Gene Symbol: Nppa
Description: natriuretic peptide A
Alias: ANF, ANP, Pnd, RATANF, natriuretic peptides A, Natriuretic peptide precursor A (pronatriodilatin, also Anf, Pnd), atrial natriuretic factor, atrial natriuretic peptide, natriuretic peptide precursor type A, prepronatriodilatin
Species: rat
Products:     Nppa

Top Publications

  1. Cui Y, Wang W, Dong N, Lou J, Srinivasan D, Cheng W, et al. Role of corin in trophoblast invasion and uterine spiral artery remodelling in pregnancy. Nature. 2012;484:246-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Corin (also known as atrial natriuretic peptide-converting enzyme) is a cardiac protease that activates atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a cardiac ..
  2. Gutkowska J, Broderick T, Bogdan D, Wang D, Lavoie J, Jankowski M. Downregulation of oxytocin and natriuretic peptides in diabetes: possible implications in cardiomyopathy. J Physiol. 2009;587:4725-36 pubmed publisher
    ..db/db mice displayed significant downregulation in gene expression of OT (76%), OT receptors (65%), atrial NP (ANP; 43%), brain NP (BNP; 87%) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (54%) in the heart (P < 0.05)...
  3. Li P, Oparil S, Novak L, Cao X, Shi W, Lucas J, et al. ANP signaling inhibits TGF-beta-induced Smad2 and Smad3 nuclear translocation and extracellular matrix expression in rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;102:390-8 pubmed
    b>Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta play important counterregulatory roles in pulmonary vascular adaptation to chronic hypoxia...
  4. Mussalo H, Vanninen E, Ikäheimo R, Hartikainen J. NT-proANP and BNP in renovascular and in severe and mild essential hypertension. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2003;26:34-41 pubmed
    The plasma concentrations of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) become increased in hypertension...
  5. Kao Y, Liou J, Chung C, Lien G, Kuo C, Chen S, et al. Histone deacetylase inhibition improved cardiac functions with direct antifibrotic activity in heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2013;168:4178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Echocardiographic, histologic, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and Western blot measurements were performed in HF rats (isoproterenol 100 mg/kg, subcutaneous ..
  6. Bai G, Gao S, Shah A, Yuan K, Park W, Kim S. Regulation of ANP secretion from isolated atria by prostaglandins and cyclooxygenase-2. Peptides. 2009;30:1720-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the role of various PGs and COX-2 in the regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion...
  7. Seidman C, Wong D, Jarcho J, Bloch K, Seidman J. Cis-acting sequences that modulate atrial natriuretic factor gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:4104-8 pubmed
    Nucleotide sequences necessary to direct transcription of the gene encoding atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in neonatal and fetal hearts have been defined by using expression of the prokaryotic marker gene chloramphenicol ..
  8. Zhang C, Jia Z, Li B, Zhang H, Liu Y, Chen P, et al. beta-Catenin/TCF/LEF1 can directly regulate phenylephrine-induced cell hypertrophy and Anf transcription in cardiomyocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:258-62 pubmed publisher
    ..attenuates phenylephrine (PE)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the up-regulation of the fetal gene Anf. We explore the mechanism through which beta-catenin regulates Anf expression and find a consensus binding sequence ..
  9. Carini R, De Cesaris M, Splendore R, Domenicotti C, Nitti M, Pronzato M, et al. Mechanisms of hepatocyte protection against hypoxic injury by atrial natriuretic peptide. Hepatology. 2003;37:277-85 pubmed
    b>Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduces ischemia and/or reperfusion damage in several organs, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown...

More Information


  1. Farina Lipari E, Lipari D, Dieli F, Valentino B. Atrial natriuretic peptide secretion during development of the rat supraoptic nucleus. Eur J Histochem. 2005;49:379-84 pubmed
    Since a relationship between atrial natriuretic peptide and oxytocin was recently demonstrated in the heart (Gutkowska et al...
  2. Yuan K, Yu J, Shah A, Gao S, Kim S, Kim S, et al. Leptin reduces plasma ANP level via nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R1007-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to define the possible role of leptin in regulation of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system using acute and chronic experiments...
  3. Ronkainen J, Vuolteenaho O, Tavi P. Calcium-calmodulin kinase II is the common factor in calcium-dependent cardiac expression and secretion of A- and B-type natriuretic peptides. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2815-20 pubmed
    Peptides derived from the precursor of A- and B-type natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP) are powerful clinical markers of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction...
