Pdpn

Summary

Gene Symbol: Pdpn
Description: podoplanin
Alias: E11, Gp38, OTS-8, RTI40, T1-alpha, podoplanin, E11 antigen epitope, RTI140, T1A, epithelial cell surface transmembrane protein antigen, glycoprotein 38, pulmonary type I alveolar epithelial cell transmembrane differentiation marker, type I cell 40 kDa protein
Species: rat
Products:     Pdpn

Top Publications

  1. Williams M, Cao Y, Hinds A, Rishi A, Wetterwald A. T1 alpha protein is developmentally regulated and expressed by alveolar type I cells, choroid plexus, and ciliary epithelia of adult rats. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1996;14:577-85 pubmed
    b>T1 alpha is the first marker gene known to be expressed in the adult lung solely by the alveolar type I epithelial cell...
  2. Nakazawa Y, Sato S, Naito M, Kato Y, Mishima K, Arai H, et al. Tetraspanin family member CD9 inhibits Aggrus/podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation and suppresses pulmonary metastasis. Blood. 2008;112:1730-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because HT1080 cells express the metastasis-promoting, platelet aggregation-inducing factor Aggrus/podoplanin on their surface, we examined the relationship between CD9 and Aggrus...
  3. Wetterwald A, Hoffstetter W, Cecchini M, Lanske B, Wagner C, Fleisch H, et al. Characterization and cloning of the E11 antigen, a marker expressed by rat osteoblasts and osteocytes. Bone. 1996;18:125-32 pubmed
    ..8 cells, using a eukaryotic expression system. The E11 cDNA sequence revealed homology with the murine OTS-8/gp38 sequence...
  4. Ramirez M, Millien G, Hinds A, Cao Y, Seldin D, Williams M. T1alpha, a lung type I cell differentiation gene, is required for normal lung cell proliferation and alveolus formation at birth. Dev Biol. 2003;256:61-72 pubmed
  5. Scholl F, Gamallo C, Vilaro S, Quintanilla M. Identification of PA2.26 antigen as a novel cell-surface mucin-type glycoprotein that induces plasma membrane extensions and increased motility in keratinocytes. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 24):4601-13 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest an involvement of PA2.26 in cell migration. ..
  6. Martín Villar E, Megias D, Castel S, Yurrita M, Vilaró S, Quintanilla M. Podoplanin binds ERM proteins to activate RhoA and promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4541-53 pubmed
    b>Podoplanin is a small membrane mucin expressed in tumors associated with malignant progression. It is enriched at cell-surface protrusions where it colocalizes with members of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) protein family...
  7. Kaneko M, Kato Y, Kameyama A, Ito H, Kuno A, Hirabayashi J, et al. Functional glycosylation of human podoplanin: glycan structure of platelet aggregation-inducing factor. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:331-6 pubmed
    b>Podoplanin (Aggrus) is a mucin-type sialoglycoprotein that plays a key role in tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation...
  8. Ijpelaar D, Schulz A, Koop K, Schlesener M, Bruijn J, Kerjaschki D, et al. Glomerular hypertrophy precedes albuminuria and segmental loss of podoplanin in podocytes in Munich-Wistar-Frömter rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;294:F758-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Albuminuria developed starting at 6 wk of age and coincided with focal and segmental loss of podoplanin, increased expression of desmin, entrapment of albumin in affected podocytes, and focal and segmental foot ..
  9. Frank J, Gutierrez J, Jones K, Allen L, Dobbs L, Matthay M. Low tidal volume reduces epithelial and endothelial injury in acid-injured rat lungs. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:242-9 pubmed
    ..Plasma RTI40, a marker of type I epithelial cell injury, decreased 46% when tidal volume was reduced from 12 to 6 ml/kg and ..
  10. Zakhary I, Alotibi F, Lewis J, Elsalanty M, Wenger K, Sharawy M, et al. Inherent physical characteristics and gene expression differences between alveolar and basal bones. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016;122:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are suggestive of fewer bone mineralization units and therefore a slower remodeling rate. ..

Detail Information

Publications48

  1. Williams M, Cao Y, Hinds A, Rishi A, Wetterwald A. T1 alpha protein is developmentally regulated and expressed by alveolar type I cells, choroid plexus, and ciliary epithelia of adult rats. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1996;14:577-85 pubmed
    b>T1 alpha is the first marker gene known to be expressed in the adult lung solely by the alveolar type I epithelial cell...
