Gene Symbol: Parp1
Description: poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1
Alias: ARTD1, Adprt, Parp-1, poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1, ADP-ribosyltransferase (NAD+, ADP-ribosyltransferase (NAD+; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), ADP-ribosyltransferase 1, ADP-ribosyltransferase diphtheria toxin-like 1, ADPRT 1, NAD(+) ADP-ribosyltransferase 1, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase family, member 1, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP-1, poly[ADP-ribose] synthase 1, poly[ADP-ribose] synthetase 1
Species: rat
Products:     Parp1

Top Publications

  1. Infante J, Sanchez Juan P, Mateo I, Rodriguez Rodriguez E, Sánchez Quintana C, Llorca J, et al. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) genetic variants are protective against Parkinson's disease. J Neurol Sci. 2007;256:68-70 pubmed
    ..44) and (CA)n microsatellite (OR 0.53) polymorphisms, and heterozygosity at (-1672) polymorphism delayed by 4 years on the onset age of PD. Variations in the regulatory region of PARP-1 gene might modify the risk for PD. ..
  2. Nirodi C, NagDas S, Gygi S, Olson G, Aebersold R, Richmond A. A role for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in the transcriptional regulation of the melanoma growth stimulatory activity (CXCL1) gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:9366-74 pubmed
    ..ionization tandem mass spectrometry identified this protein as the 114-kDa poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP1)...
  3. Lai Y, Chen Y, Watkins S, Nathaniel P, Guo F, Kochanek P, et al. Identification of poly-ADP-ribosylated mitochondrial proteins after traumatic brain injury. J Neurochem. 2008;104:1700-11 pubmed
    ..These findings may be of relevance to TBI and other diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction occurs. ..
  4. Pieper A, Brat D, Krug D, Watkins C, Gupta A, Blackshaw S, et al. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-deficient mice are protected from streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:3059-64 pubmed
    ..Partial protection occurs in PARP +/- animals. Thus, PARP activation may participate in the pathophysiology of type I diabetes, for which PARP inhibitors might afford therapeutic benefit. ..
  5. Miyamoto T, Kakizawa T, Hashizume K. Inhibition of nuclear receptor signalling by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:2644-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, PARP has transcriptional repressor activity when recruited to the promoter. These results indicates that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a negative cofactor in gene transcription, regulating a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. ..
  6. Shevalye H, Maksimchyk Y, Watcho P, Obrosova I. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) gene deficiency alleviates diabetic kidney disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:1020-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PARP-1-/- gene deficiency alleviates although does not completely prevent diabetic kidney disease. ..
  7. Vosler P, Sun D, Wang S, Gao Y, Kintner D, Signore A, et al. Calcium dysregulation induces apoptosis-inducing factor release: cross-talk between PARP-1- and calpain-signaling pathways. Exp Neurol. 2009;218:213-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings link the two seemingly independent mechanisms triggering AIF-induced neuronal death. ..
  8. Chiarugi A, Moskowitz M. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity promotes NF-kappaB-driven transcription and microglial activation: implication for neurodegenerative disorders. J Neurochem. 2003;85:306-17 pubmed
  9. Huang D, Yang C, Wang Y, Liao Y, Huang K. PARP-1 suppresses adiponectin expression through poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PPAR gamma in cardiac fibroblasts. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;81:98-107 pubmed publisher
    ..PARP-1 inhibits adiponectin and AdipoR1 expression as well as PPAR gamma transactivation through poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of PPAR gamma in cultured rat cardiac fibroblasts. ..

More Information


  1. Song Z, Ji X, Li X, Wang S, Wang S, Zhang Y. Inhibition of the activity of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase reduces heart ischaemia/reperfusion injury via suppressing JNK-mediated AIF translocation. J Cell Mol Med. 2008;12:1220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of the activity of PARP may reduce heart I/R injury via suppressing AIF translocation mediated by JNK. ..
  2. Chiu J, Farhangkhoee H, Xu B, Chen S, George B, Chakrabarti S. PARP mediates structural alterations in diabetic cardiomyopathy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008;45:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This study has elucidated for the first time a PARP-dependent, p300-associated pathway mediating the development of structural alterations in the diabetic heart. ..
  3. Cohen Armon M, Visochek L, Rozensal D, Kalal A, Geistrikh I, Klein R, et al. DNA-independent PARP-1 activation by phosphorylated ERK2 increases Elk1 activity: a link to histone acetylation. Mol Cell. 2007;25:297-308 pubmed
    ..These findings constitute evidence for PARP-1 activity within the ERK signal-transduction pathway. ..
