Nod2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Nod2
Description: nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2
Alias: Card15, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2, caspase recruitment domain family, member 15
Species: rat
Products:     Nod2

Top Publications

  1. Hugot J, Chamaillard M, Zouali H, Lesage S, Cezard J, Belaiche J, et al. Association of NOD2 leucine-rich repeat variants with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature. 2001;411:599-603 pubmed
    ..to identify three independent associations for Crohn's disease: a frameshift variant and two missense variants of NOD2, encoding a member of the Apaf-1/Ced-4 superfamily of apoptosis regulators that is expressed in monocytes...
  2. Hsu Y, Zhang Y, You Y, Wang D, Li H, Duramad O, et al. The adaptor protein CARD9 is required for innate immune responses to intracellular pathogens. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:198-205 pubmed
    ..In wild-type cells, we found CARD9 inducibly associated with both the intracellular 'biosensor' Nod2 and the serine-threonine kinase RICK...
  3. Watanabe T, Kitani A, Murray P, Wakatsuki Y, Fuss I, Strober W. Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 deficiency leads to dysregulated TLR2 signaling and induction of antigen-specific colitis. Immunity. 2006;25:473-85 pubmed
    ..conditions leading to the development of colitis in mice with nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) deficiency, a susceptibility factor in Crohn's disease...
  4. Frutuoso M, Hori J, Pereira M, Junior D, Sonego F, Kobayashi K, et al. The pattern recognition receptors Nod1 and Nod2 account for neutrophil recruitment to the lungs of mice infected with Legionella pneumophila. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:819-27 pubmed publisher
    ..By using mice deficient for Nod1, Nod2, and Rip2, we found that these receptors accounted for NE recruitment to the lungs of infected mice...
  5. Okafuji I, Nishikomori R, Kanazawa N, Kambe N, Fujisawa A, Yamazaki S, et al. Role of the NOD2 genotype in the clinical phenotype of Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:242-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This systemic inflammatory granulomatosis is associated with mutations in the NOD2 gene...
  6. Shimada K, Chen S, Dempsey P, Sorrentino R, Alsabeh R, Slepenkin A, et al. The NOD/RIP2 pathway is essential for host defenses against Chlamydophila pneumoniae lung infection. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000379 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Nod1(-/-) and Nod2(-/-) mice also showed delayed bacterial clearance, suggesting that C...
  7. van Beelen A, Zelinkova Z, Taanman Kueter E, Muller F, Hommes D, Zaat S, et al. Stimulation of the intracellular bacterial sensor NOD2 programs dendritic cells to promote interleukin-17 production in human memory T cells. Immunity. 2007;27:660-9 pubmed
    ..primed human DCs to promote IL-17 production in memory Th cells through the nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2)-ligand muramyldipeptide (MDP), a derivative of bacterial peptidoglycan...
  8. Petterson T, Jendholm J, Mansson A, Bjartell A, Riesbeck K, Cardell L. Effects of NOD-like receptors in human B lymphocytes and crosstalk between NOD1/NOD2 and Toll-like receptors. J Leukoc Biol. 2011;89:177-87 pubmed publisher
    ..B cells were isolated and analyzed for mRNA and protein expression. The functional responsiveness of NOD1 and NOD2 was investigated upon stimulation with the cognate ligands, with or without stimulation via IgM/IgD/CD40 and/or ..
  9. Ogura Y, Bonen D, Inohara N, Nicolae D, Chen F, Ramos R, et al. A frameshift mutation in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature. 2001;411:603-6 pubmed
    ..b>NOD2, a gene that encodes a protein with homology to plant disease resistance gene products is located in the peak ..

More Information

Publications81

  1. Abbott D, Wilkins A, Asara J, Cantley L. The Crohn's disease protein, NOD2, requires RIP2 in order to induce ubiquitinylation of a novel site on NEMO. Curr Biol. 2004;14:2217-27 pubmed
    ..The function of the Crohn's disease protein, NOD2, highlights the biphasic nature of the pathology of Crohn's disease...
  2. Opitz B, Förster S, Hocke A, Maass M, Schmeck B, Hippenstiel S, et al. Nod1-mediated endothelial cell activation by Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Circ Res. 2005;96:319-26 pubmed
    ..Moreover, in HEK293 cells, overexpressed Nod1 or Nod2 amplified the capacity of C pneumoniae to induce nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation...
