Pcsk1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Pcsk1
Description: proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1
Alias: BDP, PC1, PC3, neuroendocrine convertase 1, NEC 1, Protein convertase subtilisin / kexin, type I, prohormone convertase 1, prohormone convertase 3, proprotein convertase 1
Species: rat
Products:     Pcsk1

Top Publications

  1. Malide D, Seidah N, Chretien M, Bendayan M. Electron microscopic immunocytochemical evidence for the involvement of the convertases PC1 and PC2 in the processing of proinsulin in pancreatic beta-cells. J Histochem Cytochem. 1995;43:11-9 pubmed
    ..Two endoproteases, PC1 (or PC3) and PC2, have recently been implicated in the conversion of proinsulin...
  2. Lansac G, Dong W, Dubois C, Benlarbi N, Afonso C, Fournier I, et al. Lipopolysaccharide mediated regulation of neuroendocrine associated proprotein convertases and neuropeptide precursor processing in the rat spleen. J Neuroimmunol. 2006;171:57-71 pubmed
    ..Within the PC family, PC1/3 and PC2 are well known for their preferential expression within neuroendocrine cells...
  3. Zhu X, Zhou A, Dey A, Norrbom C, Carroll R, Zhang C, et al. Disruption of PC1/3 expression in mice causes dwarfism and multiple neuroendocrine peptide processing defects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:10293-8 pubmed
    The subtilisin-like proprotein convertases PC1/3 (SPC3) and PC2 (SPC2) are believed to be the major endoproteolytic processing enzymes of the regulated secretory pathway...
  4. Jackson R, Creemers J, Ohagi S, Raffin Sanson M, Sanders L, Montague C, et al. Obesity and impaired prohormone processing associated with mutations in the human prohormone convertase 1 gene. Nat Genet. 1997;16:303-6 pubmed
    ..but a very low insulin level, suggestive of a defective prohormone processing by the endopeptidase, prohormone convertase 1 (PC1; ref. 4). We now report this proband to be a compound heterozygote for mutations in PC1...
  5. Lou H, Smith A, Coates L, Cawley N, Loh Y, Birch N. The transmembrane domain of the prohormone convertase PC3: a key motif for targeting to the regulated secretory pathway. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;267:17-25 pubmed
    ..This study reports that the amino acid sequence of PC3 (aa617-638), previously identified as a novel transmembrane (TM) domain, confers lipid raft association and ..
  6. Wang H, Brun T, Kataoka K, Sharma A, Wollheim C. MAFA controls genes implicated in insulin biosynthesis and secretion. Diabetologia. 2007;50:348-58 pubmed
    ..1 (PDX1), NK6 transcription factor-related, locus 1 (NKX6-1), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R), prohormone convertase 1/3 (PCSK1) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC), was regulated positively by MAFA and negatively by DN-MAFA...
  7. Lu H, Yang Y, Allister E, Wijesekara N, Wheeler M. The identification of potential factors associated with the development of type 2 diabetes: a quantitative proteomics approach. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2008;7:1434-51 pubmed publisher
    ..A fraction of the differentially expressed proteins identified (including GLUT2, DNAJC3, VAMP2, RAB3A, and PC1/3) were linked previously to insulin-secretory defects and T2D...
  8. Seeley R, Drazen D, Clegg D. The critical role of the melanocortin system in the control of energy balance. Annu Rev Nutr. 2004;24:133-49 pubmed
    ..Reviewed here is the wide range of evidence that points to the melanocortin system as a critical node in the diverse neurocircuitry that regulates food intake and body weight. ..
  9. Mulcahy L, Vaslet C, Nillni E. Prohormone-convertase 1 processing enhances post-Golgi sorting of prothyrotropin-releasing hormone-derived peptides. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39818-26 pubmed
    ..Endoproteolysis is performed by two prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2...

