggested to arise late, directly from the GLUT2- and pancreatic duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX1)-expressing epithelium, which gives rise also to the acinar cells during this stage...
  54. Wang H, Maechler P, Ritz Laser B, Hagenfeldt K, Ishihara H, Philippe J, et al. Pdx1 level defines pancreatic gene expression pattern and cell lineage differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:25279-86 pubmed
    The absence of Pdx1 and the expression of brain-4 distinguish alpha-cells from other pancreatic endocrine cell lineages...
  55. West A, Oates P. Decreased sucrase and lactase activity in iron deficiency is accompanied by reduced gene expression and upregulation of the transcriptional repressor PDX-1. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;289:G1108-14 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that decreases in sucrase and lactase activities result from a reduction in gene expression, following from increased levels of the transcriptional repressor PDX-1. ..
  56. Uzan B, Figeac F, Portha B, Movassat J. Mechanisms of KGF mediated signaling in pancreatic duct cell proliferation and differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4734 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo KGF-induced duct cell differentiation was assessed by the immunolocalization of PDX1 and Glut2 in ductal cells and the implication of PI3K/AKT in this process was investigated...
  57. Yokoi N, Serikawa T, Walther R. Pdx1, a homeodomain transcription factor required for pancreas development, maps to rat chromosome 12. Exp Anim. 1997;46:323-4 pubmed
  58. Stoffers D, Desai B, DeLeon D, Simmons R. Neonatal exendin-4 prevents the development of diabetes in the intrauterine growth retarded rat. Diabetes. 2003;52:734-40 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that exposure to Ex-4 in the newborn period reverses the adverse consequences of fetal programming and prevents the development of diabetes in adulthood. ..
  59. Dumortier O, Blondeau B, Duvillie B, Reusens B, Breant B, Remacle C. Different mechanisms operating during different critical time-windows reduce rat fetal beta cell mass due to a maternal low-protein or low-energy diet. Diabetologia. 2007;50:2495-503 pubmed
    ..At 15 days of fetal age, the number of cells producing neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3) or pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (PDX-1) was reduced. Neither islet vascularisation nor beta cell proliferation was affected...
  60. Yang C, Wang J, Du C, Xue D. Expression of stem cell markers CK-19 and PDX-1 mRNA in pancreatic islet samples of different purity from rats. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2007;6:544-8 pubmed
    ..The expression of CK-19 and PDX-1 mRNA in islet samples of different purity suggests the presence of stem cells in all islet samples. ..
  61. Kwon D, Jang J, Hong S, Lee J, Sung S, Park H, et al. Long-term consumption of fermented soybean-derived Chungkookjang enhances insulinotropic action unlike soybeans in 90% pancreatectomized diabetic rats. Eur J Nutr. 2007;46:44-52 pubmed
    ..Overall, the anti-diabetic action of CKJ was superior to CSB in type 2 diabetic rats. ..
  62. Zhou S, Zhang Y, Li Q, Zhang Y, Qi H, Zhou H, et al. Protective effect of rat pancreatic progenitors cells expressing Pdx1 and nestin on islets survival and function in vitro and in vivo. J Physiol Biochem. 2012;68:603-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of our research was to investigate the protective effect of rat pancreatic-duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1)(+)/nestin(+) PPCs on islets...
  63. Semache M, Zarrouki B, Fontes G, Fogarty S, Kikani C, Chawki M, et al. Per-Arnt-Sim kinase regulates pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 protein stability via phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3? in pancreatic ?-cells. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:24825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PASK phosphorylates and inactivates GSK3?, thereby preventing PDX-1 serine phosphorylation and alleviating GSK3?-mediated PDX-1 protein degradation in pancreatic ?-cells. ..
  64. Abuzgaia A, Hardy D, Arany E. Regulation of postnatal pancreatic Pdx1 and downstream target genes after gestational exposure to protein restriction in rats. Reproduction. 2015;149:293-303 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the role of the transcription factor Pdx1, a master regulator of β-cell differentiation and function along with its downstream target genes insulin, Glut2 ..
  65. Deramaudt T, Sachdeva M, Wescott M, Chen Y, Stoffers D, Rustgi A. The PDX1 homeodomain transcription factor negatively regulates the pancreatic ductal cell-specific keratin 19 promoter. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38385-95 pubmed
    ..Embryologically, the pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1) homeodomain protein is critical for the initiation of all pancreatic lineages; however, the later differentiation ..
  66. Parrizas M, Maestro M, Boj S, Paniagua A, Casamitjana R, Gomis R, et al. Hepatic nuclear factor 1-alpha directs nucleosomal hyperacetylation to its tissue-specific transcriptional targets. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:3234-43 pubmed
    ..These findings provide genetic evidence based on a live mammalian system to establish that a single activator can be essential to direct nucleosomal hyperacetylation to transcriptional targets. ..
  67. Ishikawa M, Iwasaki Y, Yatoh S, Kato T, Kumadaki S, Inoue N, et al. Cholesterol accumulation and diabetes in pancreatic beta-cell-specific SREBP-2 transgenic mice: a new model for lipotoxicity. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:2524-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes involved in beta-cell differentiation, such as PDX1 and BETA2, were suppressed, explaining loss of beta-cell mass, whereas IRS2 expression was not affected...
  68. Muniappan L, Ozcan S. Induction of insulin secretion in engineered liver cells by nitric oxide. BMC Physiol. 2007;7:11 pubmed
    ..Liver cells can be engineered to produce insulin and insulin secretion can be induced by treatment with L-arginine via the production of nitric oxide. ..
  69. Fodor A, Harel C, Fodor L, Armoni M, Salmon P, Trono D, et al. Adult rat liver cells transdifferentiated with lentiviral IPF1 vectors reverse diabetes in mice: an ex vivo gene therapy approach. Diabetologia. 2007;50:121-30 pubmed
    ..in primary culture with a human lentivirus containing pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1, now known as insulin promoter factor 1, homeodomain transcription factor [IPF1])...
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    ..Shp2 modulates the strength of signals flowing through Akt/FoxO1 and Erk pathways, culminating in control of Pdx1 expression and activity on Ins1 and Ins2 promoters, and forced Pdx1 expression rescued insulin production in Shp2-..
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    ..Pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) plays a key role in the differentiation of various non-?-cells into insulin-producing cells, but the potential ..