Gene Symbol: Pak2
Description: p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 2
Alias: PAK-2, gamma-PAK, serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 2, p21 (CDKN1A)-activated kinase 2, p21-activated kinase 2
Species: rat
Products:     Pak2

Top Publications

  1. Manser E, Leung T, Salihuddin H, Zhao Z, Lim L. A brain serine/threonine protein kinase activated by Cdc42 and Rac1. Nature. 1994;367:40-6 pubmed
    ..This bimolecular interaction provides a model for studying p21 regulation of mammalian phosphorylation signalling pathways. ..
  2. Gatti A, Huang Z, Tuazon P, Traugh J. Multisite autophosphorylation of p21-activated protein kinase gamma-PAK as a function of activation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:8022-8 pubmed
    ..Further, the phosphorylation of Ser-141, Ser-165, and Thr-402 was found to correlate with gamma-PAK activation. ..
  3. Teo M, Manser E, Lim L. Identification and molecular cloning of a p21cdc42/rac1-activated serine/threonine kinase that is rapidly activated by thrombin in platelets. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:26690-7 pubmed
    ..This thrombin-activated protein kinase appears to coprecipitate with another kinase of M(r) 86,000, suggesting that PAK may be part of a thrombin-responsive signaling complex. ..
  4. Wilkes M, Murphy S, Garamszegi N, Leof E. Cell-type-specific activation of PAK2 by transforming growth factor beta independent of Smad2 and Smad3. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8878-89 pubmed
    ..We determined that TGF-beta receptor signaling activates the STE20 homolog PAK2 in mammalian cells...
  5. Martin G, Bollag G, McCormick F, Abo A. A novel serine kinase activated by rac1/CDC42Hs-dependent autophosphorylation is related to PAK65 and STE20. EMBO J. 1995;14:1970-8 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with a model in which hPAK65 functions as an effector molecule for rac1 and CDC42Hs. ..
  6. Nuche Berenguer B, Jensen R. Gastrointestinal hormones/neurotransmitters and growth factors can activate P21 activated kinase 2 in pancreatic acinar cells by novel mechanisms. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1853:2371-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Only PAK2 was present in acini...
  7. Chong C, Tan L, Lim L, Manser E. The mechanism of PAK activation. Autophosphorylation events in both regulatory and kinase domains control activity. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:17347-53 pubmed
    ..Thus two autophosphorylation sites direct activation while three others control association with focal complexes via PIX and Nck. ..
  8. Luo S, Rubinsztein D. Huntingtin promotes cell survival by preventing Pak2 cleavage. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:875-85 pubmed publisher
    ..When cells are exposed to Fas-related signals, the ubiquitously expressed p21-activated kinase 2 (Pak2) can be activated via cleavage by caspases to release a constitutively active C-terminal fragment, which mediates ..
  9. Morita T, Mayanagi T, Yoshio T, Sobue K. Changes in the balance between caldesmon regulated by p21-activated kinases and the Arp2/3 complex govern podosome formation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8454-63 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we conclude that in Rous sarcoma virus-transformed cells, changes in the balance between PAK1/2-regulated caldesmon and the Arp2/3 complex govern the formation of podosomes. ..