  4. Kauppinen T, Chan W, Suh S, Wiggins A, Huang E, Swanson R. Direct phosphorylation and regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:7136-41 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PARP1 phosphorylation by ERK1/2 is required for maximal PARP-1 activation after DNA damage.
  5. Dantzer F, Nasheuer H, Vonesch J, de Murcia G, Menissier de Murcia J. Functional association of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase with DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex: a link between DNA strand break detection and DNA replication. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:1891-8 pubmed
    ..Altogether, the present results strongly suggest that PARP participates in a DNA damage survey mechanism implying its nick-sensor function as part of the control of replication fork progression when breaks are present in the template. ..
  6. Lu J, Zhang R, Hong H, Yang Z, Sun D, Sun S, et al. The poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of FoxO3 mediated by PARP1 participates in isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1863:3027-3039 pubmed publisher
    ..FoxO3 protein in cardiomyocytes: poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) mediated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1)...
  7. da Silva T, Fontes F, Coutinho L, de Souza F, de Melo J, de Souto J, et al. SNPs in DNA repair genes associated to meningitis and host immune response. Mutat Res. 2011;713:39-47 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we obtained indications of an effect of SNPs in DNA repair genes on the regulation of immune response in meningitis. ..
  8. Bonfiglio J, Fontana P, Zhang Q, Colby T, Gibbs Seymour I, Atanassov I, et al. Serine ADP-Ribosylation Depends on HPF1. Mol Cell. 2017;65:932-940.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that O-linked protein ADPr is the key signal in PARP-1/PARP-2-dependent processes that govern genome stability. ..
  9. Zaalishvili G, Margiani D, Kutalia K, Suladze S, Zaalishvili T. Automodification of PARP-1 mediates its tight binding to the nuclear matrix. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;393:123-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show the existence of two PARP-1 pools associated with the nuclear matrix of rat liver and the ability of PARP-1 automodification to facilitate its binding to the nuclear matrix. ..
  10. Vidakovic M, Dinić S, Grdovic N, Mihailovic M, Uskoković A, Quesada P, et al. Regulation of rat haptoglobin gene expression is coordinated by the nuclear matrix. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:1205-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that the interplay of these interactions fine tunes haptoglobin gene expression to meet the changing requirements of liver cells. ..
  11. Yu M, Schreek S, Cerni C, Schamberger C, Lesniewicz K, Poreba E, et al. PARP-10, a novel Myc-interacting protein with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity, inhibits transformation. Oncogene. 2005;24:1982-93 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings define a novel PARP enzyme involved in the control of cell proliferation. ..
  12. Infante J, Llorca J, Mateo I, Rodriguez Rodriguez E, Sánchez Quintana C, Sanchez Juan P, et al. Interaction between poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 and interleukin 1A genes is associated with Alzheimer's disease risk. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2007;23:215-8 pubmed
    ..019), and, in addition, PARP-1 haplotypes increased the risk of AD by interaction with the IL-1A -889 allele 2. ..
  13. Wright R, Lioutas A, Le Dily F, Soronellas D, Pohl A, Bonet J, et al. ADP-ribose-derived nuclear ATP synthesis by NUDIX5 is required for chromatin remodeling. Science. 2016;352:1221-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The nuclear source of ATP is essential for hormone-induced chromatin remodeling, transcriptional regulation, and cell proliferation. ..
  14. Hassan M, Fouad H, Bahashwan S, Al Hendy A. Towards non-surgical therapy for uterine fibroids: catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor shrinks uterine fibroid lesions in the Eker rat model. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:3008-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Expressions of Cyclin D1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase1 (PARP1), tumor suppressor gene (P53) and transforming growth factor (TGF?3) were assessed in fibroids using ..
  15. Williams B, Hornig M, Yaddanapudi K, Lipkin W. Hippocampal poly(ADP-Ribose) polymerase 1 and caspase 3 activation in neonatal bornavirus infection. J Virol. 2008;82:1748-58 pubmed
    ..These results implicate aberrant zinc homeostasis, PARP-1, and caspase 3 activation as contributing factors in hippocampal neurodegeneration in NBD. ..