  4. Chen L, Wang Z, Wan C, Chao L, Chao J, Xing H. Encapsulated transgene cells attenuate hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and enhance renal function in Goldblatt hypertensive rats. J Gene Med. 2004;6:786-97 pubmed
    ..employed an immunoisolation device that protects nonautologous cells from destruction, to implant human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP)-producing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats...
  5. Citarella M, Choi M, Gironacci M, Medici C, Correa A, Fernandez B. Urodilatin and dopamine: a new interaction in the kidney. Regul Pept. 2009;153:19-24 pubmed publisher
    ..renal natriuretic peptide urodilatin (URO) exerts similar natriuretic and diuretic actions to those of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), we hypothesized that URO regulates renal dopamine (DA) availability, contributing to Na(+), K(+)-..
  6. Ye P, West M. Cosegregation analysis of natriuretic peptide genes and blood pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2003;30:930-6 pubmed
    1. The natriuretic peptide precursor A (Nppa) and B (Nppb) genes are candidate genes for hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR)...
  7. Levin E, Frank H. Natriuretic peptides inhibit rat astroglial proliferation: mediation by C receptor. Am J Physiol. 1991;261:R453-7 pubmed
    The processing and secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) from neurons and the expression of high-affinity receptors on astroglia from primary cultures of fetal rat diencephalon have recently been demonstrated...
  8. Dieplinger B, Mueller T, Kollerits B, Struck J, Ritz E, von Eckardstein A, et al. Pro-A-type natriuretic peptide and pro-adrenomedullin predict progression of chronic kidney disease: the MMKD Study. Kidney Int. 2009;75:408-14 pubmed publisher
    A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) and adrenomedullin (ADM) are potent hypotensive, diuretic, and natriuretic peptides involved in maintaining cardiovascular and renal homeostasis...
  9. Bai G, Piao F, Kim S, Yuan K, Kim S, Kim S. Augmentation of insulin-stimulated ANP release through tyrosine kinase and PI 3-kinase in diabetic rats. Peptides. 2006;27:2756-63 pubmed
    The aim of present study was to define the effects of insulin on atrial dynamics and ANP release and its modification in diabetic rats. An isolated perfused beating atrial model was used from control and diabetic rats...
  10. Lee C, Ha G, Kim J, Kim S. Modulation in Natriuretic Peptides System in Experimental Colitis in Rats. Dig Dis Sci. 2016;61:1060-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigates whether a local atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system exists in rat colon and whether ANP plays a role in the regulation of colonic motility in ..
  11. Seidman C, Duby A, Choi E, Graham R, Haber E, Homcy C, et al. The structure of rat preproatrial natriuretic factor as defined by a complementary DNA clone. Science. 1984;225:324-6 pubmed
    ..b>Atrial natriuretic factor is located at the carboxyl terminus of the precursor molecule...
  12. Zivin R, Condra J, Dixon R, Seidah N, Chretien M, Nemer M, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of DNA sequences encoding rat and human atrial natriuretic factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:6325-9 pubmed
    A cDNA copy of the message encoding rat atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) has been cloned in Escherichia coli, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. ANF appears to be synthesized as a larger precursor, atrial pronatriodilatin...
  13. Abraham R, Yang T, Blair M, Roden D, Darbar D. Augmented potassium current is a shared phenotype for two genetic defects associated with familial atrial fibrillation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:181-90 pubmed publisher
    ..current [I(Ks)]) and separately a mutation in natriuretic peptide precursor A (NPPA) gene (encoding atrial natriuretic peptide, ANP), both segregating with early onset lone AF in different kindreds...
  14. Fürst R, Brueckl C, Kuebler W, Zahler S, Krotz F, Gorlach A, et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide induces mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 in human endothelial cells via Rac1 and NAD(P)H oxidase/Nox2-activation. Circ Res. 2005;96:43-53 pubmed
    The cardiovascular hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) exerts anti-inflammatory effects on tumor necrosis factor-alpha-activated endothelial cells by inducing mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase-1 (MKP-1)...
  15. de Jong A, Maass A, Oberdorf Maass S, de Boer R, van Gilst W, Van Gelder I. Cyclical stretch induces structural changes in atrial myocytes. J Cell Mol Med. 2013;17:743-53 pubmed publisher
    ..No evidence of apoptosis was observed. Expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide and growth differentiation factor-15 was increased, and calcineurin ..