More Information

Publications69

  1. Gagnon H, Refaie S, Gagnon S, Desjardins R, Salzet M, Day R. Proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) in the rat alveolar macrophage cell line NR8383: localization, trafficking and effects on cytokine secretion. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61557 pubmed publisher
    The proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) is an important post-translational processing enzyme for the activation of precursor proteins within the regulated secretory pathway...
  2. Guest P, Abdel Halim S, Gross D, Clark A, Poitout V, Amaria R, et al. Proinsulin processing in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat. J Endocrinol. 2002;175:637-47 pubmed
    ..of alpha-cells and pronounced beta-cell heterogeneity in the expression patterns of insulin, prohormone convertases PC1, PC2, carboxypeptidase E (CPE) and the PC-binding proteins 7B2 and ProSAAS...
  3. Bloomquist B, Eipper B, Mains R. Prohormone-converting enzymes: regulation and evaluation of function using antisense RNA. Mol Endocrinol. 1991;5:2014-24 pubmed
    ..endoproteases have been identified by homology to the yeast Kex2 endoprotease, including furin, PC2, and PC1. However, the question is still open as to which might be involved in peptide posttranslational processing...
  4. Arias A, Vélez Granell C, Mayer G, Bendayan M. Colocalization of chaperone Cpn60, proinsulin and convertase PC1 within immature secretory granules of insulin-secreting cells suggests a role for Cpn60 in insulin processing. J Cell Sci. 2000;113 ( Pt 11):2075-83 pubmed
    ..Double-labeling experiments showed associations between Cpn60 and proinsulin, as well as between Cpn60 and PC1 convertase, with a preferential binding to proinsulin...
  5. Walia P, Asadi A, Kieffer T, Johnson J, Chanoine J. Ontogeny of ghrelin, obestatin, preproghrelin, and prohormone convertases in rat pancreas and stomach. Pediatr Res. 2009;65:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..When preproghrelin cells were immunoreactive for ghrelin, they were also immunoreactive for obestatin and PC1/3...
  6. Garcia A, Han S, Janssen W, Khaing Z, Ito T, Glucksman M, et al. A prohormone convertase cleavage site within a predicted alpha-helix mediates sorting of the neuronal and endocrine polypeptide VGF into the regulated secretory pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:41595-608 pubmed
  7. Espinosa V, Liu Y, Ferrini M, Anghel A, Nie Y, Tripathi P, et al. Differential regulation of prohormone convertase 1/3, prohormone convertase 2 and phosphorylated cyclic-AMP-response element binding protein by short-term and long-term morphine treatment: implications for understanding the "switch" to opia. Neuroscience. 2008;156:788-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Two pro-hormone convertases, PC1/3 and PC2 are believed to be responsible for the activation of many neurohormones and expression of these enzymes ..
  8. Duhamel M, Rodet F, Murgoci A, Desjardins R, Gagnon H, Wisztorski M, et al. The proprotein convertase PC1/3 regulates TLR9 trafficking and the associated signaling pathways. Sci Rep. 2016;6:19360 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently demonstrated that in macrophages, proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) is a key regulator of TLR4 Myd88-dependent signalling...
  9. Navarro M, Cubero I, Thiele T. Decreased immunoreactivity of the polypeptide precursor pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and the prohormone convertase pc1/3 after chronic ethanol exposure in Sprague-Dawley rats. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013;37:399-406 pubmed publisher
    ..peptides are generated by extensive posttranslational processing that involves several enzymes including prohormone convertase 1/3 and 2 (PC1/3 and PC2)...
  10. Zheng M, Streck R, Scott R, Seidah N, Pintar J. The developmental expression in rat of proteases furin, PC1, PC2, and carboxypeptidase E: implications for early maturation of proteolytic processing capacity. J Neurosci. 1994;14:4656-73 pubmed
    The genes encoding mammalian subtilisin-like endoproteases furin, PC1, and PC2 have been isolated and are implicated in endoproteolytic cleavage of precursor molecules, which is a key step in posttranslational maturation of proproteins ..