  3. Geddes K, Rubino S, Streutker C, Cho J, Magalhaes J, Le Bourhis L, et al. Nod1 and Nod2 regulation of inflammation in the Salmonella colitis model. Infect Immun. 2010;78:5107-15 pubmed publisher
    The pattern recognition molecules Nod1 and Nod2 play important roles in intestinal homeostasis; however, how these proteins impact on the development of inflammation during bacterial colitis has not been examined...
  4. Girardin S, Boneca I, Viala J, Chamaillard M, Labigne A, Thomas G, et al. Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through muramyl dipeptide (MDP) detection. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:8869-72 pubmed
    b>Nod2 activates the NF-kappaB pathway following intracellular stimulation by bacterial products...
  5. Saha S, Qi J, Wang S, Wang M, Li X, Kim Y, et al. PGLYRP-2 and Nod2 are both required for peptidoglycan-induced arthritis and local inflammation. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:137-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that PGLYRP-2 and Nod2 are both required for arthritis in this model...
  6. Deshmukh H, Hamburger J, Ahn S, McCafferty D, Yang S, Fowler V. Critical role of NOD2 in regulating the immune response to Staphylococcus aureus. Infect Immun. 2009;77:1376-82 pubmed publisher
    b>NOD2 (the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing protein 2) is known to be involved in host recognition of bacteria, although its role in the host response to Staphylococcus aureus infection is unknown...
  7. Kapetanovic R, Jouvion G, Fitting C, Parlato M, Blanchet C, Huerre M, et al. Contribution of NOD2 to lung inflammation during Staphylococcus aureus-induced pneumonia. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:759-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we investigated the role of NOD2 in S. aureus-induced pneumonia. We found that the absence of NOD2 affected weight loss and recovery speed...
  8. Kufer T, Kremmer E, Banks D, Philpott D. Role for erbin in bacterial activation of Nod2. Infect Immun. 2006;74:3115-24 pubmed
    Intracellular peptidoglycan (PG) recognition in human cells is mediated by the NACHT-LRR proteins Nod1 and Nod2. Elicitation of these proteins by PG motifs released from invasive bacteria triggers signaling events, resulting in the ..
  9. Röhrl J, Yang D, Oppenheim J, Hehlgans T. Identification and Biological Characterization of Mouse beta-defensin 14, the orthologue of human beta-defensin 3. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of mBD14 seems to be regulated by activation of the intracellular pattern recognition receptor NOD2/CARD15 as revealed by reporter gene analysis...
  10. Miceli Richard C, Lesage S, Rybojad M, Prieur A, Manouvrier Hanu S, Hafner R, et al. CARD15 mutations in Blau syndrome. Nat Genet. 2001;29:19-20 pubmed
    We have identified three missense mutations in the nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) of CARD15/NOD2 in four French and German families with Blau syndrome...
  11. Ogura Y, Inohara N, Benito A, Chen F, Yamaoka S, Nunez G. Nod2, a Nod1/Apaf-1 family member that is restricted to monocytes and activates NF-kappaB. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:4812-8 pubmed
    ..b>Nod2, a third member of the family, was identified...
  12. Chen C, Gong Y, Zhang M, Chen J. Reciprocal cross-talk between Nod2 and TAK1 signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:25876-82 pubmed
    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of Nod2 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, yet the function of Nod2 and regulation of the Nod2 pathway remain unclear...
  13. Kobayashi K, Chamaillard M, Ogura Y, Henegariu O, Inohara N, Nunez G, et al. Nod2-dependent regulation of innate and adaptive immunity in the intestinal tract. Science. 2005;307:731-4 pubmed
    The gene encoding the Nod2 protein is frequently mutated in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, although the physiological function of Nod2 in the intestine remains elusive...
  14. Oosting M, Berende A, Sturm P, ter Hofstede H, de Jong D, Kanneganti T, et al. Recognition of Borrelia burgdorferi by NOD2 is central for the induction of an inflammatory reaction. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1849-58 pubmed publisher
    ..recognition of Borrelia bacteria but also demonstrated a crucial role for the intracellular peptidoglycan receptor NOD2 for sensing the spirochete...
  15. Biswas A, Liu Y, Hao L, Mizoguchi A, Salzman N, Bevins C, et al. Induction and rescue of Nod2-dependent Th1-driven granulomatous inflammation of the ileum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14739-44 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the NOD2 gene are strong genetic risk factors for ileal Crohn's disease. However, the mechanism by which these mutations predispose to intestinal inflammation remains a subject of controversy...
