Gene Symbol: Oxt
Description: oxytocin/neurophysin 1 prepropeptide
Alias: oxytocin-neurophysin 1, OT-NPI, oxcytocin, oxytocin, prepropeptide, oxytocin/neurophysin (Oxt) gene, complete gene, complete cds
Species: rat
Products:     Oxt

Top Publications

  1. Yue C, Mutsuga N, Sugimura Y, Verbalis J, Gainer H. Differential kinetics of oxytocin and vasopressin heteronuclear RNA expression in the rat supraoptic nucleus in response to chronic salt loading in vivo. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:227-32 pubmed
  2. Figueira R, Peabody M, Lonstein J. Oxytocin receptor activity in the ventrocaudal periaqueductal gray modulates anxiety-related behavior in postpartum rats. Behav Neurosci. 2008;122:618-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, OT receptor activation in the cPAGv is an important consequence of contact with infants that reduces some anxiety-related behaviors in mother rats. ..
  3. Bale T, Davis A, Auger A, Dorsa D, McCarthy M. CNS region-specific oxytocin receptor expression: importance in regulation of anxiety and sex behavior. J Neurosci. 2001;21:2546-52 pubmed
    ..Distinct signal transduction pathways regulating receptor expression and binding in each brain region may mediate in part the ability of oxytocin to exert these differential behavioral effects. ..
  4. Waldherr M, Neumann I. Centrally released oxytocin mediates mating-induced anxiolysis in male rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:16681-4 pubmed
    ..These findings provide direct evidence for an essential role of an activated brain oxytocin system mediating the anxiolytic effect of mating in males. ..
  5. Huber D, Veinante P, Stoop R. Vasopressin and oxytocin excite distinct neuronal populations in the central amygdala. Science. 2005;308:245-8 pubmed
    ..Through this network, the expression and endogenous activation of vasopressin and oxytocin receptors may regulate the autonomic expression of fear. ..
  6. Strakova Z, Copland J, Lolait S, Soloff M. ERK2 mediates oxytocin-stimulated PGE2 synthesis. Am J Physiol. 1998;274:E634-41 pubmed
    ..However, inhibition of OT-induced ERK2 phosphorylation with an ERK kinase inhibitor (PD-98059) markedly reduced OT-stimulated PGE2 synthesis, pointing to the importance of ERK2 activation in OT action. ..
  7. Peters J, McDougall S, Kellett D, Jordan D, Llewellyn Smith I, Andresen M. Oxytocin enhances cranial visceral afferent synaptic transmission to the solitary tract nucleus. J Neurosci. 2008;28:11731-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that OT released from PVN axons acts on a subset of second-order neurons within medial NTS to enhance visceral afferent transmission via presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. ..
  8. Wacker D, Ludwig M. Vasopressin, oxytocin, and social odor recognition. Horm Behav. 2012;61:259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin, and Social Behavior. ..
  9. Valesky E, Burda H, Kaufmann R, Oelschläger H. Distribution of oxytocin- and vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the brain of the eusocial mole rat (Fukomys anselli). Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2012;295:474-80 pubmed publisher
    ..anselli that was not found in SD rats. Further studies are needed to determine whether these mammillary OT-ir neurons are causally related to monogamy in F. anselli and whether these correlates of monogamy are found in other species. ..

More Information


  1. Wu C, Hung C, Chang F, Pau K, Wang P. Pharmacological effects of oxytocin on gastric emptying and intestinal transit of a non-nutritive liquid meal in female rats. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2003;367:406-13 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that OT inhibits gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in female rats via a mechanism involving CCK stimulation and CCK(1) receptor activation. ..
  2. Israel J, Cabelguen J, Le Masson G, Oliet S, Ciofi P. Neonatal testosterone suppresses a neuroendocrine pulse generator required for reproduction. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3285 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports the view that stereotypic neuroendocrine pulsatility is governed by CPGs, some of which are subjected to gender-specific perinatal programming...