  2. Nakazawa Y, Sato S, Naito M, Kato Y, Mishima K, Arai H, et al. Tetraspanin family member CD9 inhibits Aggrus/podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation and suppresses pulmonary metastasis. Blood. 2008;112:1730-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because HT1080 cells express the metastasis-promoting, platelet aggregation-inducing factor Aggrus/podoplanin on their surface, we examined the relationship between CD9 and Aggrus...
  3. Wetterwald A, Hoffstetter W, Cecchini M, Lanske B, Wagner C, Fleisch H, et al. Characterization and cloning of the E11 antigen, a marker expressed by rat osteoblasts and osteocytes. Bone. 1996;18:125-32 pubmed
    ..8 cells, using a eukaryotic expression system. The E11 cDNA sequence revealed homology with the murine OTS-8/gp38 sequence...
  4. Ramirez M, Millien G, Hinds A, Cao Y, Seldin D, Williams M. T1alpha, a lung type I cell differentiation gene, is required for normal lung cell proliferation and alveolus formation at birth. Dev Biol. 2003;256:61-72 pubmed
  5. Scholl F, Gamallo C, Vilaro S, Quintanilla M. Identification of PA2.26 antigen as a novel cell-surface mucin-type glycoprotein that induces plasma membrane extensions and increased motility in keratinocytes. J Cell Sci. 1999;112 ( Pt 24):4601-13 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest an involvement of PA2.26 in cell migration. ..
  6. Martín Villar E, Megias D, Castel S, Yurrita M, Vilaró S, Quintanilla M. Podoplanin binds ERM proteins to activate RhoA and promote epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4541-53 pubmed
    b>Podoplanin is a small membrane mucin expressed in tumors associated with malignant progression. It is enriched at cell-surface protrusions where it colocalizes with members of the ERM (ezrin, radixin, moesin) protein family...
  7. Kaneko M, Kato Y, Kameyama A, Ito H, Kuno A, Hirabayashi J, et al. Functional glycosylation of human podoplanin: glycan structure of platelet aggregation-inducing factor. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:331-6 pubmed
    b>Podoplanin (Aggrus) is a mucin-type sialoglycoprotein that plays a key role in tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation...
  8. Ijpelaar D, Schulz A, Koop K, Schlesener M, Bruijn J, Kerjaschki D, et al. Glomerular hypertrophy precedes albuminuria and segmental loss of podoplanin in podocytes in Munich-Wistar-Frömter rats. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;294:F758-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Albuminuria developed starting at 6 wk of age and coincided with focal and segmental loss of podoplanin, increased expression of desmin, entrapment of albumin in affected podocytes, and focal and segmental foot ..
  9. Frank J, Gutierrez J, Jones K, Allen L, Dobbs L, Matthay M. Low tidal volume reduces epithelial and endothelial injury in acid-injured rat lungs. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:242-9 pubmed
    ..Plasma RTI40, a marker of type I epithelial cell injury, decreased 46% when tidal volume was reduced from 12 to 6 ml/kg and ..
  10. Zakhary I, Alotibi F, Lewis J, Elsalanty M, Wenger K, Sharawy M, et al. Inherent physical characteristics and gene expression differences between alveolar and basal bones. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016;122:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are suggestive of fewer bone mineralization units and therefore a slower remodeling rate. ..
  11. Braun M, Flucke U, Debald M, Walgenbach Bruenagel G, Walgenbach K, Höller T, et al. Detection of lymphovascular invasion in early breast cancer by D2-40 (podoplanin): a clinically useful predictor for axillary lymph node metastases. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;112:503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Further prospective studies are needed to prove the clinical impact of D2-40. ..
  12. Kitterman J, Chapin C, Vanderbilt J, Porta N, Scavo L, Dobbs L, et al. Effects of oligohydramnios on lung growth and maturation in the fetal rat. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;282:L431-9 pubmed
    ..01). We conclude that OH, which retards lung growth, has little effect on surfactant and impedes formation of type I cells relative to type II cells. ..
  13. Acton S, Farrugia A, Astarita J, Mourão Sá D, Jenkins R, Nye E, et al. Dendritic cells control fibroblastic reticular network tension and lymph node expansion. Nature. 2014;514:498-502 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that the physical elasticity of lymph nodes is maintained in part by podoplanin (PDPN) signalling in stromal fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) and its modulation by CLEC-2 expressed on ..
  14. Christou C, Pearce A, Watson A, Mistry A, Pollitt A, Fenton May A, et al. Renal cells activate the platelet receptor CLEC-2 through podoplanin. Biochem J. 2008;411:133-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The transmembrane protein podoplanin was identified on HEK-293T cells and was demonstrated to mediate both binding of HEK-293T cells to CLEC-2 and ..
