Gene Symbol: Nfkbia
Description: NFKB inhibitor alpha
Alias: RL/IF-1, NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha, I-kappa-B-alpha, Inhibitor of nuclear factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in B-cells, alpha, ikB-alpha, ikappaBalpha, nuclear factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha
Species: rat
Products:     Nfkbia

Top Publications

  1. Hayden M, Ghosh S. Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling. Cell. 2008;132:344-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we attempt to synthesize some of the basic principles that have emerged from studies of NF-kappaB, and we aim to generate a more unified view of NF-kappaB regulation. ..
  2. Phillips T, Leeuwenburgh C. Muscle fiber specific apoptosis and TNF-alpha signaling in sarcopenia are attenuated by life-long calorie restriction. FASEB J. 2005;19:668-70 pubmed
    ..plasma TNF-alpha levels, and specific elements linked with the TNF-alpha signaling cascade (TNF-R1, IKKgamma, IkappaBalpha, p65, NF-kappaB binding activity, FADD, caspase-8, and DNA fragmentation) were investigated in soleus (..
  3. Lonati C, Carlin A, Leonardi P, Valenza F, Bosari S, Catania A, et al. Modulatory effects of NDP-MSH in the regenerating liver after partial hepatectomy in rats. Peptides. 2013;: pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the changes brought about by NDP-MSH, a peptide approved for clinical use, should be salutary during liver regeneration. ..
  4. Jokelainen K, Thomas P, Lindros K, Nanji A. Acetaldehyde inhibits NF-kappaB activation through IkappaBalpha preservation in rat Kupffer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;253:834-6 pubmed
    ..The present in vitro study was aimed to clarify whether acetaldehyde has an effect on degradation of IkappaBalpha and activation of NF-kappaB in LPS-stimulated rat Kupffer cells...
  5. Haddad J. Redox regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and IkappaB-alpha/NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and activation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:847-56 pubmed
  6. Michalke M, Cariers A, Schliess F, Haussinger D. Hypoosmolarity influences the activity of transcription factor NF-kappaB in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells. FEBS Lett. 2000;465:64-8 pubmed
    ..Transforming growth factor beta-induced apoptosis was diminished by hypoosmolarity. However, this anti-apoptotic effect was probably not related to NF-kappaB activation. ..
  7. Shukla S, MacLennan G, Marengo S, Resnick M, Gupta S. Constitutive activation of P I3 K-Akt and NF-kappaB during prostate cancer progression in autochthonous transgenic mouse model. Prostate. 2005;64:224-39 pubmed
    ..Differential expression pattern of P I3 K-Akt, NF-kappaB and I kappaB during prostate cancer progression in TRAMP mice suggest that these molecules represent potential molecular targets for prevention and/or therapeutic intervention. ..
  8. Hirasaka K, Nikawa T, Yuge L, Ishihara I, Higashibata A, Ishioka N, et al. Clinorotation prevents differentiation of rat myoblastic L6 cells in association with reduced NF-kappa B signaling. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1743:130-40 pubmed
    ..Our present results suggest that simulated microgravity such as the 3D-clinorotation may disturb skeletal muscle cell differentiation, at least in part, by inhibiting the NF-kappa B pathway. ..
  9. Nakajima K, Matsushita Y, Tohyama Y, Kohsaka S, Kurihara T. Differential suppression of endotoxin-inducible inflammatory cytokines by nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) inhibitor in rat microglia. Neurosci Lett. 2006;401:199-202 pubmed
    ..APDC was actually confirmed to suppress the degradation of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta in microglia, indicating a role for the inhibitor of NFkappaB activation...

More Information


  1. Ganesh L, Yoshimoto T, Moorthy N, Akahata W, Boehm M, Nabel E, et al. Protein methyltransferase 2 inhibits NF-kappaB function and promotes apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3864-74 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that PRMT2 inhibits cell activation and promotes programmed cell death through this NF-kappaB-dependent mechanism. ..
  2. Digicaylioglu M, Lipton S. Erythropoietin-mediated neuroprotection involves cross-talk between Jak2 and NF-kappaB signalling cascades. Nature. 2001;412:641-7 pubmed
    ..Transfection of cerebrocortical neurons with a dominant interfering form of Jak2 or an IkappaBalpha super-repressor blocks EPO-mediated prevention of neuronal apoptosis...