  16. Barnich N, Aguirre J, Reinecker H, Xavier R, Podolsky D. Membrane recruitment of NOD2 in intestinal epithelial cells is essential for nuclear factor-{kappa}B activation in muramyl dipeptide recognition. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:21-6 pubmed
    ..b>NOD2 associates with the caspase activation and recruitment domain of RIP-like interacting caspase-like apoptosis ..
  17. Rose C, Arostegui J, Martin T, Espada G, Scalzi L, Yague J, et al. NOD2-associated pediatric granulomatous arthritis, an expanding phenotype: study of an international registry and a national cohort in Spain. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1797-803 pubmed publisher
    ..the largest to date cohort of patients with pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) and documented mutations in the NOD2 gene...
  18. Opitz B, Püschel A, Schmeck B, Hocke A, Rosseau S, Hammerschmidt S, et al. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins are innate immune receptors for internalized Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:36426-32 pubmed
    ..recognition receptors, the cytosolic proteins nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (Nod1)/CARD4 and Nod2/CARD15, have been found to detect cell wall peptidoglycans...
  19. Liu X, Han Q, Leng J. Analysis of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins in a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14:648 pubmed publisher
    ..After infection, real-time PCR was performed to determine the presence of mRNAs encoding NOD1 and NOD2. Quantitative analyses of the NOD1, NOD2 and NF-kB proteins were also performed western blotting following ..
  20. Dutra M, Béla S, Peixoto Rangel A, Fakiola M, Cruz A, Gazzinelli A, et al. Association of a NOD2 gene polymorphism and T-helper 17 cells with presumed ocular toxoplasmosis. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:152-63 pubmed publisher
    ..and 89 parent/case trios of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis (POT) to evaluate associations with polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene. Three haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within the NOD2 gene were genotyped...
  21. Hagiwara S, Iwasaka H, Hasegawa A, Asai N, Uchida T, Noguchi T. Dendritic cell activation in response to ischemia-reperfusion injury of the small intestine. Surg Today. 2010;40:137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..and after 12 h of reperfusion protein levels for nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2 (NOD2), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were assayed by Western blotting...
  22. Correa de Santana E, Fröhlich B, Labeur M, Paez Pereda M, Theodoropoulou M, Monteserin J, et al. NOD2 receptors in adenopituitary folliculostellate cells: expression and function. J Endocrinol. 2009;203:111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The NOD2 agonist muramyl dipeptide (MDP) increased Nf kappa b1-transcriptional activity, -protein expression and IL6 ..
  23. Rosenzweig H, Jann M, Vance E, Planck S, Rosenbaum J, Davey M. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 and Toll-like receptor 2 function independently in a murine model of arthritis triggered by intraarticular peptidoglycan. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1051-9 pubmed publisher
    Blau syndrome is an autoinflammatory disease resulting from mutations in the NOD2 gene, wherein granulomatous arthritis, uveitis, and dermatitis develop...
  24. Tamrakar A, Schertzer J, Chiu T, Foley K, Bilan P, Philpott D, et al. NOD2 activation induces muscle cell-autonomous innate immune responses and insulin resistance. Endocrinology. 2010;151:5624-37 pubmed publisher
    ..the cytosolic pattern recognition receptors nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (NOD)1 and NOD2 are expressed in immune and metabolic tissues and hypothesize that their activation in muscle cells would result in ..
  25. van Duist M, Albrecht M, Podswiadek M, Giachino D, Lengauer T, Punzi L, et al. A new CARD15 mutation in Blau syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2005;13:742-7 pubmed
    The caspase recruitment domain gene CARD15/NOD2, encoding a cellular receptor involved in an NF-kappaB-mediated pathway of innate immunity, was first identified as a major susceptibility gene for Crohn's disease (CD), and more recently, ..
  26. McDonald C, Chen F, Ollendorff V, Ogura Y, Marchetto S, Lecine P, et al. A role for Erbin in the regulation of Nod2-dependent NF-kappaB signaling. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:40301-9 pubmed
    b>Nod2 is an intracellular sensor of a specific bacterial cell wall component, muramyl dipeptide, and activation of Nod2 stimulates an inflammatory response...