  15. Webb J, Campos Neto A, Ovendale P, Martin T, Stromberg E, Badaro R, et al. Human and murine immune responses to a novel Leishmania major recombinant protein encoded by members of a multicopy gene family. Infect Immun. 1998;66:3279-89 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that the TSA protein may be useful as a component of a subunit vaccine against leishmaniasis. ..
  16. Clegg G, Tyrrell C, McKechnie S, Beers M, Harrison D, McElroy M. Coexpression of RTI40 with alveolar epithelial type II cell proteins in lungs following injury: identification of alveolar intermediate cell types. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;289:L382-90 pubmed
    ..These data also suggest that the coexpression of RTI(40) with ATII cell proteins may be used to identify and investigate ATII cell transdifferentiation to ATI cells following injury...
  17. Martín Villar E, Fernández Muñoz B, Parsons M, Yurrita M, Megias D, Perez Gomez E, et al. Podoplanin associates with CD44 to promote directional cell migration. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:4387-99 pubmed publisher
    b>Podoplanin is a transmembrane glycoprotein up-regulated in different human tumors, especially those derived from squamous stratified epithelia (SCCs)...
  18. Breiteneder Geleff S, Matsui K, Soleiman A, Meraner P, Poczewski H, Kalt R, et al. Podoplanin, novel 43-kd membrane protein of glomerular epithelial cells, is down-regulated in puromycin nephrosis. Am J Pathol. 1997;151:1141-52 pubmed
    ..To indicate that this protein could be associated with transformation of arborized foot processes to flat feet (Latin, pes planus) we have called it podoplanin.
  19. Vanderbilt J, Dobbs L. Characterization of the gene and promoter for RTI40, a differentiation marker of type I alveolar epithelial cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1998;19:662-71 pubmed
    ..the differentiated state of the alveolar epithelium, we have analyzed the gene for rat type I cell 40 kD protein (RTI40), an apical integral plasma membrane protein expressed in type I but not type II alveolar epithelial cells...
  20. Millien G, Spira A, Hinds A, Wang J, Williams M, Ramirez M. Alterations in gene expression in T1 alpha null lung: a model of deficient alveolar sac development. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:35 pubmed
    ..Many genes identified were not previously associated with lung development and may participate in formation of alveolar sacs prenatally. ..
  21. Mishima K, Kato Y, Kaneko M, Nakazawa Y, Kunita A, Fujita N, et al. Podoplanin expression in primary central nervous system germ cell tumors: a useful histological marker for the diagnosis of germinoma. Acta Neuropathol. 2006;111:563-8 pubmed
    b>Podoplanin, a mucin-like transmembrane sialoglycoprotein, promotes platelet aggregation and may be involved in cancer cell migration, invasion, metastasis, and malignant progression...
  22. Nagahashi M, Kim E, Yamada A, Ramachandran S, Allegood J, Hait N, et al. Spns2, a transporter of phosphorylated sphingoid bases, regulates their blood and lymph levels, and the lymphatic network. FASEB J. 2013;27:1001-11 pubmed publisher
  23. Esumi G, Masumoto K, Teshiba R, Nagata K, Kinoshita Y, Yamaza H, et al. Effect of insulin-like growth factors on lung development in a nitrofen-induced CDH rat model. Pediatr Surg Int. 2011;27:187-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The administration of IGF-2 to nitrofen-induced hypoplastic lungs might lead to alveolar maturation, which thus results in their improved development. ..
  24. Uhrin P, Zaujec J, Breuss J, Olcaydu D, Chrenek P, Stockinger H, et al. Novel function for blood platelets and podoplanin in developmental separation of blood and lymphatic circulation. Blood. 2010;115:3997-4005 pubmed publisher
    ..establishment and maintenance of distinct blood and lymphatic systems, primarily by mediating proper function of podoplanin. Here, we show that this separation process critically involves platelet activation by podoplanin...
  25. Suzuki Inoue K, Kato Y, Inoue O, Kaneko M, Mishima K, Yatomi Y, et al. Involvement of the snake toxin receptor CLEC-2, in podoplanin-mediated platelet activation, by cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25993-6001 pubmed
    b>Podoplanin (aggrus), a transmembrane sialoglycoprotein, is involved in tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation, tumor metastasis, and lymphatic vessel formation...
  26. Dumoff K, Chu C, Harris E, Holtz D, Xu X, Zhang P, et al. Low podoplanin expression in pretreatment biopsy material predicts poor prognosis in advanced-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated by primary radiation. Mod Pathol. 2006;19:708-16 pubmed
    ..We have recently found that low podoplanin immunoreactivity in cervix carcinoma correlated with the presence of lymphatic invasion and nodal metastasis...