  3. Yaron A, Hatzubai A, Davis M, Lavon I, Amit S, Manning A, et al. Identification of the receptor component of the IkappaBalpha-ubiquitin ligase. Nature. 1998;396:590-4 pubmed
    ..When these receptor components recognize their specific ligand, which is a conserved, phosphorylation-based sequence motif, they target regulatory proteins containing this motif for proteasomal degradation. ..
  4. Zhao Y, Fu Y, Hu J, Liu Y, Yin X. The effect of tissue factor pathway inhibitor on the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-3 and I?B-? stimulated by tumour necrosis factor-? in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;106:4-11 pubmed publisher
    ..05). TFPI inhibited MCP-3 expression induced by TNF-?; this effect may be propagated through the NF-?B pathway. TFPI gene transfer may be a new therapeutic strategy for inhibiting restenosis in clinical situations. ..
  5. Sordi R, Chiazza F, Johnson F, Patel N, Brohi K, Collino M, et al. Inhibition of I?B Kinase Attenuates the Organ Injury and Dysfunction Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock. Mol Med. 2015;21:563-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect may be due to the inhibition of the NF-?B pathway and activation of the survival kinase Akt. Thus, the inhibition of the IKK complex might be an effective strategy for the prevention of MOF associated with HS. ..
  6. Tewari M, Dobrzanski P, Mohn K, Cressman D, Hsu J, Bravo R, et al. Rapid induction in regenerating liver of RL/IF-1 (an I kappa B that inhibits NF-kappa B, RelB-p50, and c-Rel-p50) and PHF, a novel kappa B site-binding complex. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:2898-908 pubmed
    ..Because PHF is induced immediately posthepatectomy in the absence of de novo protein synthesis, PHF could have a role in the regulation of liver-specific immediate-early genes in regenerating liver. ..
  7. Jeong J, Park S, Dickinson S, Luo J. A Constitutive Intrinsic Inflammatory Signaling Circuit Composed of miR-196b, Meis2, PPP3CC, and p65 Drives Prostate Cancer Castration Resistance. Mol Cell. 2017;65:154-167 pubmed publisher
  8. Lv N, Kim E, Song M, Choi H, Moon W, Park S, et al. JANEX-1, a JAK3 inhibitor, protects pancreatic islets from cytokine toxicity through downregulation of NF-kappaB activation and the JAK/STAT pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:2064-71 pubmed publisher
  9. Marcilhac A, Raynaud F, Clerc I, Benyamin Y. Detection and localization of calpain 3-like protease in a neuronal cell line: possible regulation of apoptotic cell death through degradation of nuclear IkappaBalpha. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38:2128-40 pubmed
    ..We thus investigated its ability to regulate nuclear IkappaBalpha and therefore NF-kappaB activation after cell death stimulation...
  10. Yuan M, Huang C, Tang Y, Wang X, Huang H, Chen Y, et al. A novel peptide ghrelin inhibits neural remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2009;618:52-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, treatment with ghrelin inhibited neural remodeling and sympathetic hyperinnervation, the process that may be associated with the inhibition of proinflammatory response and NGF signaling. ..
  11. Roh G, Yi C, Cho Y, Jeon B, Nizamudtinova I, Kim H, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of celecoxib in rat lungs with smoke-induced emphysema. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;299:L184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, celecoxib attenuated the activation of phospho-IkappaBalpha and NF-kappaB in CS-treated rat lung...
  12. Chen H, Kuo H, Wang S, Lu T, Yang R. In vivo heat shock protein assembles with septic liver NF-kappaB/I-kappaB complex regulating NF-kappaB activity. Shock. 2005;24:232-8 pubmed
    ..HSP72 appears to play a crucial protective role in modulating the gene expression controlled by NF-kappaB in sepsis. ..