  16. Nakagawa O, Ogawa Y, Itoh H, Suga S, Komatsu Y, Kishimoto I, et al. Rapid transcriptional activation and early mRNA turnover of brain natriuretic peptide in cardiocyte hypertrophy. Evidence for brain natriuretic peptide as an "emergency" cardiac hormone against ventricular overload. J Clin Invest. 1995;96:1280-7 pubmed
    ..peptide (BNP) is a cardiac hormone mainly produced in the ventricle, while the major production site of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is the atrium...
  17. Mahmoodzadeh S, Pham T, Kuehne A, Fielitz B, Dworatzek E, Kararigas G, et al. 17?-Estradiol-induced interaction of ER? with NPPA regulates gene expression in cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2012;96:411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Using yeast two-hybrid assays with a human heart cDNA library, we identified atrial natriuretic peptide precursor A (NPPA), a well-known cardiac hypertrophy marker, as a novel ER? interaction partner ..
  18. Kruse J, Strootman E, Bart C, Visser A, Leer J, Wondergem J. Radiation-induced changes in gene expression and distribution of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in different anatomical regions of the rat heart. Int J Radiat Biol. 2002;78:297-304 pubmed
    To examine the effects of whole-heart irradiation on gene expression and distribution of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in atrial appendages and left ventricles of the rat heart...
  19. Banerjee P, Bandyopadhyay A. Cytosolic dynamics of annexin A6 trigger feedback regulation of hypertrophy via atrial natriuretic peptide in cardiomyocytes. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:5371-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show annexin A6 (Anxa6) to be a crucial regulator of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)-mediated counterhypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes...
  20. Gardner D, Vlasuk G, Baxter J, Fiddes J, Lewicki J. Identification of atrial natriuretic factor gene transcripts in the central nervous system of the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:2175-9 pubmed
    b>Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) gene transcripts have been identified in the hypothalamus, brainstem, and cerebral cortex of the rat...
  21. Nakayama K, Ohkubo H, Hirose T, Inayama S, Nakanishi S. mRNA sequence for human cardiodilatin-atrial natriuretic factor precursor and regulation of precursor mRNA in rat atria. Nature. 1984;310:699-701 pubmed
    ..and diuretic activities, and sequence similarities suggest that they may be derived from a common atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) precursor...
  22. Herichová I, AmbruÅ¡ová J, Molčan Ä, Veselá A, Svitok P, Zeman M. Different effects of phase advance and delay in rotating light-dark regimens on clock and natriuretic peptide gene expression in the rat heart. Physiol Res. 2014;63 Suppl 4:S573-84 pubmed
    ..regimens mimicking shift work, we analyzed the expression of clock genes (per2, bmal1) and natriuretic peptides (anp, bnp) in the heart of male rats...
  23. Moffatt P, Thomas G, Sellin K, Bessette M, Lafrenière F, Akhouayri O, et al. Osteocrin is a specific ligand of the natriuretic Peptide clearance receptor that modulates bone growth. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:36454-62 pubmed
  24. Dulce R, Hurtado C, Ennis I, Garciarena C, Alvarez M, Caldiz C, et al. Endothelin-1 induced hypertrophic effect in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes: involvement of Na+/H+ and Na+/Ca2+ exchangers. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006;41:807-15 pubmed
    ..Cell surface area, (3)H-phenylalanine incorporation and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) mRNA expression were increased to 131 +/- 3, 220 +/- 12 and 190 +/- 25% of control, respectively (..
  25. Jin H, Yang R, Chen Y, Jackson R, Oparil S. Atrial natriuretic peptide attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in rats adapted to chronic hypoxia. J Clin Invest. 1990;85:115-20 pubmed
    To test the hypothesis that chronic infusion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) instituted before hypoxic exposure attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension in hypoxia adapted rats, ANP (0.2 and 1...
  26. Mukoyama M, Nakao K, Saito Y, Ogawa Y, Hosoda K, Suga S, et al. Increased human brain natriuretic peptide in congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1990;323:757-8 pubmed
  27. Seidah N, Lazure C, Chretien M, Thibault G, Garcia R, Cantin M, et al. Amino acid sequence of homologous rat atrial peptides: natriuretic activity of native and synthetic forms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984;81:2640-4 pubmed
    A substance called atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), localized in secretory granules of atrial cardiocytes, was isolated as four homologous natriuretic peptides from homogenates of rat atria...
  28. Gao S, Shah A, Oh Y, Park W, Kim S. Urotensin II stimulates high frequency-induced ANP secretion via PLC-PI 3K-PKC pathway. Peptides. 2010;31:164-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the relationship between U-II and cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is still unknown...