  11. Alarcon C, Leahy J, Schuppin G, Rhodes C. Increased secretory demand rather than a defect in the proinsulin conversion mechanism causes hyperproinsulinemia in a glucose-infusion rat model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest. 1995;95:1032-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, biosynthesis of the proinsulin conversion enzymes (PC2, PC3, and carboxypeptidase-H [CP-H]) and proinsulin, were examined in islets isolated from 48-h infused rats with 50% (..
  12. Nillni E. Regulation of prohormone convertases in hypothalamic neurons: implications for prothyrotropin-releasing hormone and proopiomelanocortin. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4191-200 pubmed
    ..proneuropeptide precursors require for their maturation proteolytic cleavage by the prohormone convertases 1 and 2 (PC1/3 and PC2)...
  13. Kato H, Kuwako K, Suzuki M, Tanaka S. Gene expression patterns of pro-opiomelanocortin-processing enzymes PC1 and PC2 during postnatal development of rat corticotrophs. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004;52:943-57 pubmed
    We examined the expression and localization of the prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2, in the anterior pituitary cells of developing rats by a double staining procedure using in situ RT-PCR and an immunofluorescence technique...
  14. Shen X, Li Q, Brent G, Friedman T. Thyroid hormone regulation of prohormone convertase 1 (PC1): regional expression in rat brain and in vitro characterization of negative thyroid hormone response elements. J Mol Endocrinol. 2004;33:21-33 pubmed
    Most pro-neuropeptides are processed by the prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2...
  15. Wen J, Chen Y, Song S, Ding J, Gao Y, Hu Q, et al. Paired box 6 (PAX6) regulates glucose metabolism via proinsulin processing mediated by prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3). Diabetologia. 2009;52:504-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Pax6 mutations lead to PC1/3 deficiency, resulting in defective proinsulin processing and abnormal glucose metabolism...
  16. Zhou A, Martin S, Lipkind G, LaMendola J, Steiner D. Regulatory roles of the P domain of the subtilisin-like prohormone convertases. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:11107-14 pubmed
    ..In a series of C-terminal truncations of PC3 (also known as PC1 or SPC3), PC3-Thr594 was identified as the shortest active form, thereby defining the functional ..
  17. Winsky Sommerer R, Benjannet S, Rovere C, Barbero P, Seidah N, Epelbaum J, et al. Regional and cellular localization of the neuroendocrine prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in the rat central nervous system. J Comp Neurol. 2000;424:439-60 pubmed
    b>PC1 and PC2 are two major enzymes involved in the processing of protein precursors directed to the regulated secretory pathway...
  18. Dagai L, Peri Naor R, Birk R. Docosahexaenoic acid significantly stimulates immediate early response genes and neurite outgrowth. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:867-75 pubmed publisher
    ..and computer image analysis), and for mRNA levels of the immediate molecular differentiation markers Egr1, Egr3, PC3 and PC4 (quantitative real-time PCR)...
  19. Mousa S, Shakibaei M, Sitte N, Schafer M, Stein C. Subcellular pathways of beta-endorphin synthesis, processing, and release from immunocytes in inflammatory pain. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1331-41 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of POMC, carboxypeptidase E, the prohormone convertases 1 (PC1), and 2 (PC2), PC2-binding protein 7B2, and the release of END from inflammatory cells in rats...
  20. Marx R, Mains R. Adenovirally encoded prohormone convertase-1 functions in atrial myocyte large dense core vesicles. Endocrinology. 1997;138:5108-18 pubmed
    ..is due to the absence of prohormone convertases (PCs) from the atrial granules or to other factors, we expressed PC1 in atrial myocyte cultures using a recombinant adenovirus vector...
  21. Billova S, Galanopoulou A, Seidah N, Qiu X, Kumar U. Immunohistochemical expression and colocalization of somatostatin, carboxypeptidase-E and prohormone convertases 1 and 2 in rat brain. Neuroscience. 2007;147:403-18 pubmed
    ..Several previous studies have predicted that carboxypeptidase-E (CPE), prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) and prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) may function as sorting elements for somatostatin (SST) for its ..