  3. Ochedalski T, Subburaju S, Wynn P, Aguilera G. Interaction between oestrogen and oxytocin on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:189-97 pubmed
  4. Nordquist L, Isaksson B, Sjoquist M. The effect of amiloride during infusion of oxytocin in male sprague-dawley rats: a study of a possible intrarenal target site for oxytocin. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2008;30:151-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that the intrarenal natriuretic mechanisms of oxytocin do not emanate from the amiloride-sensitive sodium channels. ..
  5. Blevins J, Schwartz M, Baskin D. Evidence that paraventricular nucleus oxytocin neurons link hypothalamic leptin action to caudal brain stem nuclei controlling meal size. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;287:R87-96 pubmed
  6. Babygirija R, Bulbul M, Yoshimoto S, Ludwig K, Takahashi T. Central and peripheral release of oxytocin following chronic homotypic stress in rats. Auton Neurosci. 2012;167:56-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, there were no significant changes observed in the plasma on day 3 and day 5. This suggests that central, but not peripheral, release of oxytocin plays an important role in response to chronic homotypic stress in rats. ..
  7. Liu H, Cao R, Jin L, Chen L. Immunocytochemical localization of substance P receptor in hypothalamic oxytocin-containing neurons of C57 mice. Brain Res. 2002;948:175-9 pubmed
    ..The present study provides morphological evidence for tachykinin-induced modulation of oxytocin-containing neurons as mediated by substance P receptor in the hypothalamus of mammals. ..
  8. North W, Mitchell T. Evolution of neurophysin proteins: partial amino acid sequences of rat neurophysins. FEBS Lett. 1981;126:41-4 pubmed
  9. Song Z, Sidorowicz H, Sladek C. cAMP stimulation of vasopressin and oxytocin release and regulation of vasopressin mRNA stability: role of auto-facilitation. J Neuroendocrinol. 2001;13:158-65 pubmed
  10. Radacs M, Molnár A, László F, Varga C, Laszlo F, Gálfi M. Inhibitory effect of galanin on adrenaline- and noradrenaline-induced increased oxytocin secretion in rat neurohypophyseal cell cultures. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;42:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The interactions between the adrenergic and galaninergic systems from the aspect of oxytocin secretion can occur at the level of the posterior pituitary, independently of the hypothalamus. ..
  11. Honda K, Sudo A, Ikeda K. Oxytocin cells in the supraoptic nucleus receive excitatory synaptic inputs from the contralateral supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in the lactating rat. J Reprod Dev. 2013;59:569-74 pubmed
    ..Receipt these synaptic inputs to oxytocin cells may contribute to the synchronized activation of oxytocin cells during the milk ejection reflex. ..
  12. Ivell R, Richter D. Structure and comparison of the oxytocin and vasopressin genes from rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:2006-10 pubmed
    ..A stretch of 143 nucleotides within exon B, except for a single base change, is entirely homologous to the equivalent part of the rat vasopressin gene, offering support for a gene conversion event having recently affected the two genes. ..
  13. Onaka T, Ikeda K, Yamashita T, Honda K. Facilitative role of endogenous oxytocin in noradrenaline release in the rat supraoptic nucleus. Eur J Neurosci. 2003;18:3018-26 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that dendritic oxytocin facilitates activation of oxytocin neurons, at least in part by augmentation of noradrenaline release via a presynaptic action. ..
  14. Chauvet M, Chauvet J, Acher R. Identification of rat neurophysins: complete amino acid sequences of MSEL- and VLDV-neurophysins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1981;103:595-603 pubmed
  15. Sendemir E, Kafa I, Schäfer H, Jirikowski G. Altered oxytocinergic hypothalamus systems in sepsis. J Chem Neuroanat. 2013;52:44-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic oxytocin levels may serve as additional diagnostic marker for sepsis. ..
  16. Pournajafi Nazarloo H, Perry A, Partoo L, Papademeteriou E, Azizi F, Carter C, et al. Neonatal oxytocin treatment modulates oxytocin receptor, atrial natriuretic peptide, nitric oxide synthase and estrogen receptor mRNAs expression in rat heart. Peptides. 2007;28:1170-7 pubmed
    ..Also with the exception of ERalpha mRNA, the effects are the same in both sexes. ..
