Gene Symbol: P2rx3
Description: purinergic receptor P2X 3
Alias: P2X purinoceptor 3, ATP receptor, P2X3, purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 3
Species: rat
Products:     P2rx3

Top Publications

  1. Fukui M, Nakagawa T, Minami M, Satoh M, Kaneko S. Inhibitory role of supraspinal P2X3/P2X2/3 subtypes on nociception in rats. Mol Pain. 2006;2:19 pubmed
    ..suggested that ATP facilitates pain transmission at peripheral and spinal sites via the P2X receptors, in which the P2X3 subtype is considered as an important candidate for the effect...
  2. Lewis C, Neidhart S, Holy C, North R, Buell G, Surprenant A. Coexpression of P2X2 and P2X3 receptor subunits can account for ATP-gated currents in sensory neurons. Nature. 1995;377:432-5 pubmed
    ..Here we report the cloning of a complementary DNA (P2X3) from rat dorsal root ganglia that had properties dissimilar to those of sensory neurons...
  3. Souslova V, Cesare P, Ding Y, Akopian A, Stanfa L, Suzuki R, et al. Warm-coding deficits and aberrant inflammatory pain in mice lacking P2X3 receptors. Nature. 2000;407:1015-7 pubmed
    ATP activates damage-sensing neurons (nociceptors) and can evoke a sensation of pain. The ATP receptor P2X3 is selectively expressed by nociceptors and is one of seven ATP-gated, cation-selective ion channels...
  4. Seino D, Tokunaga A, Tachibana T, Yoshiya S, Dai Y, Obata K, et al. The role of ERK signaling and the P2X receptor on mechanical pain evoked by movement of inflamed knee joint. Pain. 2006;123:193-203 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the phosphorylated ERK-positive neurons co-expressed the P2X3 receptor, and the injection of TNP-ATP, which antagonizes P2X receptors, into the inflamed joint reduced the ..
  5. Simonetti M, Fabbro A, D Arco M, Zweyer M, Nistri A, Giniatullin R, et al. Comparison of P2X and TRPV1 receptors in ganglia or primary culture of trigeminal neurons and their modulation by NGF or serotonin. Mol Pain. 2006;2:11 pubmed
  6. Cockayne D, Dunn P, Zhong Y, Rong W, Hamilton S, Knight G, et al. P2X2 knockout mice and P2X2/P2X3 double knockout mice reveal a role for the P2X2 receptor subunit in mediating multiple sensory effects of ATP. J Physiol. 2005;567:621-39 pubmed
    ..signalling and sensory regulation of visceral function through ionotropic receptors variably composed of P2X2 and P2X3 subunits...
  7. Chen C, Akopian A, Sivilotti L, Colquhoun D, Burnstock G, Wood J. A P2X purinoceptor expressed by a subset of sensory neurons. Nature. 1995;377:428-31 pubmed
    ..Here we report the molecular cloning and characterization of a new member of the P2X receptor family, P2X3, expressed by these cells...
  8. Xiang Z, Xiong Y, Yan N, Li X, Mao Y, Ni X, et al. Functional up-regulation of P2X 3 receptors in the chronically compressed dorsal root ganglion. Pain. 2008;140:23-34 pubmed publisher
    ..U0126, a specific inhibitor of the MEK1/2, greatly down-regulated the enhanced current. Taken together, these observations suggest that enhanced purinergic responses after CCD are mediated by P2X 3 receptors. ..
  9. Llewellyn Smith I, Burnstock G. Ultrastructural localization of P2X3 receptors in rat sensory neurons. Neuroreport. 1998;9:2545-50 pubmed
    We used isolated IgG antibodies selective for P2X3 receptors to study the ultrastructural distribution of these receptors in rat sensory neurons...

More Information


  1. Ma B, Ruan H, Cockayne D, Ford A, Burnstock G, Dunn P. Identification of P2X receptors in cultured mouse and rat parasympathetic otic ganglion neurones including P2X knockout studies. Neuropharmacology. 2004;46:1039-48 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that at least two distinct P2X receptors are present in mouse and rat otic neurones, probably homomeric P2X(2) and heteromeric P2X(2/3) receptors. ..