  13. Widén C, Gustafsson J, Wikstrom A. Cytosolic glucocorticoid receptor interaction with nuclear factor-kappa B proteins in rat liver cells. Biochem J. 2003;373:211-20 pubmed
  14. Ganchi P, Sun S, Greene W, Ballard D. I kappa B/MAD-3 masks the nuclear localization signal of NF-kappa B p65 and requires the transactivation domain to inhibit NF-kappa B p65 DNA binding. Mol Biol Cell. 1992;3:1339-52 pubmed
    ..However, no loss of DNA binding activity is observed, presumably reflecting the unique C-terminal domain that is distinct from that present in NF-kappa B p65. ..
  15. Shimada Y, Dewa Y, Ichimura R, Suzuki T, Mizukami S, Hayashi S, et al. Antioxidant enzymatically modified isoquercitrin suppresses the development of liver preneoplastic lesions in rats induced by beta-naphthoflavone. Toxicology. 2010;268:213-8 pubmed publisher
    ..RT-PCR analysis revealed that EMIQ treatment decreased mRNA expression levels of Gstm1, Serpine1, Cox2 and Nfkbia and increased mRNA expression levels of Yc2 compared with those in the DEN-BNF group...
  16. Oakley F, Mann J, Ruddell R, Pickford J, Weinmaster G, Mann D. Basal expression of IkappaBalpha is controlled by the mammalian transcriptional repressor RBP-J (CBF1) and its activator Notch1. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:24359-70 pubmed that the transcriptional repressor CBF1 interacts with a dual NF-kappaB/CBF1-binding site (kappaB2) in the IkappaBalpha promoter...
  17. McCall P, Bennett L, Ahmad I, Mackenzie L, Forbes I, Leung H, et al. NF?B signalling is upregulated in a subset of castrate-resistant prostate cancer patients and correlates with disease progression. Br J Cancer. 2012;107:1554-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide further evidence that the NF?B pathway could be exploited as a target for CRPC. ..
  18. Kim Y, Park J, Shaw M, Franchi L, Inohara N, Nunez G. The cytosolic sensors Nod1 and Nod2 are critical for bacterial recognition and host defense after exposure to Toll-like receptor ligands. Immunity. 2008;28:246-57 pubmed publisher
    ..monocytogenes was critically dependent on Nod1 and Nod2 when mice were previously stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or E. coli. Thus, Nod1 and Nod2 are important for microbial recognition and host defense after TLR stimulation. ..
  19. Greco R, Mangione A, Amantea D, Bagetta G, Nappi G, Tassorelli C. IkappaB-alpha expression following transient focal cerebral ischemia is modulated by nitric oxide. Brain Res. 2011;1372:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that NO of neuronal and inducible origin promotes NF-?B activation via IkB-alpha modulation and mediates ischemic-related damage in the brain following ischemia. ..
  20. Seymour E, Bennink M, Watts S, Bolling S. Whole grape intake impacts cardiac peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and nuclear factor kappaB activity and cytokine expression in rats with diastolic dysfunction. Hypertension. 2010;55:1179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In the Dahl salt-sensitive rat, chronic intake of grapes altered cardiac transcripts related to PPAR and NF-kappaB that may be significant to the observed diet-associated cardioprotection. ..
  21. Chang M, Jin W, Chang J, Xiao Y, Brittain G, Yu J, et al. The ubiquitin ligase Peli1 negatively regulates T cell activation and prevents autoimmunity. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:1002-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify Peli1 as a critical factor in the maintenance of peripheral T cell tolerance and demonstrate a previously unknown mechanism of c-Rel regulation. ..
  22. Selcuk M, Aygen B, Dogukan A, Tuzcu Z, Akdemir F, Komorowski J, et al. Chromium picolinate and chromium histidinate protects against renal dysfunction by modulation of NF-?B pathway in high-fat diet fed and Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2012;9:30 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, a greater reduction in NF-?B expression and greater increases in expressions of I?B? and Nrf2 in diabetic rats supplemented with CrHis than rats supplemented with CrPic suggest that CrHis has more favorable effects than CrPic. ..
  23. Yu X, Li Y, He X, Li X, Din B, Gan Y, et al. Hyperbaric oxygen reduces inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation. Eur Surg Res. 2009;42:130-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of NF-kappaB and its inhibitor IkappaBalpha in peripheral blood neutrophilic granulocytes was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and Western ..
