Gene Symbol: noggin
Description: noggin
Alias: noggin
Species: rat
Products:     noggin

Top Publications

  1. Lehmann K, Seemann P, Silan F, Goecke T, Irgang S, Kjaer K, et al. A new subtype of brachydactyly type B caused by point mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein antagonist NOGGIN. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;81:388-96 pubmed
    ..point mutations (P35A, P35S, A36P, E48K, R167G, and P187S) in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist NOGGIN (NOG)...
  2. Zimmerman L, De Jesús Escobar J, Harland R. The Spemann organizer signal noggin binds and inactivates bone morphogenetic protein 4. Cell. 1996;86:599-606 pubmed
    ..The secreted polypeptide noggin mimics these activities and is expressed at the appropriate time and place to participate in the organizer signal...
  3. Gong Y, Krakow D, Marcelino J, Wilkin D, Chitayat D, Babul Hirji R, et al. Heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding noggin affect human joint morphogenesis. Nat Genet. 1999;21:302-4 pubmed
    The secreted polypeptide noggin (encoded by the Nog gene) binds and inactivates members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of signalling proteins (TGFbeta-FMs), such as BMP4 (ref. 1)...
  4. Qureshi A, Crump E, Pavey G, Hope D, Forsberg J, Davis T. Early Characterization of Blast-related Heterotopic Ossification in a Rat Model. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015;473:2831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..0290, and POU domain class 5 transcription factor [POU5F], p = 0.016) and proteins (Noggin [NOG], p = 0.04, OCN, p = 0.02, RUNX- 2, p = 0.04, and substance P-1 [SP-1], p = 0...
  5. Villanueva S, Cespedes C, Vio C. Ischemic acute renal failure induces the expression of a wide range of nephrogenic proteins. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006;290:R861-70 pubmed
    ..of the mesenchymal proteins vimentin, neural cell adhesion molecules (Ncam), and the epithelial markers, Pax-2, Noggin, and basic fibroblast growth factor was observed; after, in a second phase, the tubular markers bone morphogen ..
  6. Tang J, Song M, Wang Y, Fan X, Xu H, Bai Y. Noggin and BMP4 co-modulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the APP(swe)/PS1(DeltaE9) transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;385:341-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and its antagonist Noggin have been shown to play important roles both in embryonic development and in the adult nervous system, and may ..
  7. Takahashi T, Takahashi I, Komatsu M, Sawaishi Y, Higashi K, Nishimura G, et al. Mutations of the NOG gene in individuals with proximal symphalangism and multiple synostosis syndrome. Clin Genet. 2001;60:447-51 pubmed
    ..Recently, it was reported that both disorders were caused by heterozygous mutations of the human noggin gene (NOG)...
  8. Michos O, Gonçalves A, Lopez Rios J, Tiecke E, Naillat F, Beier K, et al. Reduction of BMP4 activity by gremlin 1 enables ureteric bud outgrowth and GDNF/WNT11 feedback signalling during kidney branching morphogenesis. Development. 2007;134:2397-405 pubmed
  9. Babitt J, Zhang Y, Samad T, Xia Y, Tang J, Campagna J, et al. Repulsive guidance molecule (RGMa), a DRAGON homologue, is a bone morphogenetic protein co-receptor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29820-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that BMP signaling occurs in neurons that express RGMa in vivo. These data are consistent with a role for RGMa as a BMP co-receptor. ..

More Information


  1. Zhou Y, Liu H, Mistretta C. Bone morphogenetic proteins and noggin: inhibiting and inducing fungiform taste papilla development. Dev Biol. 2006;297:198-213 pubmed
    ..embryonic rat tongue, organ cultures to test roles for bone morphogenetic proteins, BMP2, 4 and 7, and antagonists noggin and follistatin, in development of papillae from a stage before morphological initiation (E13) or from a stage ..
  2. Liu F, Huang Y, Liu L, Liang B, Qu Z, Huang G, et al. Identification of a novel NOG mutation in a Chinese family with proximal symphalangism. Clin Chim Acta. 2014;429:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..499C>T (R167C) mutation is likely to represent the pathogenic mutation in the family. This finding broadens the spectrum of NOG mutations associated with SYM1 and will help to provide genetic counseling to the affected family. ..
  3. Urshansky N, Mausner Fainberg K, Auriel E, Regev K, Bornstein N, Karni A. Reduced production of noggin by immune cells of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;232:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies revealed a putative role for noggin in both neurogenesis and oligodenrocytes development...