  17. Gil M, Bhatt R, Picotte K, Hull E. Sexual experience increases oxytocin receptor gene expression and protein in the medial preoptic area of the male rat. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2013;38:1688-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a reciprocal interaction between central OT and behavior, in which OT facilitates copulation and copulation stimulates the OT/OTR system in the brain. ..
  18. Luce V, Fernandez Solari J, Rettori V, De Laurentiis A. The inhibitory effect of anandamide on oxytocin and vasopressin secretion from neurohypophysis is mediated by nitric oxide. Regul Pept. 2014;188:31-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings revealed an interaction between endocannabinoid, nitric oxide and oxytocin/vasopressin systems that could be involved in the modulation of homeostatic, behavioral and reproductive processes. ..
  19. Northrop L, Erskine M. Selective oxytocin receptor activation in the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial hypothalamus is required for mating-induced pseudopregnancy in the female rat. Endocrinology. 2008;149:836-42 pubmed
    ..Together, our results suggest that OT release in the VMHvl mediates the effects of VCS on the induction of the PRL secretion needed to establish PSP. ..
  20. Schmitz E, Mohr E, Richter D. Rat vasopressin and oxytocin genes are linked by a long interspersed repeated DNA element (LINE): sequence and transcriptional analysis of LINE. DNA Cell Biol. 1991;10:81-91 pubmed
    ..The data show that most LINEs are transcribed at their entire length and that a major fraction of respective RNAs does not enter the cytoplasm but remains in the cell nucleus. ..
  21. Widmer H, Ludwig M, Bancel F, Leng G, Dayanithi G. Neurosteroid regulation of oxytocin and vasopressin release from the rat supraoptic nucleus. J Physiol. 2003;548:233-44 pubmed
  22. Schlesinger D, Pickering B, Watkins W, Peek J, Moore L, Audhya T, et al. A comparative study of partial neurophysin protein sequences of cod, guinea pig, rat and sheep. FEBS Lett. 1977;80:371-3 pubmed
  23. Hadsell D, Bonnette S, George J, Torres D, Klimentidis Y, Klementidis Y, et al. Diminished milk synthesis in upstream stimulatory factor 2 null mice is associated with decreased circulating oxytocin and decreased mammary gland expression of eukaryotic initiation factors 4E and 4G. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2251-67 pubmed
  24. Lauand F, Ruginsk S, Rodrigues H, Reis W, de Castro M, Elias L, et al. Glucocorticoid modulation of atrial natriuretic peptide, oxytocin, vasopressin and Fos expression in response to osmotic, angiotensinergic and cholinergic stimulation. Neuroscience. 2007;147:247-57 pubmed
    ..The present data also suggest that these responses are modulated by glucocorticoids...
  25. Engelmann M, Ebner K, Landgraf R, Wotjak C. Effects of Morris water maze testing on the neuroendocrine stress response and intrahypothalamic release of vasopressin and oxytocin in the rat. Horm Behav. 2006;50:496-501 pubmed
    ..SON) nuclei were collected in order to monitor local release of the neuropeptides vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT), respectively, during controllable swim stress...
  26. Majzoub J, Rich A, van Boom J, Habener J. Vasopressin and oxytocin mRNA regulation in the rat assessed by hybridization with synthetic oligonucleotides. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:14061-4 pubmed
  27. Mohr E, Bahnsen U, Kiessling C, Richter D. Expression of the vasopressin and oxytocin genes in rats occurs in mutually exclusive sets of hypothalamic neurons. FEBS Lett. 1988;242:144-8 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that upregulation of oxytocin gene transcription is restricted solely to oxytocinergic cells; no oxytocin gene transcripts can be detected in vasopressinergic neurons. ..
  28. Lipschitz D, Crowley W, Bealer S. Differential sensitivity of intranuclear and systemic oxytocin release to central noradrenergic receptor stimulation during mid- and late gestation in rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;287:E523-8 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that sensitivity of intranuclear and systemic OT release to noradrenergic receptor activation differentially varies during the course of gestation. ..
  29. El Emam Dief A, Caldwell J, Jirikowski G. Colocalization of p450 aromatase and oxytocin immunostaining in the rat hypothalamus. Horm Metab Res. 2013;45:273-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that systemic androgens may be aromatized to estrogens in male oxytocinergic neurons linked to the limbic system. ..