  2. Vacca F, Amadio S, Sancesario G, Bernardi G, Volonte C. P2X3 receptor localizes into lipid rafts in neuronal cells. J Neurosci Res. 2004;76:653-61 pubmed
    ..We provide direct biochemical evidence that P2X3 receptor localizes into lipid rafts, in primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons as well as in brain and ..
  3. Xu G, Huang L. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II potentiates ATP responses by promoting trafficking of P2X receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:11868-73 pubmed
    ..We found that endogenously active CaMKII up-regulates basal P2X3 receptor activity in dorsal root ganglion neurons...
  4. Migita K, Moriyama T, Koguchi M, Honda K, Katsuragi T, Takano Y, et al. Modulation of P2X receptors in dorsal root ganglion neurons of streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy. Neurosci Lett. 2009;452:200-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the upregulation of P2X(2), P2X(3) and/or P2X(2/3) receptor in DRG neurons is associated with mechanical allodynia in STZ-induced diabetic mice. ..
  5. Dunn P, Gever J, Ruan H, Burnstock G. Developmental changes in heteromeric P2X(2/3) receptor expression in rat sympathetic ganglion neurons. Dev Dyn. 2005;234:505-11 pubmed
  6. Zhang C, Xu C, Liang S, Li G, Gao Y, Wang Y, et al. The involvement of P2X3 receptors of rat sympathetic ganglia in cardiac nociceptive transmission. J Physiol Biochem. 2007;63:249-57 pubmed
    In this work we have examined the effects of P2X3 receptor antagonist A-317491 on P2X3 expression in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) from naive and myocardial ischemic rats to observe the effect of P2X3 receptors in cardiac nociceptive ..
  7. Chen X, Wang B, Wu C, Pan J, Yuan B, Su Y, et al. Endosome-mediated retrograde axonal transport of P2X3 receptor signals in primary sensory neurons. Cell Res. 2012;22:677-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that P2X(3) receptor-activated signals are transmitted via retrogradely transported endosomes in primary sensory neurons and provide a novel signaling mechanism for ligand-gated channels. ..
  8. Hervás C, Pérez Sen R, Miras Portugal M. Presence of diverse functional P2X receptors in rat cerebellar synaptic terminals. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;70:770-85 pubmed
    ..b>P2X3 immunolabelling was present in 28% of isolated synaptosomes...
  9. Gomes D, Song Z, Stevens W, Sladek C. Sustained stimulation of vasopressin and oxytocin release by ATP and phenylephrine requires recruitment of desensitization-resistant P2X purinergic receptors. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R940-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunohistochemistry, coimmunoprecipitation, and Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of P2X2 and P2X3, P2X2/3, and P2X7-R protein, respectively in SON...
  10. Li G, Liu S, Zhang J, Yu K, Xu C, Lin J, et al. Increased sympathoexcitatory reflex induced by myocardial ischemic nociceptive signaling via P2X2/3 receptor in rat superior cervical ganglia. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:984-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The myocardial ischemic injury induced an increase in the expression of P2X(2/3) receptor colocalization with TH and a hypersensitivity state of SCG neurons to ATP, which led to the increased sympathoexcitatory reflex. ..
  11. Diaz Hernandez M, Gomez Villafuertes R, Hernando F, Pintor J, Miras Portugal M. Presence of different ATP receptors on rat midbrain single synaptic terminals. Involvement of the P2X(3) subunits. Neurosci Lett. 2001;301:159-62 pubmed
    ..5% of the total. In addition, 9.8+/-2.3% of the terminals responded to ATP but exhibit negative P2X(3)-labelling. These results demonstrate the existence of a heterogeneous population of ionotropic ATP receptors at the presynaptic level. ..
  12. Rodrigues R, Almeida T, Richardson P, Oliveira C, Cunha R. Dual presynaptic control by ATP of glutamate release via facilitatory P2X1, P2X2/3, and P2X3 and inhibitory P2Y1, P2Y2, and/or P2Y4 receptors in the rat hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6286-95 pubmed
    ..from purified nerve terminals of the rat hippocampus, the facilitation being mediated by P2X1, P2X2/3, and P2X3 [antagonized by 8-(benzamido)naphthalene-1,3,5-trisulfonate and 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP] and the ..