  4. Que J, Choi M, Ziel J, Klingensmith J, Hogan B. Morphogenesis of the trachea and esophagus: current players and new roles for noggin and Bmps. Differentiation. 2006;74:422-37 pubmed
    ..We present new evidence that about 70% of mouse embryos homozygous null for Nog, the gene encoding noggin, a bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) antagonist, have EA/TEF as well as defects in lung branching...
  5. Fan X, Xu H, Cai W, Yang Z, Zhang J. Spatial and temporal patterns of expression of Noggin and BMP4 in embryonic and postnatal rat hippocampus. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2003;146:51-8 pubmed
    Recent studies indicate that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) and Noggin not only play an important role in the early development of the nervous system, but may also play a role in postnatal central nervous system (CNS) development...
  6. McMahon J, Takada S, Zimmerman L, Fan C, Harland R, McMahon A. Noggin-mediated antagonism of BMP signaling is required for growth and patterning of the neural tube and somite. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1438-52 pubmed
    ..We show that Noggin, which encodes a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist expressed in the node, notochord, and dorsal somite, ..
  7. Gazzerro E, Pereira R, Jorgetti V, Olson S, Economides A, Canalis E. Skeletal overexpression of gremlin impairs bone formation and causes osteopenia. Endocrinology. 2005;146:655-65 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, transgenic mice overexpressing gremlin in the bone microenvironment have decreased osteoblast number and function leading to osteopenia and spontaneous fractures. ..
  8. Winkler D, Yu C, Geoghegan J, Ojala E, Skonier J, Shpektor D, et al. Noggin and sclerostin bone morphogenetic protein antagonists form a mutually inhibitory complex. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:36293-8 pubmed
    b>Noggin and sclerostin are bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists that modulate mitogenic activity through sequestering BMPs. Little is known of the interactions among this class of proteins...
  9. Hampton D, Steeves J, Fawcett J, Ramer M. Spinally upregulated noggin suppresses axonal and dendritic plasticity following dorsal rhizotomy. Exp Neurol. 2007;204:366-79 pubmed
    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their antagonists, including noggin, are required for nervous system development, but their potential roles in the reactions of the adult central nervous system to injury are unknown...
  10. Heinonen J, Taipaleenmaki H, Roering P, Takatalo M, Harkness L, Sandholm J, et al. Snorc is a novel cartilage specific small membrane proteoglycan expressed in differentiating and articular chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011;19:1026-35 pubmed publisher
    ..A novel cartilage specific molecule was identified which marks the differentiating chondrocytes and adult articular chondrocytes with possible functions associated with development and maintenance of chondrocyte phenotype. ..
  11. Andrieux J, Roche Lestienne C, Geffroy S, Desterke C, Grardel N, Plantier I, et al. Bone morphogenetic protein antagonist gene NOG is involved in myeloproliferative disease associated with myelofibrosis. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2007;178:11-6 pubmed
    ..All three cases exhibited a split of BACs containing NOG. The protein encoded by NOG, noggin, acts as an antagonist to bone morphogenetic secreted protein 2 and 4 (BMP2 and BMP4)...
  12. Cho S, Benraiss A, Chmielnicki E, Samdani A, Economides A, Goldman S. Induction of neostriatal neurogenesis slows disease progression in a transgenic murine model of Huntington disease. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:2889-902 pubmed
    ..b>Noggin, by suppressing subependymal gliogenesis and increasing progenitor availability, potentiates this process...
  13. Dudaric L, Cvek S, Cvijanovic O, Santic V, Maric I, Crncevic Orlic Z, et al. Expression of the BMP-2, -4 and -7 and their antagonists gremlin, chordin, noggin and follistatin during ectopic osteogenesis. Coll Antropol. 2013;37:1291-8 pubmed determine relationship between BMP-2, -4 and -7 and their inhibitors: gremlin, follistatin, chordin and noggin, during normal osteogenesis...
  14. Koike N, Kassai Y, Kouta Y, Miwa H, Konishi M, Itoh N. Brorin, a novel secreted bone morphogenetic protein antagonist, promotes neurogenesis in mouse neural precursor cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:15843-50 pubmed
    ..Brorin protein promoted neurogenesis, but not astrogenesis, in mouse neural precursor cells. The present findings indicate that Brorin is a novel secreted BMP antagonist that potentially plays roles in neural development and functions. ..
  15. Stottmann R, Anderson R, Klingensmith J. The BMP antagonists Chordin and Noggin have essential but redundant roles in mouse mandibular outgrowth. Dev Biol. 2001;240:457-73 pubmed
    Here we investigate the roles of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) antagonists Chordin and Noggin in development of the mandible, which is derived from the first branchial arch (BA1)...