  30. Zierer R. Impact of ether anesthesia on the hypophyseal content of oxytocin neurophysin I and II: a comparative study with ketamine in the rat. Life Sci. 1991;49:1391-7 pubmed
    ..Treatment of animals with atropine and diphenylhydantoin in combination with ketamine does not alter the profile of the major hormones from the PP during anesthetic stress. ..
  31. Butovsky E, Juknat A, Elbaz J, Shabat Simon M, Eilam R, Zangen A, et al. Chronic exposure to Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol downregulates oxytocin and oxytocin-associated neurophysin in specific brain areas. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;31:795-804 pubmed
    ..As OT is known to inhibit development of drug tolerance and attenuate withdrawal symptoms, we suggest that OT downregulation could play a role during the establishment of the chronic effects of Delta9-THC. ..
  32. Wang Y, Hatton G. Dominant role of betagamma subunits of G-proteins in oxytocin-evoked burst firing. J Neurosci. 2007;27:1902-12 pubmed
    ..We conclude that G betagamma subunits play a dominant role in burst firing evoked by applied OT or by suckling. ..
  33. Bernal A, Mahía J, Puerto A. Oxytocin, water intake, and food sodium availability in male rats. Horm Behav. 2007;52:289-96 pubmed
  34. Holmes C, Landry D, Granton J. Science review: Vasopressin and the cardiovascular system part 1--receptor physiology. Crit Care. 2003;7:427-34 pubmed
    ..In part 2 of the review we discuss the effects of vasopressin on vascular smooth muscle and the heart, and we summarize clinical studies of vasopressin in shock states. ..
  35. Babygirija R, Cerjak D, Yoshimoto S, Gribovskaja Rupp I, Bulbul M, Ludwig K, et al. Affiliative behavior attenuates stress responses of GI tract via up-regulating hypothalamic oxytocin expression. Auton Neurosci. 2012;169:28-33 pubmed publisher
    Hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) has stress-attenuating effects. Social interaction in a positive environment continuously activates OXT release system...
  36. Beery A, Zucker I. Oxytocin and same-sex social behavior in female meadow voles. Neuroscience. 2010;169:665-73 pubmed publisher
  37. Danalache B, Yu C, Gutkowska J, Jankowski M. Oxytocin-Gly-Lys-Arg stimulates cardiomyogenesis by targeting cardiac side population cells. J Endocrinol. 2014;220:277-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, SP cells stimulated by OT-GKR induced endothelial phenotype. These results suggest that the C-terminally extended OT molecule stimulates cardiac differentiation of SP CD31- cells and is involved in heart growth. ..
  38. Bulbul M, Babygirija R, Cerjak D, Yoshimoto S, Ludwig K, Takahashi T. Hypothalamic oxytocin attenuates CRF expression via GABA(A) receptors in rats. Brain Res. 2011;1387:39-45 pubmed publisher
    Centrally released oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic and anti-stress effects...
  39. Phillipson O, Gonzalez C. Distribution of axons showing neurophysin-like immunoreactivity in cortical and anterior basal forebrain sites. Brain Res. 1983;258:33-44 pubmed
    ..The significance of these findings is discussed. Particular attention is paid to the known connections of these, and associated regions, with limbic dopaminergic cell groups. ..
  40. Ludwig M, Sabatier N, Bull P, Landgraf R, Dayanithi G, Leng G. Intracellular calcium stores regulate activity-dependent neuropeptide release from dendrites. Nature. 2002;418:85-9 pubmed
    ..This priming action makes dendritic oxytocin available for release in response to subsequent spike activity. Priming persists for a prolonged period, changing the nature of interactions between oxytocin neurons and their neighbours. ..
  41. Perry A, Paramadilok A, Cushing B. Neonatal oxytocin alters subsequent estrogen receptor alpha protein expression and estrogen sensitivity in the female rat. Behav Brain Res. 2009;205:154-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, exogenous OT or OTA exposure during development may have long-term consequences on behavior through stable changes in ERalpha and OT expression. ..