  13. Wang Y, Li G, Yu K, Liang S, Wan F, Xu C, et al. Expressions of P2X2 and P2X3 receptors in rat nodose neurons after myocardial ischemia injury. Auton Neurosci. 2009;145:71-5 pubmed publisher
    ..It suggests that P2X(2) receptor subtype in company with P2X(3) receptor subtype plays the important role in cardiac vagal sensory nociceptors with a sensitivity to ATP. ..
  14. Luo J, Yin G, Gu Y, Liu Y, Dai J, Li C, et al. Characterization of three types of ATP-activated current in relation to P2X subunits in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. Brain Res. 2006;1115:9-15 pubmed
    ..current was associated with cell size and P2X receptor subunits: small-sized cells with type F of I(ATP) express only P2X1 and/or P2X3 subunits, while cells with types S and I of I(ATP) express P2X2 or P2X4 in addition to P2X1 and P2X3.
  15. Li C, Yang X, Wang J, Du G, Yang W, Zhang H. Effects of intracavernous injection of P2X3 and NK1 receptor antagonists on erectile dysfunction induced by spinal cord transection in rats. Andrologia. 2015;47:25-9 pubmed publisher
    This study aimed to explore the effects of intracavernous injection (ICI) of P2X3 and NK1 receptor antagonists on erectile dysfunction (ED) induced by spinal cord transection in rats...
  16. Vlaskovska M, Kasakov L, Rong W, Bodin P, Bardini M, Cockayne D, et al. P2X3 knock-out mice reveal a major sensory role for urothelially released ATP. J Neurosci. 2001;21:5670-7 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest a major sensory role for urothelially released ATP acting via P2X(3) receptors on a subpopulation of pelvic afferent fibers. ..
  17. Imamura T, Ishizuka O, Zhong C, Ogawa T, Nakayama T, Kurizaki Y, et al. An extract (THC-002) of Ba-Wei-Die-Huang-Wan inhibits expression of tachykinins, and P2X3 and TRPV1 receptors, and inhibits ATP-induced detrusor overactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Neurourol Urodyn. 2009;28:529-34 pubmed publisher
    ..were analyzed by real time RT-PCR (n = 6) and immunohistochemistry (n = 3) for the expression of tachykinins and P2X3 and TRPV1 receptors...
  18. Ito K, Iwami A, Katsura H, Ikeda M. Therapeutic effects of the putative P2X3/P2X2/3 antagonist A-317491 on cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis in rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2008;377:483-90 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated the effect of the recently developed P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptor antagonist A-317491 on cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis to determine whether a P2X ..
  19. de Oliveira Fusaro M, Pelegrini da Silva A, Araldi D, Parada C, Tambeli C. P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors mediate mechanical hyperalgesia induced by bradykinin, but not by pro-inflammatory cytokines, PGE? or dopamine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;649:177-82 pubmed publisher
    Activation of peripheral P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors by endogenous ATP is essential to the development of inflammatory hyperalgesia...
  20. Gu Y, Wang C, Li G, Huang L. EXPRESS: F-actin links Epac-PKC signaling to purinergic P2X3 receptors sensitization in dorsal root ganglia following inflammation. Mol Pain. 2016;12: pubmed publisher
    Sensitization of purinergic P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) contributes to the production of exaggerated nociceptive responses following inflammatory injury...
  21. Li S, Tomić M, Stojilkovic S. Characterization of novel Pannexin 1 isoforms from rat pituitary cells and their association with ATP-gated P2X channels. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011;174:202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These splice forms can also physically associate with ATP-gated P2X2, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7 receptor channels...
  22. Liu Y, Chen X, Tian X, Chen L, Wu Y, Huang D, et al. P2X3, but not P2X1, receptors mediate ATP-activated current in neurons innervating tooth-pulp. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2013;33:423-426 pubmed publisher
    ..freshly isolated fluorescence-labeled neurons and to conduct single cell immunohistochemical staining for P2X1 and P2X3 subunits in the same neuron. Three types of ATP-activated current in these neurons (F, I and S) were recorded...