  16. Hampton D, Asher R, Kondo T, Steeves J, Ramer M, Fawcett J. A potential role for bone morphogenetic protein signalling in glial cell fate determination following adult central nervous system injury in vivo. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:3024-35 pubmed
    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and their endogenous inhibitors, including noggin, chordin and follistatin, have roles in pattern formation and fate specification of neuronal and glial cells during nervous system development...
  17. Cook C, Vezina C, Allgeier S, Shaw A, Yu M, Peterson R, et al. Noggin is required for normal lobe patterning and ductal budding in the mouse prostate. Dev Biol. 2007;312:217-30 pubmed
    Mesenchymal expression of the BMP antagonist NOGGIN during prostate development plays a critical role in pre-natal ventral prostate development and opposes BMP4-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation during postnatal ductal development...
  18. Marcelino J, Sciortino C, Romero M, Ulatowski L, Ballock R, Economides A, et al. Human disease-causing NOG missense mutations: effects on noggin secretion, dimer formation, and bone morphogenetic protein binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11353-8 pubmed
    Secreted noggin protein regulates bone morphogenetic protein activity during development...
  19. Yang K, Lu W, Jia J, Zhang J, Zhao M, Wang S, et al. Noggin inhibits hypoxia-induced proliferation by targeting store-operated calcium entry and transient receptor potential cation channels. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2015;308:C869-78 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression level and functional significance of four reported naturally occurring BMP4 antagonists, noggin, follistatin, gremlin1, and matrix gla protein (MGP), in the lung and distal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cell ..
  20. Fan X, Xu H, Cai W, Yang H, Liu S. Antisense Noggin oligodeoxynucleotide administration decreases cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult rats. Neurosci Lett. 2004;366:107-11 pubmed
    ..It has been demonstrated that Noggin antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) to create a niche for subventricular zone neurogenesis...
  21. Andersson T, Duckworth J, Fritz N, Lewicka M, Sodersten E, Uhlen P, et al. Noggin and Wnt3a enable BMP4-dependent differentiation of telencephalic stem cells into GluR-agonist responsive neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;47:10-8 pubmed publisher
    ..BMP4 mediated a dramatic and direct up-regulation of endogenous noggin levels, that in turn exerted a concentration-dependent inhibition of BMP4-mediated mesenchymal differentiation of ..
  22. Kondo T, Raff M. A role for Noggin in the development of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Dev Biol. 2004;267:242-51 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the BMP antagonist Noggin is strongly expressed by both OPCs and type-1 astrocytes in the developing optic nerve...
  23. Zimmer J, Doelken S, Horn D, Groppe J, Shore E, Kaplan F, et al. Functional analysis of alleged NOGGIN mutation G92E disproves its pathogenic relevance. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35062 pubmed publisher
    We identified an amino acid change (p.G92E) in the Bone Morphogenetic Protein antagonist NOGGIN in a 22-month-old boy who presented with a unilateral brachydactyly type B phenotype...
  24. Paez Pereda M, Giacomini D, Refojo D, Nagashima A, Hopfner U, Grubler Y, et al. Involvement of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) in pituitary prolactinoma pathogenesis through a Smad/estrogen receptor crosstalk. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1034-9 pubmed
    ..Using mRNA differential display, we found that the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor noggin is down-regulated in prolactinomas from dopamine D2-receptor-deficient mice...
  25. Abe E, Yamamoto M, Taguchi Y, Lecka Czernik B, O Brien C, Economides A, et al. Essential requirement of BMPs-2/4 for both osteoblast and osteoclast formation in murine bone marrow cultures from adult mice: antagonism by noggin. J Bone Miner Res. 2000;15:663-73 pubmed
    ..To do this, we took advantage of the properties of noggin, a recently discovered protein that binds BMP-2 and -4 and blocks their action...
  26. Mikawa S, Sato K. Noggin expression in the adult rat brain. Neuroscience. 2011;184:38-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, functions of BMPs are also regulated in the extracellular space by secreted antagonistic regulators. Noggin is an extracellular BMP antagonist that binds BMP-2/4 with high affinity and thus interferes with binding to BMP ..
  27. Song T, Shi J, Guo Q, Lv K, Jiao X, Hu T, et al. Association between NOGGIN and SPRY2 polymorphisms and nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Am J Med Genet A. 2015;167A:137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate association of SNPs of noggin (NOG) and sprouty homolog 2 (SPRY2) with NSCLP risk...