  22. Fodor A, Harel C, Fodor L, Armoni M, Salmon P, Trono D, et al. Adult rat liver cells transdifferentiated with lentiviral IPF1 vectors reverse diabetes in mice: an ex vivo gene therapy approach. Diabetologia. 2007;50:121-30 pubmed
    ..inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 11 (Kcnj11) and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (Pcsk1) were also expressed...
  23. Creemers J, Pritchard L, Gyte A, Le Rouzic P, Meulemans S, Wardlaw S, et al. Agouti-related protein is posttranslationally cleaved by proprotein convertase 1 to generate agouti-related protein (AGRP)83-132: interaction between AGRP83-132 and melanocortin receptors cannot be influenced by syndecan-3. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1621-31 pubmed
    ..RNA interference and overexpression experiments showed that PC1/3 is primarily responsible for cleavage in vitro, although both PC2 and PC5/6A can also process AGRP...
  24. Wideman R, Gray S, Covey S, Webb G, Kieffer T. Transplantation of PC1/3-Expressing alpha-cells improves glucose handling and cold tolerance in leptin-resistant mice. Mol Ther. 2009;17:191-8 pubmed publisher
    ..along with GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin, is produced in the intestinal L-cell via processing of proglucagon by prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), while in the pancreatic alpha-cell, coexpression of proglucagon and the alternate enzyme PC2 ..
  25. Bauer R, Hoflehner J, Doblinger A, Kapeller I, Laslop A. Regulation of the biosynthesis and processing of chromogranins in organotypic slices: influence of depolarization, forskolin and differentiating factors. Eur J Neurosci. 2000;12:2746-56 pubmed
    ..Both forskolin and depolarization upregulated the prohormone convertase (PC)1, but not PC2, indicating that PC1 levels are critical for secretoneurin production under stimulating conditions...
  26. Niquet J, Pérez Martínez L, Guerra M, Grouselle D, Joseph Bravo P, Charli J. Extracellular matrix proteins increase the expression of pro-TRH and pro-protein convertase PC1 in fetal hypothalamic neurons in vitro. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2000;120:49-56 pubmed
    ..Laminin or fibronectin did not change pro-TRH mRNA or TRH levels but enhanced levels of the pro-protein convertase PC1 suggesting that the ECM molecules did regulate the translational status of pro-TRH...
  27. Marcinkiewicz M, Ramla D, Seidah N, Chretien M. Developmental expression of the prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in mouse pancreatic islets. Endocrinology. 1994;135:1651-60 pubmed
    The immunocytochemical distribution and messenger RNA expression of the prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 involved in the posttranslational processing of precursor proteins were analyzed in mouse and rat pancreatic islets...
  28. Li M, Shuto Y, Somogyvari Vigh A, Arimura A. Prohormone convertases 1 and 2 process ProPACAP and generate matured, bioactive PACAP38 and PACAP27 in transfected rat pituitary GH4C1 cells. Neuroendocrinology. 1999;69:217-26 pubmed
    ..The prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2, subtilisin-like PCs of the Kex2 family, are expressed in neuroendocrine cells...
  29. Beinfeld M, Vishnuvardhan D, Blum A, Reynolds N, Fannous S, Kitagawa K, et al. Inhibition of prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) expression in cholecystokinin (CCK) expressing At-T20 cells decreased cellular content and secretion of CCK and caused a shift in molecular forms of CCK secreted. Peptides. 2006;27:905-10 pubmed
    Two different RNAi methods were used to inhibit the expression of prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) in At-T20 cells...
  30. Marandi M, Mowla S, Tavallaei M, Yaghoobi M, Jafarnejad S. Proprotein convertases 1 and 2 (PC1 and PC2) are expressed in neurally differentiated rat bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs). Neurosci Lett. 2007;420:198-203 pubmed
    ..In contrast, while PC1/PC3 and PC2 (specific to neural and endocrine cells) are absent in undifferentiated BMSCs, their expression is ..