  23. Sokolova E, Nistri A, Giniatullin R. The ATP-mediated fast current of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons is a novel effector for GABA(B) receptor activation. Neurosci Lett. 2003;338:181-4 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that, on nociceptive DRG neurons, GABA produced slow inhibition of P2X(3) receptors via metabotropic GABA(B) receptors. ..
  24. Shimizu I, Iida T, Guan Y, Zhao C, Raja S, Jarvis M, et al. Enhanced thermal avoidance in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X3. Pain. 2005;116:96-108 pubmed
    b>P2X3 is an ATP-gated cation channel subtype expressed by a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons...
  25. Liu J, Li J, Lu J, Xing J, Li J. Contribution of nerve growth factor to upregulation of P2X? expression in DRG neurons of rats with femoral artery occlusion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;301:H1070-9 pubmed publisher
    ..NGF is closely related to increases in P2X(3) receptor expression and response. ..
  26. Liu Y, Tian X, Wu Y, Chen L, Yi C, Li Z, et al. Phenotypes of ATP-activated current associated with their genotypes of P2X1-6 subunits in neurons innervating tooth-pulp. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;458:596-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Cells responsive to ATP with the type F current mainly showed positive staining for P2X3 and P2X5, but negative staining for P2X2; cells responsive to ATP with the type I current showed positive staining ..
  27. Meisner J, Reid A, Sawynok J. Adrenergic regulation of P2X3 and TRPV1 receptors: differential effects of spared nerve injury. Neurosci Lett. 2008;444:172-5 pubmed publisher
    Local application of alphabetaMeATP (ligand for P2X3 receptors) and capsaicin (ligand for TRPV1 receptors) to the rat hindpaw produces pain behaviors (flinching) which are enhanced by noradrenaline (NA)...
  28. Lin J, Li G, Den X, Xu C, Liu S, Gao Y, et al. VEGF and its receptor-2 involved in neuropathic pain transmission mediated by P2X?(/)? receptor of primary sensory neurons. Brain Res Bull. 2010;83:284-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-rVEGF treatment in CCI rats may alleviate chronic neuropathic pain by decreasing the expressions of VEGFR2 and P2X?(/)? receptors on DRG neurons to inhibit the transmission of neuropathic pain signaling. ..
  29. Xu G, Li G, Liu N, Huang L. Mechanisms underlying purinergic P2X3 receptor-mediated mechanical allodynia induced in diabetic rats. Mol Pain. 2011;7:60 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms underlying the painful conditions are not well understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the participation of purinergic P2X3 receptors in painful diabetic neuropathy.
  30. Studeny S, Torabi A, Vizzard M. P2X2 and P2X3 receptor expression in postnatal and adult rat urinary bladder and lumbosacral spinal cord. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005;289:R1155-68 pubmed
    ..This may involve changes in neuroactive compounds and receptors in bladder reflex pathways. We examined P2X2 and P2X3 receptors in bladder and spinal cord from postnatal (P0-P36, indicating number of days) and adult Wistar rats...
  31. Aoyama R, Okada Y, Yokota S, Yasui Y, Fukuda K, Shinozaki Y, et al. Spatiotemporal and anatomical analyses of P2X receptor-mediated neuronal and glial processing of sensory signals in the rat dorsal horn. Pain. 2011;152:2085-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Astrocytes are involved in sensitization of sensory network activity more importantly in the superficial than in the deep layer. ..
  32. Xu J, Chu K, Brederson J, Jarvis M, McGaraughty S. Spontaneous firing and evoked responses of spinal nociceptive neurons are attenuated by blockade of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors in inflamed rats. J Neurosci Res. 2012;90:1597-606 pubmed publisher
    b>P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors are selectively expressed on primary afferent nociceptors and have been implicated in modulating nociception in different models of pathological pain, including inflammatory pain...