  28. Hayashi Y, Mikawa S, Masumoto K, Katou F, Sato K. Chordin and noggin expression in the adult rat trigeminal nuclei. J Chem Neuroanat. 2016;78:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..of BMPs are also regulated in the extracellular space by secreted antagonistic regulators, such as chordin and noggin. Although the deep involvement of BMP signaling in the development and functions of the trigeminal nuclei has been ..
  29. Martinez G, Mishina Y, Bertram J. BMPs and BMP receptors in mouse metanephric development: in vivo and in vitro studies. Int J Dev Biol. 2002;46:525-33 pubmed
    ..development in vitro were analysed by culturing whole metanephroi in the presence of BMP2, BMP4, the BMP inhibitor noggin, and BMP4 plus noggin. Ureteric branching morphogenesis and nephrogenesis were analysed...
  30. Sugi Y, Yamamura H, Okagawa H, Markwald R. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 can mediate myocardial regulation of atrioventricular cushion mesenchymal cell formation in mice. Dev Biol. 2004;269:505-18 pubmed
    ..In contrast, when noggin, a specific antagonist to BMPs, was applied together with BMP-2 to the culture medium, AV endothelial cells ..
  31. Fan X, Xu H, Huang Y, Cai W. A combined in situ hybridization and RT-PCR method to detect spatial and temporal patterns of Noggin gene expression in embryonic and postnatal rat hippocampus. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2004;13:99-105 pubmed
    Recent studies indicate that Noggin not only plays an important role in the early development of the nervous system, but may also plays a role in postnatal central nervous system (CNS) development...
  32. Bachiller D, Klingensmith J, Kemp C, Belo J, Anderson R, May S, et al. The organizer factors Chordin and Noggin are required for mouse forebrain development. Nature. 2000;403:658-61 pubmed
    ..Chordin and Noggin are secreted bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists expressed in the mouse node, but not in the AVE...
  33. Reinhold M, Abe M, Kapadia R, Liao Z, Naski M. FGF18 represses noggin expression and is induced by calcineurin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38209-19 pubmed
    ..FGF18 or a constitutive active FGF receptor suppressed noggin gene induction and thereby increased chondrocyte gene expression and chondrogenesis by facilitating bone ..
  34. Anderson R, Lawrence A, Stottmann R, Bachiller D, Klingensmith J. Chordin and noggin promote organizing centers of forebrain development in the mouse. Development. 2002;129:4975-87 pubmed
    In this study we investigate the roles of the organizer factors chordin and noggin, which are dedicated antagonists of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), in formation of the mammalian head...
  35. Gutiérrez S, Gomez M, Rey J, Ochoa M, Gutiérrez S, Prieto J. Polymorphisms of the noggin gene and mandibular micrognathia: a first approximation. Acta Odontol Latinoam. 2010;23:13-9 pubmed
    ..Studies show that mutant mice for chd (chordin) and nog (noggin) genes, which are modulators of the Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP), had mandibular defects ranging from mandibular ..
  36. Fan X, Cai W, Yang Z, Xu H, Zhang J. Effect of antisense oligonucleotide of noggin on spatial learning and memory of rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2003;24:394-7 pubmed
    To investigate the effect of antisense oligonucleotide (ASODN) of noggin on rat spatial learning and memory...
  37. Wu X, Li Y, Schneider A, Yu W, Rajendren G, Iqbal J, et al. Impaired osteoblastic differentiation, reduced bone formation, and severe osteoporosis in noggin-overexpressing mice. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:924-34 pubmed
    We describe the effects of the overexpression of noggin, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor, on osteoblast differentiation and bone formation...
  38. Davis S, Camper S. Noggin regulates Bmp4 activity during pituitary induction. Dev Biol. 2007;305:145-60 pubmed
    ..We examined the regulation of Bmp signaling during pituitary development by analyzing null embryos for noggin, a Bmp 2 and 4 antagonist...
  39. Karamboulas K, Dranse H, Underhill T. Regulation of BMP-dependent chondrogenesis in early limb mesenchyme by TGFbeta signals. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2068-76 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the programs differ in the transient signals driving chondrogenic responsiveness to BMPs, with SHH operating in the former and TGFbeta activation in the latter. ..
  40. Declau F, van den Ende J, Baten E, Mattelaer P. Stapes ankylosis in a family with a novel NOG mutation: otologic features of the facioaudiosymphalangism syndrome. Otol Neurotol. 2005;26:934-40 pubmed
    ..To report the phenotype-genotype correlation in a Belgian family that was ascertained to have a novel missense mutation in the NOG gene mapping to chromosome 17q22...