  29. Larifla L, Maimaitiming S, Velayoudom Cephise F, Ferdinand S, Blanchet Deverly A, Benabdallah S, et al. Association of 2238T>C polymorphism of the atrial natriuretic peptide gene with coronary artery disease in Afro-Caribbeans with type 2 diabetes. Am J Hypertens. 2012;25:524-7 pubmed publisher
    The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is known mainly for its effects on kidney function and blood pressure homeostasis...
  30. Kanamitsu H, Fujii Y, Mitsui H, Sano S. Effects of atrial natriuretic peptide after prolonged hypothermic storage of the isolated rat heart. Artif Organs. 2013;37:1003-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) has been found to reduce the IRI of cardiomyocytes and may be beneficial in alleviating PGF after ..
  31. Geistrikh I, Visochek L, Klein R, Miller L, Mittelman L, Shainberg A, et al. Ca2+-induced PARP-1 activation and ANF expression are coupled events in cardiomyocytes. Biochem J. 2011;438:337-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Up-regulation of the transcription factor c-Fos/GATA-4 promoted ANF (atrial natriuretic factor) expression...
  32. Sun F, Zhou K, Wang S, Liang P, Zhu M, Qiu J. Expression patterns of atrial natriuretic peptide and its receptors within the cochlear spiral ganglion of the postnatal rat. Hear Res. 2014;309:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), acting through specific receptors, is a regulatory peptide required for a variety of cardiac, ..
  33. Mori T, Chen Y, Feng J, Hayashi T, Oparil S, Perry G. Volume overload results in exaggerated cardiac hypertrophy in the atrial natriuretic peptide knockout mouse. Cardiovasc Res. 2004;61:771-9 pubmed
    Previous studies suggest that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) may act as an autocrine/paracrine factor to modulate cardiac hypertrophy in response to various stimuli...
  34. Thibault G, Murthy K, Gutkowska J, Seidah N, Lazure C, Chretien M, et al. NH2-terminal fragment of rat pro-atrial natriuretic factor in the circulation: identification, radioimmunoassay and half-life. Peptides. 1988;9:47-53 pubmed
    A radioimmunoassay was developed to measure the NH2-terminal counterpart of rat pro-atrial natriuretic factor (pro-ANF) in plasma. Synthetic rat ANF (Asp 11-Ala 37) coupled to bovine serum albumin was used to immunize New Zealand rabbits...
  35. Christoffersen T, Aplin M, Strom C, Sheikh S, Skott O, Busk P, et al. Increased natriuretic peptide receptor A and C gene expression in rats with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006;290:H1635-41 pubmed
    Both atrial (ANP) and brain (BNP) natriuretic peptide affect development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis via binding to natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A in the heart...
  36. Nicolaidou P, Georgouli H, Matsinos Y, Psychou F, Messaritaki A, Gourgiotis D, et al. Endothelin-1 in children with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis and hypertension. Pediatr Int. 2003;45:35-8 pubmed
    ..The following parameters were evaluated: plasma ET-1, plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), plasma renin (Rn), serum aldosterone (Aldo), creatinine clearance (Ccr) and fractional excretion ..
  37. Ogawa H, Qiu Y, Ogata C, Misono K. Crystal structure of hormone-bound atrial natriuretic peptide receptor extracellular domain: rotation mechanism for transmembrane signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28625-31 pubmed
    A cardiac hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), plays a major role in blood pressure and volume regulation. ANP activities are mediated by a single span transmembrane receptor carrying intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity...
  38. Rubattu S, Stanzione R, Di Angelantonio E, Zanda B, Evangelista A, Tarasi D, et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide gene polymorphisms and risk of ischemic stroke in humans. Stroke. 2004;35:814-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to investigate the contributory role of the genes encoding atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and type A natriuretic peptide receptor (NPRA) in humans' susceptibility to develop ischemic ..
  39. Vesely D, Gower W, Dietz J, Overton R, Clark L, Antwi E, et al. Elevated atrial natriuretic peptides and early renal failure in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Metabolism. 1999;48:771-8 pubmed
    ..Four peptide hormones originating from the ANP prohormone were increased twofold (P < .05) to sixfold (P < ...
  40. Park B, Gao S, Cha S, Kim S. Attenuation of renovascular hypertension by cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor partly through ANP release. Peptides. 2015;69:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy with decreased expression levels of cardiac hypertrophy markers [atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)], Ang type 1 receptor, urotensin II, and urotensin II receptor in ..
  41. Hong S, Li H, Becker K, Dawson V, Dawson T. Identification and analysis of plasticity-induced late-response genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2145-50 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a molecular dissection of the activity-dependent long-lasting neuronal responses induced by NMDA receptor activation. ..