  33. Ishida Y, Ugawa S, Ueda T, Yamada T, Shibata Y, Hondoh A, et al. P2X(2)- and P2X(3)-positive fibers in fungiform papillae originate from the chorda tympani but not the trigeminal nerve in rats and mice. J Comp Neurol. 2009;514:131-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that most P2X(2) and P2X(3) receptors in fungiform papillae are used for gustation rather than somatosensation...
  34. Kataoka S, Toyono T, Seta Y, Toyoshima K. Expression of ATP-gated P2X3 receptors in rat gustatory papillae and taste buds. Arch Histol Cytol. 2006;69:281-8 pubmed
    ..ATP mediates excitatory signaling by means of P2X receptors. P2X3, one of its subtypes, a membrane ligand-gated ion channel, is strongly expressed in peripheral sensory neurons...
  35. Khmyz V, Maximyuk O, Teslenko V, Verkhratsky A, Krishtal O. P2X3 receptor gating near normal body temperature. Pflugers Arch. 2008;456:339-47 pubmed
    b>P2X3 purinoreceptors expressed in mammalian sensory neurons are involved in nociception, mechanosensory transduction, and temperature sensation...
  36. Mo G, Peleshok J, Cao C, Ribeiro Da Silva A, Séguéla P. Control of P2X3 channel function by metabotropic P2Y2 utp receptors in primary sensory neurons. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;83:640-7 pubmed publisher
    Purinergic signaling contributes significantly to pain mechanisms, and the nociceptor-specific P2X3 ATP receptor channel is considered a target in pain therapeutics...
  37. Yu L, Li N, Liu C, Ma B. Estrogen altered facial mechanical pain threshold and trigeminal P2X3 receptor expression. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2011;32:811-5 pubmed
    b>P2X3 receptors are expressed in trigeminal ganglia (TG) and participate in the transduction of facial pain. However, the mechanisms underlying P2X receptor-mediated nociception at different estrogen levels has not been examined...
  38. Xing J, Li J. Bradykinin Contributes to Sympathetic and Pressor Responses Evoked by Activation of Skeletal Muscle Afferents P2X in Heart Failure. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;39:2101-2109 pubmed
    ..muscle dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and this effect is greater in HF due to upregulation of BK kinin B2 and P2X3 receptor. As a result, BK amplifies muscle afferents P2X-mediated SNA and BP responses...
  39. Kim Y, Paik S, Cho Y, Shin H, Bae J, Moritani M, et al. Expression of P2X3 receptor in the trigeminal sensory nuclei of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 2008;506:627-39 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that orofacial nociceptive information may be transmitted via P2X(3) (+) afferents to all TBSN and that it may be processed differently in different TBSN. ..
  40. Gao Y, Liu H, Deng L, Zhu G, Xu C, Li G, et al. Effect of emodin on neuropathic pain transmission mediated by P2X2/3 receptor of primary sensory neurons. Brain Res Bull. 2011;84:406-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that emodin can inhibit the transmission of neuropathic pain mediated by P2X(2/3) receptor of primary sensory neurons to alleviate chronic neuropathic pain. ..
  41. Kakimoto S, Nagakura Y, Tamura S, Watabiki T, Shibasaki K, Tanaka S, et al. Minodronic acid, a third-generation bisphosphonate, antagonizes purinergic P2X(2/3) receptor function and exerts an analgesic effect in pain models. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;589:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These unique effects of minodronic acid would be beneficial for the treatment of accelerated bone turnover diseases accompanied by bone pain, including bone metastases. ..
  42. Wang L, Feng D, Yan H, Wang Z, Pei L. Comparative analysis of P2X1, P2X2, P2X3, and P2X4 receptor subunits in rat nodose ganglion neurons. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96699 pubmed publisher
    ..immunocytochemistry, and whole cell patch clamp techniques to compare the expression and function of P2X1, P2X2, P2X3, and P2X4 receptor subunits in adult rat NG neurons...
  43. Shinoda M, Kawashima K, Ozaki N, Asai H, Nagamine K, Sugiura Y. P2X3 receptor mediates heat hyperalgesia in a rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. J Pain. 2007;8:588-97 pubmed
    The present study was undertaken to determine the role of P2X3 receptor (P2X3R) on heat hyperalgesia in a newly developed rat model of trigeminal neuropathic pain. The unilateral infraorbital nerve (IoN) was partially ligated by 6-0 silk...