  31. Cain B, Connolly K, Blum A, Vishnuvardhan D, Marchand J, Beinfeld M, et al. Distribution and colocalization of cholecystokinin with the prohormone convertase enzymes PC1, PC2, and PC5 in rat brain. J Comp Neurol. 2003;467:307-25 pubmed
    ..To evaluate whether PC1 and PC5 are possible candidates for the other enzymes involved in CCK processing, the distribution of PC1, PC2, and ..
  32. Espinosa V, Ferrini M, Shen X, Lutfy K, Nillni E, Friedman T. Cellular colocalization and coregulation between hypothalamic pro-TRH and prohormone convertases in hypothyroidism. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E175-86 pubmed
    The prohormone convertases (PCs), PC1/3 and PC2, are involved in the tissue-specific endoproteolytic posttranslational processing of many hormonal precursors within the secretory pathway...
  33. Posner S, Vaslet C, Jurofcik M, Lee A, Seidah N, Nillni E. Stepwise posttranslational processing of progrowth hormone-releasing hormone (proGHRH) polypeptide by furin and PC1. Endocrine. 2004;23:199-213 pubmed
    ..The results from transfections with preproGHRH alone or double or triple transfections with PC1 and PC2 in AtT-20, GH3, and GH4C1 cells indicated that PC1 is the primary enzyme involved in the generation of GHRH ..
  34. Pritchard L, Turnbull A, White A. Pro-opiomelanocortin processing in the hypothalamus: impact on melanocortin signalling and obesity. J Endocrinol. 2002;172:411-21 pubmed
    ..We predict that further research into hypothalamic POMC processing, and the proteolytic enzymes involved, may yield important new clues on how flux through the MC4R pathway is regulated. ..
  35. Rhodes C, Lincoln B, Shoelson S. Preferential cleavage of des-31,32-proinsulin over intact proinsulin by the insulin secretory granule type II endopeptidase. Implication of a favored route for prohormone processing. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:22719-27 pubmed
  36. Benjannet S, Rondeau N, Paquet L, Boudreault A, Lazure C, Chretien M, et al. Comparative biosynthesis, covalent post-translational modifications and efficiency of prosegment cleavage of the prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2: glycosylation, sulphation and identification of the intracellular site of prosegment cleavage of PC1 . Biochem J. 1993;294 ( Pt 3):735-43 pubmed
    We present herein the pulse-chase analysis of the biosynthesis of the prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in the endocrine GH4C1 cells infected with vaccinia virus recombinants expressing these convertases...
  37. Li Q, Jansen E, Friedman T. Regulation of prohormone convertase 1 (PC1) by gp130-related cytokines. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1999;158:143-52 pubmed
    ..of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) to generate bioactive ACTH in the anterior pituitary is mediated by prohormone convertase 1 (PC1)...
  38. Nakashima M, Nie Y, Li Q, Friedman T. Up-regulation of splenic prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in diabetic rats. Regul Pept. 2001;102:135-45 pubmed
    ..we treated rats with intraperitoneal streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg/day) daily for 5 days and measured splenic PC1 and PC2 mRNA by ribonuclease protection assay. We found that PC1 mRNA was increased 6.0+/-0.02-fold (P<0...
  39. Hakes D, Birch N, Mezey A, Dixon J. Isolation of two complementary deoxyribonucleic acid clones from a rat insulinoma cell line based on similarities to Kex2 and furin sequences and the specific localization of each transcript to endocrine and neuroendocrine tissues in rats. Endocrinology. 1991;129:3053-63 pubmed
    ..A 5.0-kilobase (kb) cDNA, termed BDP, coding for a 752-amino acid protein and a 2...
  40. Dong W, Day R. Gene expression of proprotein convertases in individual rat anterior pituitary cells and their regulation in corticotrophs mediated by glucocorticoids. Endocrinology. 2002;143:254-62 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate the plasticity of SPCs expression in corticotrophs. SPCs may be directly involved in the mammalian stress response and may be important in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis homeostasis. ..