  42. Sakamoto T, Mori K, Miyazato M, Kangawa K, Sameshima H, Nakahara K, et al. Involvement of neuromedin S in the oxytocin release response to suckling stimulus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;375:49-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that, in the rat, endogenous NMS plays an important role in the oxytocin release response to the suckling stimulus. ..
  43. Bosch O, Meddle S, Beiderbeck D, Douglas A, Neumann I. Brain oxytocin correlates with maternal aggression: link to anxiety. J Neurosci. 2005;25:6807-15 pubmed
    ..Therefore, differences in intracerebral release patterns of oxytocin, rather than differences at the level of oxytocin receptors, are critical for the regulation of maternal aggressive behavior. ..
  44. Kohno D, Nakata M, Maejima Y, Shimizu H, Sedbazar U, Yoshida N, et al. Nesfatin-1 neurons in paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the rat hypothalamus coexpress oxytocin and vasopressin and are activated by refeeding. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1295-301 pubmed
    ..Feeding-activated nesfatin-1 neurons in the PVN and SON could play a role in the postprandial regulation of feeding behavior and energy homeostasis. ..
  45. da Silveira L, Junta C, Monesi N, de Oliveira Pelegrin G, Passos G, Rocha M. Time course of c-fos, vasopressin and oxytocin mRNA expression in the hypothalamus following long-term dehydration. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2007;27:575-84 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is possible that c-fos may be involved in the modulation of VP and OT genes, regulating the mRNA expression levels on a temporally distinct basis within the PVN and SON. ..
  46. Beyer C, Dwyer J, Platt B, Neal S, Luo B, Ling H, et al. Angiotensin IV elevates oxytocin levels in the rat amygdala and produces anxiolytic-like activity through subsequent oxytocin receptor activation. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010;209:303-11 pubmed publisher
  47. Cruz J, Cavalleri M, Ceroni A, Michelini L. Peripheral chemoreceptors mediate training-induced plasticity in paraventricular nucleus pre-autonomic oxytocinergic neurons. Exp Physiol. 2013;98:386-96 pubmed publisher
  48. Black L, Ness T, Robbins M. Effects of oxytocin and prolactin on stress-induced bladder hypersensitivity in female rats. J Pain. 2009;10:1065-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies do not suggest a similar role for prolactin. ..
  49. Yashpal K, Gauthier S, Henry J. Oxytocin administered intrathecally preferentially increases heart rate rather than arterial pressure in the rat. J Auton Nerv Syst. 1987;20:167-78 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with earlier suggestions that oxytocin may be a chemical mediator of synaptic transmission onto sympathetic preganglionic neurons...
  50. DelaTorre S, Rojas Piloni G, Martínez Lorenzana G, Rodríguez Jiménez J, Villanueva L, Condés Lara M. Paraventricular oxytocinergic hypothalamic prevention or interruption of long-term potentiation in dorsal horn nociceptive neurons: electrophysiological and behavioral evidence. Pain. 2009;144:320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..LTP mediates long-lasting pain hypersensitivity that is strongly modulated by endogenous hypothalamic oxytocinergic descending controls. ..
  51. Kudwa A, McGivern R, Handa R. Estrogen receptor β and oxytocin interact to modulate anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine stress reactivity in adult male and female rats. Physiol Behav. 2014;129:287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that ERβ and OT interact to modulate the HPA reactivity and the display of anxiety-like behaviors. ..
  52. da Silva M, Merino R, Mecawi A, Moraes D, Varanda W. In vitro differentiation between oxytocin- and vasopressin-secreting magnocellular neurons requires more than one experimental criterion. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;400:102-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that for in vitro preparations, the combination of mRNA detection and immunohistochemistry seems to be preferable when trying to characterize a single MNC phenotype. ..
  53. Yi K, So K, Hata Y, Suzuki Y, Kato D, Watanabe K, et al. The regulation of oxytocin receptor gene expression during adipogenesis. J Neuroendocrinol. 2015;27:335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, a new regulatory mechanism is demonstrated for oxytocin to control the differentiation and fat accumulation in adipocytes via activation of OTR as a part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adipose axis. ..