  27. Kabesch M, Peters W, Carr D, Leupold W, Weiland S, von Mutius E. Association between polymorphisms in caspase recruitment domain containing protein 15 and allergy in two German populations. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;111:813-7 pubmed
    ..Recently, polymorphisms in caspase recruitment domain containing protein 15 (CARD15), an intracellular LPS receptor protein, have been associated with Crohn's disease...
  28. Holler E, Rogler G, Herfarth H, Brenmoehl J, Wild P, Hahn J, et al. Both donor and recipient NOD2/CARD15 mutations associate with transplant-related mortality and GvHD following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Blood. 2004;104:889-94 pubmed
    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NOD2/CARD15 gene resulting in a diminished nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) response to bacterial cell wall products have been associated with an increased incidence of Crohn disease...
  29. Li H, Hu J, Ma L, Yuan Z, Wang Y, Wang X, et al. Comprehensive study of baicalin down-regulating NOD2 receptor expression of neurons with oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;649:92-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2) is one of the receptors involved in innate immune response ..
  30. Xiao Y, Li G, Wang X. [Effect mechanism of NOD like receptor signaling pathway on intestinal mucosal barrier of rat during early phase of acute intra-abdominal infection]. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2013;25:527-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute intra-abdominal infection model was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The level of NOD2 and NOD like receptor 3 (NLRP3) mRNA expression in gut mucosa was determined using fluorescent polymerase chain ..
  31. Anand P, Tait S, Lamkanfi M, Amer A, Nunez G, Pages G, et al. TLR2 and RIP2 pathways mediate autophagy of Listeria monocytogenes via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42981-91 pubmed publisher
    ..monocytogenes. Inefficient autophagy in Tlr2(-/-) and Nod2(-/-) macrophages led to a defect in bacteria colocalization with the autophagosomal marker GFP-LC3...
  32. Yuan H, Zelkha S, Zelka S, Burkatovskaya M, Gupte R, Leeman S, et al. Pivotal role of NOD2 in inflammatory processes affecting atherosclerosis and periodontal bone loss. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E5059-68 pubmed publisher
    ..purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) signaling in atherosclerosis and periodontal bone loss using an Apolipoprotein E(-/-) (ApoE(-/-)) mouse model ..
  33. Mohanan V, Grimes C. The molecular chaperone HSP70 binds to and stabilizes NOD2, an important protein involved in Crohn disease. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:18987-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that recognizes fragments of the bacterial cell wall...
  34. Kim Y, Park J, Reimer T, Baker D, Kawai T, Kumar H, et al. Viral infection augments Nod1/2 signaling to potentiate lethality associated with secondary bacterial infections. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:496-507 pubmed publisher
    ..show that the TLR3/MDA5 agonist poly I:C or viral infection dramatically augments signaling via the NLRs Nod1 and Nod2 and enhances the production of proinflammatory cytokines...
  35. Rosenzweig H, Clowers J, Nunez G, Rosenbaum J, Davey M. Dectin-1 and NOD2 mediate cathepsin activation in zymosan-induced arthritis in mice. Inflamm Res. 2011;60:705-14 pubmed publisher
    Activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) may contribute to arthritis. Here, we elucidated the role of NOD2, a genetic cause of inflammatory arthritis, and several other PRR in a murine model of inflammatory arthritis...
  36. Moehle C, Ackermann N, Langmann T, Aslanidis C, Kel A, Kel Margoulis O, et al. Aberrant intestinal expression and allelic variants of mucin genes associated with inflammatory bowel disease. J Mol Med (Berl). 2006;84:1055-66 pubmed
    ..0003) with UC. These data suggest that the disturbed expression of mucin genes and the connection to the NFkappaB pathway may influence the integrity of the intestine and therefore contribute to the pathophysiology of IBD. ..
  37. Hildebrandt G, Granell M, Urbano Ispizua A, Wolff D, Hertenstein B, Greinix H, et al. Recipient NOD2/CARD15 variants: a novel independent risk factor for the development of bronchiolitis obliterans after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2008;14:67-74 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NOD2/CARD15 gene (=NOD2/CARD15 variants) contribute to changes in host defense and subsequent alloreaction, leading to BO...
  38. Kappen J, Wallace G, Stolk L, Rivadeneira F, Uitterlinden A, van Daele P, et al. Low prevalence of NOD2 SNPs in Behçet's disease suggests protective association in Caucasians. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2009;48:1375-7 pubmed publisher
    It has been shown previously that three nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) variants (Arg702Trp, Gly908Arg and Lue1007fs) are associated with Crohn's disease (CD), a disorder clinically resembling Behçet's ..