  41. Hajebrahimi Z, Mowla S, Movahedin M, Tavallaei M. Gene expression alterations of neurotrophins, their receptors and prohormone convertases in a rat model of spinal cord contusion. Neurosci Lett. 2008;441:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..PACE4 and PC7, increased after damage, while the expression of PC members acting in regulated secretory pathway, PC1 and PC2, reduced after spinal cord injury...
  42. Zertal Zidani S, Bounacer A, Scharfmann R. Regulation of pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation by sulphated proteoglycans. Diabetologia. 2007;50:585-95 pubmed
    ..following genes: pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx1), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (Pcsk1; previously known as pro-hormone convertase 1/3), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 2 (Pcsk2; previously ..
  43. Marcinkiewicz M, Nagao T, Day R, Seidah N, Chretien M, Avoli M. Pilocarpine-induced seizures are accompanied by a transient elevation in the messenger RNA expression of the prohormone convertase PC1 in rat hippocampus: comparison with nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression. Neuroscience. 1997;76:425-39 pubmed
    ..These include enzymes named furin, PC1, PC2, PC5 and PACE4...
  44. Dikeakos J, Di Lello P, Lacombe M, Ghirlando R, Legault P, Reudelhuber T, et al. Functional and structural characterization of a dense core secretory granule sorting domain from the PC1/3 protease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7408-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Prohormone convertase (PC)1/3 is a processing protease that is targeted to DCSGs. The signal for targeting PC1/3 to DCSGs resides in its carboxy-terminal tail (PC1/3(617-753)), where 3 regions (PC1/3(617-625), PC1/3(665-682), ..
  45. Sanchez V, Goldstein J, Stuart R, Hovanesian V, Huo L, Munzberg H, et al. Regulation of hypothalamic prohormone convertases 1 and 2 and effects on processing of prothyrotropin-releasing hormone. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:357-69 pubmed
    ..from a larger inactive precursor, its maturation requires proteolytic cleavage by prohormone convertases 1 and 2 (PC1 and PC2)...
  46. Schaner P, Todd R, Seidah N, Nillni E. Processing of prothyrotropin-releasing hormone by the family of prohormone convertases. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:19958-68 pubmed
    ..We have also demonstrated that recombinant PC1 and PC2 process partially purified pro-TRH to cryptic peptides in vitro and that pro-TRH and PC1 mRNAs are ..
  47. Ohagi S, Sakaguchi H, Sanke T, Tatsuta H, Hanabusa T, Nanjo K. Human prohormone convertase 3 gene: exon-intron organization and molecular scanning for mutations in Japanese subjects with NIDDM. Diabetes. 1996;45:897-901 pubmed
    ..action of two sequence-specific subtilisin-like proteases termed prohormone convertase 2 (PC2) and prohormone convertase 3 (PC3)...
  48. Wideman R, Covey S, Webb G, Drucker D, Kieffer T. A switch from prohormone convertase (PC)-2 to PC1/3 expression in transplanted alpha-cells is accompanied by differential processing of proglucagon and improved glucose homeostasis in mice. Diabetes. 2007;56:2744-52 pubmed
    ..In the enteroendocrine L-cell, proglucagon is differentially processed by the alternate enzyme PC1/3 to yield glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2, and oxyntomodulin, which have blood glucose-lowering effects...
  49. Börjesson A, Carlsson C. Altered proinsulin conversion in rat pancreatic islets exposed long-term to various glucose concentrations or interleukin-1beta. J Endocrinol. 2007;192:381-7 pubmed
    ..Using real-time PCR, the mRNA levels of proinsulin converting enzymes (PC1 and PC2) were studied...
  50. Chandramohan G, Ni X, Kalinyak J, Humphreys M. Dietary sodium modulates mRNA abundance of enzymes involved in pituitary processing of proopiomelanocortin. Pituitary. 2001;4:231-7 pubmed
    ..We examined whether the HSD also increases the mRNA abundance in rat NIL of proconvertases 1 and 2 (PC1, PC2), enzymes involved in the processing of POMC into gamma-MSH...