  16. Li W, Oh S. PARP inhibition prevents oxidative injury of bladder induced by acute urinary retention and subsequent emptying. Apoptosis. 2011;16:574-80 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, apoptosis in the bladder was attenuated. These results indicate that PARP activation may be involved in apoptosis in the bladder induced by AUR and subsequent emptying via energy depletion and suppression of Akt activity. ..
  17. Kim J, Padanilam B. Loss of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 attenuates renal fibrosis and inflammation during unilateral ureteral obstruction. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F450-9 pubmed publisher
    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) contributes to necrotic cell death and inflammation in several disease models; however, the role of PARP1 in fibrogenesis remains to be defined...
  18. Liu H, Lin W, Wu B, Liu S, Wang W, Tsai C, et al. Evaluation of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 gene variants in Alzheimer's disease. J Clin Lab Anal. 2010;24:182-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These results reveal that the PARP-1 gene is highly associated with AD susceptibility and might contribute to a critical mechanism that mediates cell survival or death as a response to cytotoxic stress. ..
  19. Yan Q, Xu R, Zhu L, Cheng X, Wang Z, Manis J, et al. BAL1 and its partner E3 ligase, BBAP, link Poly(ADP-ribose) activation, ubiquitylation, and double-strand DNA repair independent of ATM, MDC1, and RNF8. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:845-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we describe a direct link between rapid and short-lived poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymerase 1 (PARP1) activation and PARylation at DNA damage sites, PAR-dependent recruitment of the BAL1 macrodomain-containing ..
  20. Mashimo M, Kato J, Moss J. ADP-ribosyl-acceptor hydrolase 3 regulates poly (ADP-ribose) degradation and cell death during oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:18964-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PARG release of PAR attached to nuclear proteins, followed by ARH3 cleavage of PAR, is essential in regulating PAR-dependent AIF release from mitochondria and parthanatos. ..
  21. Newton C, Bilko D, Tichomirowa M, Renner U, Stalla G. The role of poly (adenosine 5'-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase in the response of pituitary tumor cells to reactive oxygen species. Endocrinology. 2005;146:1119-27 pubmed
  22. Duan Y, Gross R, Sheu S. Ca2+-dependent generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species serves as a signal for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation during glutamate excitotoxicity. J Physiol. 2007;585:741-58 pubmed
    ..More importantly, the increase of mitochondrial ROS serves as a signal for PARP-1 activation, suggesting that concomitant mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and PARP-1 activation constitute a unified mechanism for excitotoxic neuronal death. ..
  23. Kanno S, Kuzuoka H, Sasao S, Hong Z, Lan L, Nakajima S, et al. A novel human AP endonuclease with conserved zinc-finger-like motifs involved in DNA strand break responses. EMBO J. 2007;26:2094-103 pubmed
    ..PALF accumulates rapidly at single-strand breaks in a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1)-dependent manner in human cells...
  24. Zhu H, Jiang Z, Lei P, Huang W, Yu X. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 mediates angiotensin II-induced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and fibronectin in rat mesangial cells. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2011;34:320-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that PARP-1 mediates Ang II-induced PAI-1 and FN in RMCs and may thus represent a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of glomerular disease. ..
  25. Tempera I, Cipriani R, Campagna G, Mancini P, Gatti A, Guidobaldi L, et al. Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase activity is reduced in circulating mononuclear cells from type 2 diabetic patients. J Cell Physiol. 2005;205:387-92 pubmed
    ..0001). The different PARP-1 behavior in MNCs from patients with type 2 diabetes could therefore be responsible for the abnormal inflammation and infection responses in diabetes. ..
  26. Hur J, Sung Y, Shin H, Park B, Cheong H, Bae S. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) polymorphisms associated with nephritis and arthritis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006;45:711-7 pubmed
  27. Gisslen T, Ennis K, Bhandari V, Rao R. Recurrent hypoinsulinemic hyperglycemia in neonatal rats increases PARP-1 and NF-κB expression and leads to microglial activation in the cerebral cortex. Pediatr Res. 2015;78:513-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Recurrent hyperglycemia in neonatal rats is associated with upregulation of PARP-1 and NF-κB expression and subsequent microgliosis but not neuronal cell death in the cerebral cortex. ..
  28. Chaitanya G, Babu P. Differential PARP cleavage: an indication of heterogeneous forms of cell death and involvement of multiple proteases in the infarct of focal cerebral ischemia in rat. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2009;29:563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Further interaction of AIF and gra-b with PARP also indicates the involvement of non-apoptotic modes of cell death during the pathology of focal cerebral ischemia. ..