  39. Sato H, Williams H, Spagnolo P, Abdallah A, Ahmad T, Orchard T, et al. CARD15/NOD2 polymorphisms are associated with severe pulmonary sarcoidosis. Eur Respir J. 2010;35:324-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This study explored associations between CARD15 polymorphisms, CCR5 haplotype and distinct pulmonary sarcoidosis subtypes...
  40. da Silva Correia J, Miranda Y, Leonard N, Ulevitch R. The subunit CSN6 of the COP9 signalosome is cleaved during apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:12557-65 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these findings suggest that CSN6 cleavage may result in modifications of functions of the COP9 complex that are involved in apoptosis. ..
  41. Butler M, Chaudhary R, van Heel D, Playford R, Ghosh S. NOD2 activity modulates the phenotype of LPS-stimulated dendritic cells to promote the development of T-helper type 2-like lymphocytes - Possible implications for NOD2-associated Crohn's disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2007;1:106-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in NOD2 (CARD15) have recently been associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease although the underlying mechanisms have yet ..
  42. Rosenzweig H, Galster K, Vance E, Ensign Lewis J, Nunez G, Davey M, et al. NOD2 deficiency results in increased susceptibility to peptidoglycan-induced uveitis in mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:4106-12 pubmed publisher
    The innate immune receptor NOD2 is a genetic cause of uveitis (Blau syndrome)...
  43. van Well G, Sanders M, Ouburg S, Kumar V, van Furth A, Morre S. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in pathogen recognition receptor genes are associated with susceptibility to meningococcal meningitis in a pediatric cohort. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64252 pubmed publisher
    ..2*10(-5), OR ?=?9.4, 95% CI ?=?3.0-29.2). The NOD2 SNP8 mutant was significantly more frequent in MM patients compared to controls (p?=?0.0004, OR ?=?12...
  44. Zhao Y, Alonso C, Ballester I, Song J, Chang S, Guleng B, et al. Control of NOD2 and Rip2-dependent innate immune activation by GEF-H1. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012;18:603-12 pubmed publisher
    Genetic variants of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) lead to aberrant microbial recognition and can cause chronic inflammatory diseases in patients with Crohn's disease (CD)...
  45. Petnicki Ocwieja T, Defrancesco A, Chung E, Darcy C, Bronson R, Kobayashi K, et al. Nod2 suppresses Borrelia burgdorferi mediated murine Lyme arthritis and carditis through the induction of tolerance. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17414 pubmed publisher
    ..The intracellular, cytosolic receptor Nod2 has been shown to play varying roles in either enhancing or attenuating inflammation in response to different ..
  46. Hu S, You X, Cao P, Liu Z, Cui Y. [The expression of NOD1 and NOD2 and the regulation of glucocorticoids on them in allergic rhinitis]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2013;27:393-6 pubmed
    To investigate the expression of NOD1 and NOD2 in the nasal mucosa of healthy individuals and allergic rhinitis(AR), and explored the regulation of glucocorticoids on them...
  47. Peng Z, Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Wilhelmsen K, Jia C, Jin J, et al. Effects of ghrelin on pulmonary NOD2 mRNA expression and NF-?B activation when protects against acute lung injury in rats challenged with cecal ligation and puncture. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;13:440-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our knowledge of ghrelin's effects on the upstream activators of the NF-?B pathway, such as NOD2, is still limited...
  48. Lubinski J, Huzarski T, Kurzawski G, Suchy J, Masojć B, Mierzejewski M, et al. The 3020insC Allele of NOD2 Predisposes to Cancers of Multiple Organs. Hered Cancer Clin Pract. 2005;3:59-63 pubmed publisher
    The NOD2 gene has been associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease and individuals with Crohn's disease are at increased risk for cancer at a number of organ sites...
  49. Fiil B, Damgaard R, Wagner S, Keusekotten K, Fritsch M, Bekker Jensen S, et al. OTULIN restricts Met1-linked ubiquitination to control innate immune signaling. Mol Cell. 2013;50:818-830 pubmed publisher
    ..OTULIN is critical for limiting Met1-Ub accumulation after nucleotide-oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) stimulation, and that OTULIN depletion augments signaling downstream of NOD2...