More Information


  1. Pirruccello M, Sondermann H, Pelton J, Pellicena P, Hoelz A, Chernoff J, et al. A dimeric kinase assembly underlying autophosphorylation in the p21 activated kinases. J Mol Biol. 2006;361:312-26 pubmed
    ..We show that the phosphorylated kinase domain of PAK2 dimerizes in solution and that this association is prevented by addition of a substrate peptide...
  2. Chang J, Ni Y, Han L, Sinnett Smith J, Jacamo R, Rey O, et al. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) phosphorylation on Ser203 by type I p21-activated kinase (PAK) regulates PKD1 localization. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9523-9539 pubmed publisher
    ..different mechanisms abrogated PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser203, 2) siRNA-mediated knockdown of PAK1 and PAK2 in IEC-18 and Swiss 3T3 cells blunted PKD1 phosphorylation at Ser203, 3) phosphorylation of Ser203
  3. Shin E, Shim E, Lee C, Kim H, Kim E. Phosphorylation of RhoGDI1 by p21-activated kinase 2 mediates basic fibroblast growth factor-stimulated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:384-9 pubmed publisher
    We previously showed that p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2), a major PAK isoform expressed in PC12 cells, mediates neurite outgrowth via Rac1 GTPase. RhoGDI1 forms a complex with Rac1, resulting in its inhibition...
  4. Dolan B, Duron S, Campbell D, Vollrath B, Shankaranarayana Rao B, Ko H, et al. Rescue of fragile X syndrome phenotypes in Fmr1 KO mice by the small-molecule PAK inhibitor FRAX486. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5671-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, a single administration of FRAX486 is sufficient to rescue all of these phenotypes in adult Fmr1 KO mice, demonstrating the potential for rapid, postdiagnostic therapy in adults with FXS. ..
  5. Kim S, Irwin P, Katz S, Pelech S. Expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways during postnatal development of rat heart. J Cell Biochem. 1998;71:286-301 pubmed involved in the regulation of cytoskeleton as well as in stress signaling, was downregulated with age, but the Pak2 isoform increased only after 50 days...
  6. Li X, Wen W, Liu K, Zhu F, Malakhova M, Peng C, et al. Phosphorylation of caspase-7 by p21-activated protein kinase (PAK) 2 inhibits chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cell lines. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:22291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of PAK2 in resistance to chemotherapy is unclear...
  7. Wang S, Wilkes M, Leof E, Hirschberg R. Imatinib mesylate blocks a non-Smad TGF-beta pathway and reduces renal fibrogenesis in vivo. FASEB J. 2005;19:1-11 pubmed
    ..p21-activated kinase-2 (PAK2) and activation of abelson nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (c-abl) have been shown recently to be smad-independent, ..
  8. Vettel C, Wittig K, Vogt A, Wuertz C, El Armouche A, Lutz S, et al. A novel player in cellular hypertrophy: Gi??/PI3K-dependent activation of the RacGEF TIAM-1 is required for ??-adrenoceptor induced hypertrophy in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;53:165-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified the p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) as a downstream effector of Rac1 and were able to link this cascade to the activation of the pro-hypertrophic ..
  9. Lacombe J, Mangé A, Jarlier M, Bascoul Mollevi C, Rouanet P, Lamy P, et al. Identification and validation of new autoantibodies for the diagnosis of DCIS and node negative early-stage breast cancers. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:1105-13 pubmed publisher
    ..antigens that elicited a specific humoral response in breast cancer were identified and five antigens (GAL3, PAK2, PHB2, RACK1 and RUVBL1) were selected for validation...
  10. Symons M, Derry J, Karlak B, Jiang S, Lemahieu V, McCormick F, et al. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, a novel effector for the GTPase CDC42Hs, is implicated in actin polymerization. Cell. 1996;84:723-34 pubmed
    ..The WASP sequence contains two novel domains that are homologous to other proteins involved in action organization. ..
  11. Tuazon P, Lorenson M, Walker A, Traugh J. p21-activated protein kinase gamma-PAK in pituitary secretory granules phosphorylates prolactin. FEBS Lett. 2002;515:84-8 pubmed
  12. Gavard J, Gutkind J. VEGF controls endothelial-cell permeability by promoting the beta-arrestin-dependent endocytosis of VE-cadherin. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:1223-34 pubmed publisher
  13. Lee K, Yonehara S. Phosphorylation and dimerization regulate nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of mammalian STE20-like kinase (MST). J Biol Chem. 2002;277:12351-8 pubmed
  14. Roig J, Tuazon P, Zipfel P, Pendergast A, Traugh J. Functional interaction between c-Abl and the p21-activated protein kinase gamma-PAK. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:14346-51 pubmed