  27. Hirahara I, Sato H, Imai T, Onishi A, Morishita Y, Muto S, et al. Methylglyoxal Induced Basophilic Spindle Cells with Podoplanin at the Surface of Peritoneum in Rat Peritoneal Dialysis Model. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:289751 pubmed publisher
    ..In rats treated with MGO, peritoneal fibrous thickening with the appearance of basophilic spindle cells with podoplanin, cytokeratin, and α-smooth muscle actin at the surface of the peritoneum was observed...
  28. Schacht V, Dadras S, Johnson L, Jackson D, Hong Y, Detmar M. Up-regulation of the lymphatic marker podoplanin, a mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein, in human squamous cell carcinomas and germ cell tumors. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:913-21 pubmed
    The mucin-type glycoprotein podoplanin is specifically expressed by lymphatic but not blood vascular endothelial cells in culture and in tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis, and podoplanin deficiency results in congenital lymphedema and ..
  29. Gonzalez R, Dobbs L. Purification and analysis of RTI40, a type I alveolar epithelial cell apical membrane protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1429:208-16 pubmed
    b>RTI40 is a 40-42 kDa protein that, within the lung, is specific to the apical plasma membrane of the rat alveolar type I cell. Type I cells cover greater than 95% of the internal surface area of the lung...
  30. Narasaraju T, Jin N, Narendranath C, Chen Z, Gou D, Liu L. Protein nitration in rat lungs during hyperoxia exposure: a possible role of myeloperoxidase. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003;285:L1037-45 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest that protein nitration during hyperoxia may be mediated in part by MPO generated from activated phagocytic cells, and such protein modifications may contribute to hyperoxia-mediated lung injury. ..
  31. Martín Villar E, Borda d Agua B, Carrasco Ramirez P, Renart J, Parsons M, Quintanilla M, et al. Podoplanin mediates ECM degradation by squamous carcinoma cells through control of invadopodia stability. Oncogene. 2015;34:4531-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we uncover a new role for podoplanin, a transmembrane glycoprotein closely associated with malignant progression of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), ..
  32. Matsui K, Nagy Bojarsky K, Laakkonen P, Krieger S, Mechtler K, Uchida S, et al. Lymphatic microvessels in the rat remnant kidney model of renal fibrosis: aminopeptidase p and podoplanin are discriminatory markers for endothelial cells of blood and lymphatic vessels. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14:1981-9 pubmed
    ..e., the membrane mucoprotein podoplanin with specificity for lymphatic endothelia, and the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane enzyme ..
  33. Ma T, Yang B, Matthay M, Verkman A. Evidence against a role of mouse, rat, and two cloned human t1alpha isoforms as a water channel or a regulator of aquaporin-type water channels. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1998;19:143-9 pubmed
    ..The cloning of hT1alpha isoforms may permit the development of an assay of type I cell antigen in airspace fluid as a marker of human lung injury. ..
  34. Kato Y, Fujita N, Kunita A, Sato S, Kaneko M, Osawa M, et al. Molecular identification of Aggrus/T1alpha as a platelet aggregation-inducing factor expressed in colorectal tumors. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:51599-605 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Aggrus/T1alpha is a newly identified, platelet aggregation-inducing factor expressed in colorectal tumors. ..
  35. Kato Y, Kaneko M, Kuno A, Uchiyama N, Amano K, Chiba Y, et al. Inhibition of tumor cell-induced platelet aggregation using a novel anti-podoplanin antibody reacting with its platelet-aggregation-stimulating domain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:1301-7 pubmed
    The mucin-type sialoglycoprotein, podoplanin (aggrus), is a platelet-aggregating factor on cancer cells. We previously described up-regulated expression of podoplanin in malignant astrocytic tumors including glioblastoma...
  36. Astarita J, Cremasco V, Fu J, Darnell M, Peck J, Nieves Bonilla J, et al. The CLEC-2-podoplanin axis controls the contractility of fibroblastic reticular cells and lymph node microarchitecture. Nat Immunol. 2015;16:75-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that podoplanin (PDPN) regulates actomyosin contractility in FRCs...
  37. Koop K, Eikmans M, Wehland M, Baelde H, Ijpelaar D, Kreutz R, et al. Selective loss of podoplanin protein expression accompanies proteinuria and precedes alterations in podocyte morphology in a spontaneous proteinuric rat model. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:315-26 pubmed publisher
    ..expression and distribution of the podocyte proteins was similar between the two strains, except for the protein podoplanin. At 4 weeks, podoplanin began decreasing in the glomeruli of Dahl SS rats in a focal and segmental fashion...