  50. Fujisawa M, Kiyosue M, Hori M, Ozaki H. Identification of Card15/Nod2 mRNA in intestinal tissue of experimentally induced colitis in rats. J Vet Med Sci. 2006;68:701-8 pubmed
    b>Card15/Nod2 has been suggested to be an intracellular pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs) recognition molecule, which contains a leucine-rich repeat region similar to the Toll-like receptors (TLRs)...
  51. Berkun Y, Karban A, Padeh S, Pras E, Shinar Y, Lidar M, et al. NOD2/CARD15 gene mutations in patients with familial Mediterranean fever. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2012;42:84-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mediterranean fever (FMF) and Crohn's disease are autoinflammatory disorders, associated with genes (MEFV and NOD2/CARD15, respectively) encoding for regulatory proteins, important in innate immunity, apoptosis, cytokine processing, and ..
  52. Wang H, Yu G, Yu H, Gu M, Zhang J, Meng X, et al. Characterization of TLR2, NOD2, and related cytokines in mammary glands infected by Staphylococcus aureus in a rat model. Acta Vet Scand. 2015;57:25 pubmed publisher
    ..Local innate immune defenses play an important role in eliminating the invading bacteria. TLR2 and NOD2 are important pathogen recognition receptors, but their functions have not been investigated in the context of ..
  53. Bai X, Zhang X, Chen L, Zhang J, Zhang L, Zhao X, et al. Protective effect of naringenin in experimental ischemic stroke: down-regulated NOD2, RIP2, NF-?B, MMP-9 and up-regulated claudin-5 expression. Neurochem Res. 2014;39:1405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot and RT-qPCR were used to explore the anti-inflammatory potential of NG in the regulation of NOD2, RIP2 and NF-?B in ischemic cerebral cortex...
  54. Hubert F, Voisine C, Louvet C, Heslan J, Ouabed A, Heslan M, et al. Differential pattern recognition receptor expression but stereotyped responsiveness in rat spleen dendritic cell subsets. J Immunol. 2006;177:1007-16 pubmed
    ..We correlated the expression of TLR and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) in these DC subsets to their in vitro responsiveness to specific ligands...
  55. Berrington W, Macdonald M, Khadge S, Sapkota B, Janer M, Hagge D, et al. Common polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene region are associated with leprosy and its reactive states. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1422-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that polymorphisms in the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) gene, for a cytosolic receptor known to detect mycobacteria, are associated with susceptibility to leprosy and its ..
  56. Hagiwara S, Iwasaka H, Kusaka J, Asai N, Uchida T, Noguchi T. Total parenteral-nutrition-mediated dendritic-cell activation and infiltration into the small intestine in a rat model. J Anesth. 2011;25:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..DCs were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Levels of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 2 (NOD2) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein were assessed by Western blot...
  57. Su Y, Zhang Z, Trautmann K, Xu S, Schluesener H. TLR and NOD2 ligands induce cell proliferation in the rat intact spinal cord. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005;64:991-7 pubmed
    ..by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) tracing, the effects of peripheral administration of toll-like receptor (TLR) and NOD2 ligands (stimulators of the innate immune system) on the proliferation of spinal cord cells...
  58. Damiano J, Oliveira V, Welsh K, Reed J. Heterotypic interactions among NACHT domains: implications for regulation of innate immune responses. Biochem J. 2004;381:213-9 pubmed
    ..Through heterotypic NACHT-domain interactions, CLAN was found to associate with Nod1, Nod2 and NAC [nucleotide-binding domain and CARD-containing protein; NALP1 (NACHT, LRR and PYRIN protein 1)] when co-..
  59. Bansal K, Balaji K. Intracellular pathogen sensor NOD2 programs macrophages to trigger Notch1 activation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:5823-35 pubmed publisher
    Intracellular pathogen sensor, NOD2, has been implicated in regulation of wide range of anti-inflammatory responses critical during development of a diverse array of inflammatory diseases; however, underlying molecular details are still ..
  60. Lener M, Oszutowska D, Castaneda J, Kurzawski G, Suchy J, Nej Wołosiak K, et al. Prevalence of the NOD2 3020insC mutation in aggregations of breast and lung cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006;95:141-5 pubmed
    ..of disease, two sets of consecutively collected tumor groups were examined for the 3020insC mutation in the NOD2/CARD15 gene...