  44. Shinoda M, Ozaki N, Sugiura Y. Involvement of ATP and its receptors on nociception in rat model of masseter muscle pain. Pain. 2008;134:148-57 pubmed
    ..It has been demonstrated that P2X3 receptors (P2X3Rs) in sensory neurons play a role in pain signaling from the periphery...
  45. Imamura T, Ishizuka O, Aizawa N, Zhong C, Ogawa T, Nakayama T, et al. Gosha-jinki-gan reduces transmitter proteins and sensory receptors associated with C fiber activation induced by acetic acid in rat urinary bladder. Neurourol Urodyn. 2008;27:832-7 pubmed publisher
    ..neurokinin A, neurokinin B, and substance P, as well as the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and P2X3 purine receptors that are functionally associated with C fibers in the urinary bladder...
  46. Wang S, Dai Y, Kobayashi K, Zhu W, Kogure Y, Yamanaka H, et al. Potentiation of the P2X3 ATP receptor by PAR-2 in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons, through protein kinase-dependent mechanisms, contributes to inflammatory pain. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;36:2293-301 pubmed publisher
    ..b>P2X3 is a subtype of the ionotropic receptors for adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), and is mainly localized on ..
  47. Chen X, Zhu J, Wang Y, Zhang X, Bao L. CaMKII? and caveolin-1 cooperate to drive ATP-induced membrane delivery of the P2X3 receptor. J Mol Cell Biol. 2014;6:140-53 pubmed publisher
    The P2X3 receptor plays a vital role in sensory processing and transmission. The assembly and trafficking of the P2X3 receptor are important for its function in primary sensory neurons...
  48. Wang S, Zhu H, Jin Y, Zhou Y, Hu S, Liu T, et al. Adrenergic signaling mediates mechanical hyperalgesia through activation of P2X3 receptors in primary sensory neurons of rats with chronic pancreatitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015;308:G710-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Sensitization of P2X3Rs, which was likely mediated by adrenergic signaling in primary sensory neurons, contributes to pancreatic pain, thus identifying a potential target for treating pancreatic pain caused by inflammation. ..
  49. Saloman J, Chung M, Ro J. P2X? and TRPV1 functionally interact and mediate sensitization of trigeminal sensory neurons. Neuroscience. 2013;232:226-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data propose P2X? and TRPV1 interact in a facilitatory manner, which could contribute to the peripheral sensitization known to underlie masseter hyperalgesia. ..
  50. Finger T, Danilova V, Barrows J, Bartel D, Vigers A, Stone L, et al. ATP signaling is crucial for communication from taste buds to gustatory nerves. Science. 2005;310:1495-9 pubmed
    ..Genetic elimination of ionotropic purinergic receptors (P2X2 and P2X3) eliminates taste responses in the taste nerves, although the nerves remain responsive to touch, temperature, and ..
  51. Lu Z, Miao X, Wu J, Wang X, Miao Q, Yu W. Acute PAR2 activation reduces alpha, beta-MeATP sensitive currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Neuroreport. 2010;21:227-32 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor 2 (PAR2) receptor activation enhances the animal's pain response and PAR2 coexpresses with P2X3 in dorsal root ganglion neurons...
  52. Jindrichova M, Khafizov K, Skorinkin A, Fayuk D, Bart G, Zemkova H, et al. Highly conserved tyrosine 37 stabilizes desensitized states and restricts calcium permeability of ATP-gated P2X3 receptor. J Neurochem. 2011;119:676-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested whether Y37 contributes to the desensitization of P2X3 receptors, which is currently not well understood...
  53. Wang Y, Li G, Liang S, Zhang A, Xu C, Gao Y, et al. Role of P2X3 receptor in myocardial ischemia injury and nociceptive sensory transmission. Auton Neurosci. 2008;139:30-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>P2X3 receptor is the most abundant P2X-receptor subtype in heart and nodose ganglia...