  51. Wideman R, Yu I, Webber T, Verchere C, Johnson J, Cheung A, et al. Improving function and survival of pancreatic islets by endogenous production of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:13468-73 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that we could induce GLP-1 production directly within pancreatic islets by means of delivery of PC1/3 and, further, that this intervention would improve the viability and function of islets...
  52. Perello M, Friedman T, Paez Espinosa V, Shen X, Stuart R, Nillni E. Thyroid hormones selectively regulate the posttranslational processing of prothyrotropin-releasing hormone in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2705-16 pubmed
    ..associated with parallel changes in the levels of two members of the family of prohormone convertases 1/3 and 2 (PC1/3 and PC2)...
  53. Patriti A, Aisa M, Annetti C, Sidoni A, Galli F, Ferri I, et al. How the hindgut can cure type 2 diabetes. Ileal transposition improves glucose metabolism and beta-cell function in Goto-kakizaki rats through an enhanced Proglucagon gene expression and L-cell number. Surgery. 2007;142:74-85 pubmed
    ..Gene expression of Proglucagon, Proconvertase 1/3 (PC1/3), and Chromogranin A in the transposed ileum significantly enhanced...
  54. Takahashi T, Ida T, Sato T, Nakashima Y, Nakamura Y, Tsuji A, et al. Production of n-octanoyl-modified ghrelin in cultured cells requires prohormone processing protease and ghrelin O-acyltransferase, as well as n-octanoic acid. J Biochem. 2009;146:675-82 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that not only PC1/3 but also both PC2 and furin could process proghrelin to the 28-amino acid ghrelin...
  55. Nilaweera K, Barrett P, Mercer J, Morgan P. Precursor-protein convertase 1 gene expression in the mouse hypothalamus: differential regulation by ob gene mutation, energy deficit and administration of leptin, and coexpression with prepro-orexin. Neuroscience. 2003;119:713-20 pubmed
    ..b>PC1 gene was differentially expressed in hypothalamic nuclei of mice from different genetic backgrounds or energetic ..
  56. Davidson H, Rhodes C, Hutton J. Intraorganellar calcium and pH control proinsulin cleavage in the pancreatic beta cell via two distinct site-specific endopeptidases. Nature. 1988;333:93-6 pubmed
  57. Ugleholdt R, Poulsen M, Holst P, Irminger J, Orskov C, Pedersen J, et al. Prohormone convertase 1/3 is essential for processing of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide precursor. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:11050-7 pubmed
    ..convertase (PC) 1/3 in the cleavage of intestinal proglucagon, resulting in formation of GLP-1, as demonstrated in PC1/3-deficient mice. However, little is known about the endoproteolytic processing of the GIP precursor...
  58. Lee Y, Damholt A, Billestrup N, Kisbye T, Galante P, Michelsen B, et al. Developmental expression of proprotein convertase 1/3 in the rat. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1999;155:27-35 pubmed
    We have isolated a clone that has 3' end sequence identity with prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) from a rat islet cDNA library. Northern blot analysis and immunocytochemical studies have confirmed its presence in the endocrine pancreas...
  59. Sebaai N, Lesage J, Vieau D, Alaoui A, Dupouy J, Deloof S. Altered control of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in adult male rats exposed perinatally to food deprivation and/or dehydration. Neuroendocrinology. 2002;76:243-53 pubmed
    ..of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in the adenohypophysis was significantly enhanced, whereas prohormone convertase-1 (PC1) was not affected...
  60. Breslin M, Lindberg I, Benjannet S, Mathis J, Lazure C, Seidah N. Differential processing of proenkephalin by prohormone convertases 1(3) and 2 and furin. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:27084-93 pubmed
    Recombinant vaccinia virus vectors were used to coexpress mouse prohormone convertase 1 (mPC1), mPC2, or human furin together with human proenkephalin in GH4C1 cells (rat pituitary somatomammotrophs) to examine the proteolytic processing ..