  38. Kerjaschki D, Regele H, Moosberger I, Nagy Bojarski K, Watschinger B, Soleiman A, et al. Lymphatic neoangiogenesis in human kidney transplants is associated with immunologically active lymphocytic infiltrates. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:603-12 pubmed
    ..on human renal transplant biopsies using antibodies to the lymphatic endothelial marker protein podoplanin. Nodular infiltrates are constantly associated with newly formed, Ki-67-expressing lymphatic vessels and contain ..
  39. Rishi A, Joyce Brady M, Fisher J, Dobbs L, Floros J, vanderSpek J, et al. Cloning, characterization, and development expression of a rat lung alveolar type I cell gene in embryonic endodermal and neural derivatives. Dev Biol. 1995;167:294-306 pubmed
    We report here the identification and characterization of a novel gene, T1 alpha, expressed in high abundance in adult rat lung, fetal lung, and early fetal brain...
  40. Sonne S, Herlihy A, Hoei Hansen C, Nielsen J, Almstrup K, Skakkebaek N, et al. Identity of M2A (D2-40) antigen and gp36 (Aggrus, T1A-2, podoplanin) in human developing testis, testicular carcinoma in situ and germ-cell tumours. Virchows Arch. 2006;449:200-6 pubmed
    ..PDPN encodes podoplanin (Aggrus, human gp36, T1A-2), a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed in lymphatic endothelium and various solid ..
  41. Tsuneki M, Maruyama S, Yamazaki M, Xu B, Essa A, Abe T, et al. Extracellular heat shock protein A9 is a novel interaction partner of podoplanin in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;434:124-30 pubmed publisher
    In previous studies, we have shown several lines of evidence that podoplanin (PDPN) plays an important role in cell adhesion via its association with extracellular components in neoplastic conditions, though there has been no trial to ..
  42. McElroy M, Pittet J, Hashimoto S, Allen L, Wiener Kronish J, Dobbs L. A type I cell-specific protein is a biochemical marker of epithelial injury in a rat model of pneumonia. Am J Physiol. 1995;268:L181-6 pubmed
    In this study we determined whether the alveolar fluid content of a specific epithelial type I cell protein, rTI40, can be used as a biochemical marker for lung injury...
  43. Yurrita M, Fernández Muñoz B, del Castillo G, Martín Villar E, Renart J, Quintanilla M. Podoplanin is a substrate of presenilin-1/?-secretase. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014;46:68-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Podoplanin (PDPN) is a mucin-like transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an important role in development and cancer...
  44. Fernández Muñoz B, Yurrita M, Martín Villar E, Carrasco Ramirez P, Megias D, Renart J, et al. The transmembrane domain of podoplanin is required for its association with lipid rafts and the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:886-96 pubmed publisher
    b>Podoplanin is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is upregulated in cancer and was reported to induce an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MDCK cells...
  45. Horiguchi A, Ito K, Sumitomo M, Kimura F, Asano T, Hayakawa M. Intratumoral lymphatics and lymphatic invasion are associated with tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma. Urology. 2008;71:928-32 pubmed publisher
    ..specimens were immunostained with D2-40 antibody, which specifically recognizes the lymphatic-specific marker podoplanin. The clinicopathologic significance of the densities and presence of lymphatic vessels and lymphatic invasion (..
  46. Schacht V, Ramirez M, Hong Y, Hirakawa S, Feng D, Harvey N, et al. T1alpha/podoplanin deficiency disrupts normal lymphatic vasculature formation and causes lymphedema. EMBO J. 2003;22:3546-56 pubmed
    Within the vascular system, the mucin-type transmembrane glycoprotein T1alpha/podoplanin is predominantly expressed by lymphatic endothelium, and recent studies have shown that it is regulated by the lymphatic-specific homeobox gene Prox1...
  47. Boucherot A, Schreiber R, Pavenstadt H, Kunzelmann K. Cloning and expression of the mouse glomerular podoplanin homologue gp38P. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17:978-84 pubmed
    ..PAN, severe proteinuria is induced that is paralleled by a reduced expression of a rat podocyte protein, named podoplanin. The protein probably plays a role in maintaining the unique shape of podocytes...
  48. Yu H, Pinkus G, Hornick J. Diffuse membranous immunoreactivity for podoplanin (D2-40) distinguishes primary and metastatic seminomas from other germ cell tumors and metastatic neoplasms. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007;128:767-75 pubmed
    b>Podoplanin has been shown to be expressed in primary germ cell tumors (GCTs), with conflicting results regarding its specificity...