  54. Rong W, Gourine A, Cockayne D, Xiang Z, Ford A, Spyer K, et al. Pivotal role of nucleotide P2X2 receptor subunit of the ATP-gated ion channel mediating ventilatory responses to hypoxia. J Neurosci. 2003;23:11315-21 pubmed
    ..receptor subunit showed a markedly attenuated ventilatory response to hypoxia, whereas the response to hypoxia in P2X3-deficient mice was comparable with that seen in wild-type controls...
  55. Wang Y, Mackes J, Chan S, Haughey N, Guo Z, Ouyang X, et al. Impaired long-term depression in P2X3 deficient mice is not associated with a spatial learning deficit. J Neurochem. 2006;99:1425-34 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mice lacking the P2X3 ATP receptor (P2X3KO mice) exhibit abnormalities in hippocampal synaptic plasticity that can be restored by pharmacological ..
  56. Gnanasekaran A, Sundukova M, van den Maagdenberg A, Fabbretti E, Nistri A. Lipid rafts control P2X3 receptor distribution and function in trigeminal sensory neurons of a transgenic migraine mouse model. Mol Pain. 2011;7:77 pubmed publisher
    ..frequently found in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine shows functional upregulation of ATP-sensitive P2X3 receptors of trigeminal sensory neurons that transduce nociceptive inputs to the brainstem...
  57. Huang L, Greenwood D, Thorne P, Housley G. Developmental regulation of neuron-specific P2X3 receptor expression in the rat cochlea. J Comp Neurol. 2005;484:133-43 pubmed
    ATP-gated ion channels assembled from P2X3 receptor (P2X3R) subunits contribute to neurotransmission and neurotrophic signaling, associated with neurite development and synaptogenesis, particularly in peripheral sensory neurons...
  58. Fan J, Yu L, Zhang Y, Ni X, Ma B, Burnstock G. Estrogen altered visceromotor reflex and P2X(3) mRNA expression in a rat model of colitis. Steroids. 2009;74:956-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that P2X(3) receptors are likely to be an important contributor to the altered colonic functions in colitis rats, where the underlying mechanisms are closely related to endogenous estrogen modulation. ..
  59. Pijacka W, Moraes D, Ratcliffe L, Nightingale A, Hart E, da Silva M, et al. Purinergic receptors in the carotid body as a new drug target for controlling hypertension. Nat Med. 2016;22:1151-1159 pubmed publisher
    ..We discovered that purinergic receptor P2X3 (P2rx3, also known as P2x3) mRNA expression is upregulated substantially in chemoreceptive petrosal sensory neurons in ..
  60. Ugarte G, Opazo T, Leisewitz F, van Zundert B, Montecino M. Runx1 and C/EBP? transcription factors directly up-regulate P2X3 gene transcription. J Cell Physiol. 2012;227:1645-52 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of several phenotypic markers in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) neurons, including the pain-related P2X3 receptor...
  61. Bian X, Ren J, DeVries M, Schnegelsberg B, Cockayne D, Ford A, et al. Peristalsis is impaired in the small intestine of mice lacking the P2X3 subunit. J Physiol. 2003;551:309-22 pubmed
    ..In this study, we used tissues from P2X3 wild-type (P2X3+/+) mice and mice in which the P2X3 subunit gene had been deleted (P2X3-/-) to investigate the role ..
  62. Sun S, Qi D, Yang Y, Ji P, Kong J, Wu Q. Association of occlusal interference-induced masseter muscle hyperalgesia and P2X3 receptors in the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis and midbrain periaqueductal gray. Neuroreport. 2016;27:277-83 pubmed publisher
    b>P2X3 receptor plays a role in nociception transmission of orofacial pain in temporomandibular disorder patients...
  63. Takahashi N, Nakamuta N, Yamamoto Y. Morphology of P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings in the rat laryngeal mucosa. Histochem Cell Biol. 2016;145:131-46 pubmed publisher
    The morphological characteristics of P2X3-immunoreactive nerve endings in the laryngeal mucosa were herein examined using immunohistochemistry with confocal laser microscopy...