  61. Barnich N, Hisamatsu T, Aguirre J, Xavier R, Reinecker H, Podolsky D. GRIM-19 interacts with nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 and serves as downstream effector of anti-bacterial function in intestinal epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:19021-6 pubmed
    Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) functions as a mammalian cytosolic pathogen recognition molecule, and variants have been associated with risk for Crohn disease...
  62. Brooks M, Rajaram M, Azad A, Amer A, Valdivia Arenas M, Park J, et al. NOD2 controls the nature of the inflammatory response and subsequent fate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG in human macrophages. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:402-18 pubmed publisher
    ..b>NOD2-mediated signalling pathways in response to M...
  63. Austin C, Ma X, Graviss E. Common nonsynonymous polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene are associated with resistance or susceptibility to tuberculosis disease in African Americans. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1713-6 pubmed publisher
    Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) play a key role in innate immunity against intracellular bacteria. NOD2 is one of the PRRs that contribute to the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection...
  64. Netea M, Azam T, Ferwerda G, Girardin S, Walsh M, Park J, et al. IL-32 synergizes with nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD2 ligands for IL-1beta and IL-6 production through a caspase 1-dependent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16309-14 pubmed
    ..IL-32 synergized with the NOD1- and NOD2-specific muropeptides of peptidoglycans for the release of IL-1beta and IL-6 (a 3- to 10-fold increase)...
  65. Natarajan C, Yao S, Zhang F, Sriram S. Activation of NOD2/RIPK2 pathway induces mitochondrial injury to oligodendrocyte precursor cells in vitro and CNS demyelination in vivo. J Neuroimmunol. 2013;265:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..the activation of innate immune pathway mediated by nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) in oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs)...
  66. Mahurkar S, Banerjee R, Rani V, Thakur N, Rao G, Reddy D, et al. Common variants in NOD2 and IL23R are not associated with inflammatory bowel disease in Indians. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;26:694-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Genome-wide association studies have confirmed the role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein-2 (NOD2) variants and identified several other genes associated with IBD...
  67. Kapoor A, Forman M, Arav Boger R. Activation of nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) by human cytomegalovirus initiates innate immune responses and restricts virus replication. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92704 pubmed publisher
    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is an important innate immune sensor of bacterial pathogens. Its induction results in activation of the classic NF-?B pathway and alternative pathways including type I IFN and autophagy...
  68. Parkhouse R, Boyle J, Monie T. Blau syndrome polymorphisms in NOD2 identify nucleotide hydrolysis and helical domain 1 as signalling regulators. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:3382-9 pubmed publisher
    ..SNPs in the innate immune receptor nucleotide oligomerisation domain 2 (NOD2) can cause the inflammatory disorders Blau Syndrome (BS) and early onset sarcoidosis (EOS) through receptor ..
  69. Macho Fernandez E, Fernandez E, Valenti V, Rockel C, Hermann C, Pot B, et al. Anti-inflammatory capacity of selected lactobacilli in experimental colitis is driven by NOD2-mediated recognition of a specific peptidoglycan-derived muropeptide. Gut. 2011;60:1050-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutic use of probiotics is known to be strain specific, but precise mechanisms remain unclear. The role of NOD2 signalling and the protective effect of Lactobacillus peptidoglycan (PGN) and derived muropeptides in experimental ..
  70. Hsu L, Ali S, McGillivray S, Tseng P, Mariathasan S, Humke E, et al. A NOD2-NALP1 complex mediates caspase-1-dependent IL-1beta secretion in response to Bacillus anthracis infection and muramyl dipeptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7803-8 pubmed publisher
    b>NOD2, a NOD-like receptor (NLR), is an intracellular sensor of bacterial muramyl dipeptide (MDP) that was suggested to promote secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta...
  71. Richardson W, Sodhi C, Russo A, Siggers R, Afrazi A, Gribar S, et al. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 inhibits toll-like receptor-4 signaling in the intestinal epithelium. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:904-17, 917.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2) is an immune receptor that regulates other branches of the immune system, although its effects on TLR4 in ..
  72. Yao Q, Zhou L, Cusumano P, Bose N, Piliang M, Jayakar B, et al. A new category of autoinflammatory disease associated with NOD2 gene mutations. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011;13:R148 pubmed publisher
    ..This study characterized a cohort of patients with similar phenotypes and nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) gene mutations...