  42. He X, Dukkipati A, Garcia K. Structural determinants of natriuretic peptide receptor specificity and degeneracy. J Mol Biol. 2006;361:698-714 pubmed
    ..of NPR-C with NP hormones, we have determined the crystal structures of the complexes of NPR-C with atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), and with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)...
  43. Mathiyalagan P, Okabe J, Chang L, Su Y, Du X, El Osta A. The primary microRNA-208b interacts with Polycomb-group protein, Ezh2, to regulate gene expression in the heart. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42:790-803 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide a framework for MHC expression and regulation of genes implicated in pathological remodeling of ventricular hypertrophy. ..
  44. Yuan K, Rhee K, Park W, Kim S, Kim S. Different response of ANP secretion to adrenoceptor stimulation in renal hypertensive rat atria. Peptides. 2008;29:1207-15 pubmed publisher
    Sympathetic nervous system and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) system play fundamental roles in the regulation of cardiovascular functions...
  45. Jeffs B, Clark J, Anderson N, Gratton J, Brosnan M, Gauguier D, et al. Sensitivity to cerebral ischaemic insult in a rat model of stroke is determined by a single genetic locus. Nat Genet. 1997;16:364-7 pubmed
    ..6 which accounts for 67% of the total variance, co-localizes with the genes encoding atrial and brain natriuretic factor and is blood pressure independent. ..
  46. Tokola H, Rysä J, Pikkarainen S, Hautala N, Leskinen H, Kerkelä R, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein-2--a potential autocrine/paracrine factor in mediating the stretch activated B-type and atrial natriuretic peptide expression in cardiac myocytes. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;399:9-21 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP-2 and BMP-4 alone stimulated B-type and atrial natriuretic peptide (BNP and ANP) expression and protein synthesis, and activated transcription factor GATA-4 resembling the ..
  47. Nishikimi T, Inaba Iemura C, Ishimura K, Tadokoro K, Koshikawa S, Ishikawa K, et al. Natriuretic peptide/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) system has inhibitory effects in renal fibrosis in mice. Regul Pept. 2009;154:44-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Three groups were studied: untreated UUO in wild-type mice; untreated UUO in NPR-A KO mice; and ANP treated (0.05 microg/kg/min) UUO in wild-type mice...
  48. Gutte H, Oxbøl J, Kristoffersen U, Mortensen J, Kjaer A. Gene expression of ANP, BNP and ET-1 in the heart of rats during pulmonary embolism. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11111 pubmed publisher
    Atrial natriuretic petide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) may reflect the severity of right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE)...
  49. Atlas S, Kleinert H, Camargo M, Januszewicz A, Sealey J, Laragh J, et al. Purification, sequencing and synthesis of natriuretic and vasoactive rat atrial peptide. Nature. 1984;309:717-9 pubmed
    ..If secreted into blood, this atrial natriuretic peptide (' auriculin B') could be a novel peptide hormone of considerable importance to renal and cardiovascular ..
  50. Currie M, Geller D, Cole B, Siegel N, Fok K, Adams S, et al. Purification and sequence analysis of bioactive atrial peptides (atriopeptins). Science. 1984;223:67-9 pubmed
    ..Both peptides appear to be derived from a common high molecular weight precursor (designated atriopeptigen); their biological selectivity and potency may be determined by the site of carboxyl terminal cleavage. ..
  51. Sabbatini M, Villagra A, Davio C, Vatta M, Fernandez B, Bianciotti L. Atrial natriuretic factor stimulates exocrine pancreatic secretion in the rat through NPR-C receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;285:G929-37 pubmed
    Increasing evidence supports the role of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in the modulation of gastrointestinal physiology...
  52. Maki M, Takayanagi R, Misono K, Pandey K, Tibbetts C, Inagami T. Structure of rat atrial natriuretic factor precursor deduced from cDNA sequence. Nature. 1984;309:722-4 pubmed
    ..In view of its potent effects on salt metabolism in the kidney and on vascular smooth muscle, ANF is considered to play an important part in the control of fluid volume and vascular function...
  53. Baldini P, De Vito P, D aquilio F, Vismara D, Zalfa F, Bagni C, et al. Role of atrial natriuretic peptide in the suppression of lysophosphatydic acid-induced rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cell growth. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005;272:19-28 pubmed
    ..In the present study we investigated the possible role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), a hormone affecting cardiovascular homeostasis and inducing antimitogenic effects in different ..