  29. Ju B, Solum D, Song E, Lee K, Rose D, Glass C, et al. Activating the PARP-1 sensor component of the groucho/ TLE1 corepressor complex mediates a CaMKinase IIdelta-dependent neurogenic gene activation pathway. Cell. 2004;119:815-29 pubmed
    ..The identification of PARP-1 as a regulated promoter-specific exchange factor required for activation of specific neurogenic gene programs is likely to be prototypic of similar molecular mechanisms. ..
  30. Mota R, Sanchez Bueno F, Saenz L, Hernandez Espinosa D, Jimeno J, Tornel P, et al. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase attenuates the severity of acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. Lab Invest. 2005;85:1250-62 pubmed
    ..Our results support the potential therapeutic application of PARP inhibitors in the development and severity of acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. ..
  31. Rueda B, Koeleman B, Lopez Nevot M, Ortega E, Maldonado J, Lopez M, et al. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 haplotypes are associated with coeliac disease. Int J Immunogenet. 2005;32:245-8 pubmed
    ..007, OR 1.79 95%CI 1.14-2.82). Our results provide the first evidence that PARP-1 haplotypes are related with coeliac disease susceptibility. ..
  32. Huang D, Wang Y, Wang L, Zhang F, Deng S, Wang R, et al. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 is indispensable for transforming growth factor-? Induced Smad3 activation in vascular smooth muscle cell. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27123 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aims to investigate the influence of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), a downstream effector of ROS, on TGF-? signaling transduction through Smad3 pathway in rat vascular smooth ..
  33. Wong R, Chang I, Hudak C, Hyun S, Kwan H, Sul H. A role of DNA-PK for the metabolic gene regulation in response to insulin. Cell. 2009;136:1056-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates that a kinase central to the DNA damage response mediates metabolic gene activation. ..
  34. Giannone P, Alcamo A, Schanbacher B, Nankervis C, Besner G, Bauer J. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1: a novel therapeutic target in necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Res. 2011;70:67-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that PARP-1 overactivation in NEC may drive mucosal cell death in this disease and that PARP-1 may be a novel therapeutic target in NEC. ..
  35. Endres M, Wang Z, Namura S, Waeber C, Moskowitz M. Ischemic brain injury is mediated by the activation of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1997;17:1143-51 pubmed
    ..Inhibitors of PARP activation could provide a potential therapy in acute stroke. ..
  36. Di Meglio S, Tramontano F, Cimmino G, Jones R, Quesada P. Dual role for poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 and -2 and poly(ADP-ribose)glycohydrolase as DNA-repair and pro-apoptotic factors in rat germinal cells exposed to nitric oxide donors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1692:35-44 pubmed
    ..The data indicate a dual role for PARPs and PARG in germinal cells as key proteins in processes that sense and repair DNA damage as well as in the commitment to apoptosis following prolonged oxidative stress. ..
  37. Szijarto A, Batmunkh E, Hahn O, Mihály Z, Kreiss A, Kiss A, et al. Effect of PJ-34 PARP-inhibitor on rat liver microcirculation and antioxidant status. J Surg Res. 2007;142:72-80 pubmed
    ..PARP plays a pathogenetic role in the deterioration of the hepatic microcirculation and promotes hepatocellular necrosis in liver reperfusion injury. ..
  38. Klöfers M, Kohaut J, Bendix I, Herz J, Boos V, Felderhoff Müser U, et al. Effects of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 Inhibition in a Neonatal Rodent Model of Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:2924848 pubmed publisher
    ..A cellular response including NeuN, Olig2, and MBP was not affected by PARP-1-inhibition. Inhibition of PARP-1 and hypothermia lead to an alteration of injury but this effect is sexually dimorphic. ..
  39. Liu F, Lang J, Li J, Benashski S, Siegel M, Xu Y, et al. Sex differences in the response to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 deletion and caspase inhibition after stroke. Stroke. 2011;42:1090-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of PARP-1 reduces infarct in males but exacerbates injury in females. PARP-1(-/-) females have enhanced caspase activation. The detrimental effects of PARP loss in females can be reversed with caspase inhibition. ..
  40. Lohinai Z, Mabley J, Feher E, Marton A, Komjati K, Szabo C. Role of the activation of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. J Dent Res. 2003;82:987-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, PARP activation contributes to the development of periodontal injury. Inhibition of PARP may represent a novel host response modulatory approach for the therapy of periodontitis. ..