  41. Stottmann R, Berrong M, Matta K, Choi M, Klingensmith J. The BMP antagonist Noggin promotes cranial and spinal neurulation by distinct mechanisms. Dev Biol. 2006;295:647-63 pubmed
    ..morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling on neural tube morphogenesis by analyzing mice lacking the BMP antagonist, Noggin. Noggin is expressed dorsally in the closing neural folds and ventrally in the notochord and somites...
  42. Nyamsuren G, Kata A, Xu X, Raju P, Dressel R, Engel W, et al. Pelota regulates the development of extraembryonic endoderm through activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Stem Cell Res. 2014;13:61-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results indicate that PELO plays an important role in the establishment of pluripotency and differentiation of ESCs into ExEn lineage through activation of BMP signaling. ..
  43. BOSTROM K, Jumabay M, MATVEYENKO A, Nicholas S, Yao Y. Activation of vascular bone morphogenetic protein signaling in diabetes mellitus. Circ Res. 2011;108:446-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased glucose augmented expression of BMP-2 and BMP-4; the BMP inhibitors matrix Gla protein (MGP) and Noggin; activin-like kinase receptor (ALK)1, -2, -3 and -6; the BMP type 2 receptor; and the vascular endothelial growth ..
  44. Leslie E, Taub M, Liu H, Steinberg K, Koboldt D, Zhang Q, et al. Identification of functional variants for cleft lip with or without cleft palate in or near PAX7, FGFR2, and NOG by targeted sequencing of GWAS loci. Am J Hum Genet. 2015;96:397-411 pubmed publisher
    ..This targeted sequencing study provides strong functional evidence implicating several specific variants as primary contributory risk alleles for nonsyndromic clefting in humans. ..
  45. Weston A, Rosen V, Chandraratna R, Underhill T. Regulation of skeletal progenitor differentiation by the BMP and retinoid signaling pathways. J Cell Biol. 2000;148:679-90 pubmed
    ..Addition of Noggin to limb mesenchyme cultures inhibits cartilage formation and the appearance of precartilaginous condensations...
  46. Lamb T, Harland R. Fibroblast growth factor is a direct neural inducer, which combined with noggin generates anterior-posterior neural pattern. Development. 1995;121:3627-36 pubmed
    ..Induction of anterior neural tissue could be mediated by noggin, a secreted polypeptide found in dorsal mesoderm...
  47. Valenzuela D, Economides A, Rojas E, Lamb T, Nunez L, Jones P, et al. Identification of mammalian noggin and its expression in the adult nervous system. J Neurosci. 1995;15:6077-84 pubmed
    The multiple roles of noggin during dorsal fate specification in Xenopus embryos, together with noggin's ability to directly induce neural tissue, inspired an effort to determine whether a similar molecule exists in mammals...
  48. Su J, Chiou J, Tang C, Zhao M, Tsai C, Chen P, et al. CYR61 regulates BMP-2-dependent osteoblast differentiation through the {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin/integrin-linked kinase/ERK pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31325-36 pubmed publisher
  49. Hwang C, Wu D. Noggin heterozygous mice: an animal model for congenital conductive hearing loss in humans. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:844-53 pubmed
    Conductive hearing loss occurs when sound waves are not relayed efficiently to the inner ear. Mutations of the NOGGIN (NOG) gene in humans are associated with several autosomal dominant disorders such as proximal symphalangism and ..
  50. Choi M, Stottmann R, Yang Y, Meyers E, Klingensmith J. The bone morphogenetic protein antagonist noggin regulates mammalian cardiac morphogenesis. Circ Res. 2007;100:220-8 pubmed
    ..Here we address the functions of Noggin, a dedicated BMP antagonist, in the developing mouse heart...
  51. Li Y, Litingtung Y, Ten Dijke P, Chiang C. Aberrant Bmp signaling and notochord delamination in the pathogenesis of esophageal atresia. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:746-54 pubmed
    ..We found that mice lacking Noggin (Nog(-/-)) displayed Type C EA/TEF, the most common form in humans, and notochordal defects strikingly similar to ..
  52. Miwa H, Miyake A, Kouta Y, Shimada A, Yamashita Y, Nakayama Y, et al. A novel neural-specific BMP antagonist, Brorin-like, of the Chordin family. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3643-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibition of Brorin-like functions in zebrafish resulted in the impairment of neural development. Brorin-like potentially plays roles in neural development and functions. ..
  53. Matsuura I, Taniguchi J, Hata K, Saeki N, Yamashita T. BMP inhibition enhances axonal growth and functional recovery after spinal cord injury. J Neurochem. 2008;105:1471-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Intrathecal administration of noggin - a soluble BMP antagonist-leads to enhanced locomotor activity and reveals significant regrowth of the ..