  64. Fang J, Du J, Fang J, Xiao T, Le X, Pan N, et al. Parameter-specific analgesic effects of electroacupuncture mediated by degree of regulation TRPV1 and P2X3 in inflammatory pain in rats. Life Sci. 2018;200:69-80 pubmed publisher
    ..of EA with different stimulation times and frequencies on painful hyperalgesia mediated by the level of TRPV1 and P2X3 expression in DRG after CFA injection. The model was induced by the injection of CFA in each rat's right hind paw...
  65. Wu J, Xu M, Miao X, Lu Z, Yuan X, Li X, et al. Functional up-regulation of P2X3 receptors in dorsal root ganglion in a rat model of bone cancer pain. Eur J Pain. 2012;16:1378-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the P2X(3) receptor is functionally up-regulated in DRG in cancer rats. P2X(3) receptor is a promising target for therapeutic intervention in cancer patients for pain management. ..
  66. Xiang Z, Burnstock G. Development of nerves expressing P2X3 receptors in the myenteric plexus of rat stomach. Histochem Cell Biol. 2004;122:111-9 pubmed
    Development of neurones and fibres expressing P2X3 receptors in the myenteric plexus of rat stomach and coexistence of the P2X3 receptor with calbindin, calretinin and NOS during postnatal development, were investigated with ..
  67. Chizhmakov I, Kulyk V, Khasabova I, Khasabov S, SIMONE D, Bakalkin G, et al. Molecular mechanism for opioid dichotomy: bidirectional effect of μ-opioid receptors on P2X₃ receptor currents in rat sensory neurones. Purinergic Signal. 2015;11:171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..switch associated with opioid receptors-linked signalling cascades that provides a dual opioid control over P2X3 purinoceptor in sensory neurones...
  68. Sekino Y, Nakano J, Hamaue Y, Chuganji S, Sakamoto J, Yoshimura T, et al. Sensory hyperinnervation and increase in NGF, TRPV1 and P2X3 expression in the epidermis following cast immobilization in rats. Eur J Pain. 2014;18:639-48 pubmed publisher
    ..to examine the expression of the nerve growth factor (NGF), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and P2X3 in the epidermis. Cast immobilization produced a time-dependent increase in mechanical and thermal sensitivity...
  69. Aschrafi A, Sadtler S, Niculescu C, Rettinger J, Schmalzing G. Trimeric architecture of homomeric P2X2 and heteromeric P2X1+2 receptor subtypes. J Mol Biol. 2004;342:333-43 pubmed
    ..Here we provide biochemical evidence that in addition to the rapidly desensitising P2X1 and P2X3 receptors, the slowly desensitising subtypes P2X2, P2X4, and P2X5 are trimers of identical subunits...
  70. Niane L, Donnelly D, Joseph V, Bairam A. Ventilatory and carotid body chemoreceptor responses to purinergic P2X receptor antagonists in newborn rats. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011;110:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these effects are not age dependent within the age range studied. ..
  71. Noma N, Shinoda M, Honda K, Kiyomoto M, Dezawa K, Nakaya Y, et al. Interaction of IL-1? and P2X(3) receptor in pathologic masseter muscle pain. J Dent Res. 2013;92:456-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether expression of P2X3 receptor (P2X3R) is involved in mechanical hyperalgesia after contraction of masseter muscle (CMM)...
  72. Xu C, Xu W, Xu H, Xiong W, Gao Y, Li G, et al. Role of puerarin in the signalling of neuropathic pain mediated by P2X3 receptor of dorsal root ganglion neurons. Brain Res Bull. 2012;87:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, puerarin may alleviate neuropathic pain mediated by P2X(3) receptors in dorsal root ganglion neurons. ..
  73. Xiao L, Cheng J, Dai J, Zhang D. Botulinum toxin decreases hyperalgesia and inhibits P2X3 receptor over-expression in sensory neurons induced by ventral root transection in rats. Pain Med. 2011;12:1385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These data not only show over-expression of purinergic receptors in the VRT model of neuropathic pain but also reveal a novel mechanism of botulinum toxin action on nociceptive neurons. ..
  74. Stanchev D, Blosa M, Milius D, Gerevich Z, Rubini P, Schmalzing G, et al. Cross-inhibition between native and recombinant TRPV1 and P2X(3) receptors. Pain. 2009;143:26-36 pubmed publisher