  41. Hoch N, Hanzlikova H, Rulten S, Tetreault M, Komulainen E, Ju L, et al. XRCC1 mutation is associated with PARP1 hyperactivation and cerebellar ataxia. Nature. 2017;541:87-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, remarkably, genetic deletion of Parp1 rescued normal cerebellar ADP-ribose levels and reduced the loss of cerebellar neurons and ataxia in Xrcc1-..
  42. Schreiber V, Ame J, Dolle P, Schultz I, Rinaldi B, Fraulob V, et al. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-2 (PARP-2) is required for efficient base excision DNA repair in association with PARP-1 and XRCC1. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:23028-36 pubmed
  43. Zhang Y, Yang Y, Xie Z, Zuo W, Jiang H, Zhao X, et al. Decreased Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase 1 Expression Attenuates Glucose Oxidase-Induced Damage in Rat Cochlear Marginal Strial Cells. Mol Neurobiol. 2016;53:5971-5984 pubmed publisher
    ..Activated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) has been implicated in several diseases, but the effect of PARP1 on MCs subjected to oxidative stress remains ..
  44. Kim S, Henkel J, Beers D, Sengun I, Simpson E, Goodman J, et al. PARP expression is increased in astrocytes but decreased in motor neurons in the spinal cord of sporadic ALS patients. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2003;62:88-103 pubmed
  45. Thorslund T, Von Kobbe C, Harrigan J, Indig F, Christiansen M, Stevnsner T, et al. Cooperation of the Cockayne syndrome group B protein and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in the response to oxidative stress. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:7625-36 pubmed
    ..Our results implicate CSB in the PARP-1 poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation response after oxidative stress and thus suggest a novel role of CSB in the cellular response to oxidative damage. ..
  46. Kalaivani P, Ganesh M, Sathiya S, Ranju V, Gayathiri V, Saravana Babu C. Alteration in bioenergetic regulators, SirT1 and Parp1 expression precedes oxidative stress in rats subjected to transient cerebral focal ischemia: molecular and histopathologic evidences. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2014;23:2753-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Silent information regulator Transporter 1 (SirT1) and Poly adenosine diphosphate--ribose polymerase 1 (Parp1)) and oxidative stress markers' (lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide) levels along with excitatory neurochemical ..
  47. Yamamura E, Muto S, Yamada K, Sato Y, Iwase Y, Uno Y. Chromosomal damage and micronucleus induction by MP-124, a novel poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitor: Evidence for a non-DNA-reactive mode of action. Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen. 2015;782:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism is expected to result in a threshold for the induction of MNIE by MP-124, and allows for the establishment of a safe margin of exposure for the therapeutic use of MP-124. ..
  48. Wang S, Yang X, Lin Y, Qiu X, Li H, Zhao X, et al. Cellular NAD depletion and decline of SIRT1 activity play critical roles in PARP-1-mediated acute epileptic neuronal death in vitro. Brain Res. 2013;1535:14-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrated that cellular NAD depletion and decline of SIRT1 activity play critical roles in PARP-1-mediated epileptic neuronal death in the HNC model of acute AE. ..
  49. Li S, Wu C, Zhu L, Gao J, Fang J, Li D, et al. By improving regional cortical blood flow, attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and sequential apoptosis galangin acts as a potential neuroprotective agent after acute ischemic stroke. Molecules. 2012;17:13403-23 pubmed publisher
  50. Li B, Navarro S, Kasahara N, Comai L. Identification and biochemical characterization of a Werner's syndrome protein complex with Ku70/80 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13659-67 pubmed
  51. Garcia S, Bodaño A, Gonzalez A, Forteza J, Gomez Reino J, Conde C. Partial protection against collagen antibody-induced arthritis in PARP-1 deficient mice. Arthritis Res Ther. 2006;8:R14 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence of the contribution of PARP-1 to the progression of arthritis and identify this protein as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. ..
  52. Gao G, Yu Z, Yan J, Li J, Shen S, Jia B, et al. Poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase‑ and cytochrome c‑mediated apoptosis induces hepatocyte injury in a rat model of hyperammonia‑induced hepatic failure. Mol Med Rep. 2015;11:4211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, downregulation of CaMK may be associated with the apoptosis observed in hepatocyte injury. ..
  53. Zingarelli B, Salzman A, Szabo C. Genetic disruption of poly (ADP-ribose) synthetase inhibits the expression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Circ Res. 1998;83:85-94 pubmed