  24. Malinowski J, Klempt M, Clawin R decker I, Lorenzen P, Meisel H. Identification of a NF?B inhibitory peptide from tryptic ?-casein hydrolysate. Food Chem. 2014;165:129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The main peptide was synthesised and showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in HEK(nfkb-RE)-cells. Thus, for the first time, a casein-derived peptide having an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro has been identified...
  25. Abdulla D, Goralski K, Del Busto Cano E, Renton K. The signal transduction pathways involved in hepatic cytochrome P450 regulation in the rat during a lipopolysaccharide-induced model of central nervous system inflammation. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005;33:1521-31 pubmed
    ..cytokine levels were elevated, and the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha and inhibitor of kappaB alpha (IkappaBalpha) were increased in the liver following the i.c.v...
  26. Caetano L, Bonfleur M, Ribeiro R, Nardelli T, Lubaczeuski C, do Nascimento da Silva J, et al. Taurine supplementation regulates Iκ-Bα protein expression in adipose tissue and serum IL-4 and TNF-α concentrations in MSG obesity. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56:705-713 pubmed publisher
    ..TAU treatment decreased adiposity, and this effect was associated with the normalization of circulating TNF-α and IL-4 concentrations in MTAU rats. ..
  27. Jaffray C, Mendez C, Denham W, Carter G, Norman J. Specific pancreatic enzymes activate macrophages to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha: role of nuclear factor kappa B and inhibitory kappa B proteins. J Gastrointest Surg. 2000;4:370-7; discussion 377-8 pubmed
    ..This process is dependent on I kappa B-beta degradation and NF- kappa B activation, suggesting that these enzymes trigger this second messenger system through specific membrane-bound receptors. ..
  28. Birt J, Taylor K, Davis J, Sharpe Timms K. Developmental exposure of fetal ovaries and fetal germ cells to endometriosis in an endometriosis model causes differential gene expression in the preimplantation embryos of the first-generation and second-generation embryos. Fertil Steril. 2013;100:1436-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The apoptotic genes Diablo, Casp3, Parp1, Cad, and Dnaja3 were increased and the Nfkbia transcripts were decreased in F1 Endo versus F1 Sham embryos...
  29. Moulakakis C, Adam S, Seitzer U, Schromm A, Leitges M, Stamme C. Surfactant protein A activation of atypical protein kinase C zeta in IkappaB-alpha-dependent anti-inflammatory immune regulation. J Immunol. 2007;179:4480-91 pubmed
  30. Webb J, Murányi A, Pugh C, Ratcliffe P, Coleman M. MYPT1, the targeting subunit of smooth-muscle myosin phosphatase, is a substrate for the asparaginyl hydroxylase factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH). Biochem J. 2009;420:327-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results extend the range of FIH substrates and suggest that cross-competition between ARDs and HIF-CAD, and between ARDs themselves, may be extensive and have important effects on hypoxia signalling. ..
  31. Shu Y, Zhang F, Bi W, Dong L, Zhang D, Chen R, et al. SM22α inhibits vascular inflammation via stabilization of IκBα in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2015;84:191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that SM22α is a phosphorylation-regulated suppressor of IKK-IκBα-NF-κB signaling cascades. SM22α may be a novel therapeutic target for human vascular diseases and other inflammatory conditions. ..
  32. Chen X, Zhou C, Guo J, Sun K, Zhao N, Yang J, et al. Effects of dihydroxylphenyl lactic acid on inflammatory responses in spinal cord injury. Brain Res. 2011;1372:160-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the results clearly demonstrate that DLA inhibit the inflammation responses induced by SCI via inhibiting effect of production of IL-6 and nuclear translocation of NF-?B. ..
  33. Brockman J, Scherer D, McKinsey T, Hall S, Qi X, Lee W, et al. Coupling of a signal response domain in I kappa B alpha to multiple pathways for NF-kappa B activation. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:2809-18 pubmed
    ..activity of NF-kappa B is tightly regulated from the cytoplasmic compartment by an inhibitory subunit called I kappa B alpha. This cytoplasmic inhibitor is rapidly phosphorylated and degraded in response to a diverse set of NF-kappa B-..
  34. Chen J, Fok K, Chen H, Zhang X, Xu W, Chan H. Cryptorchidism-induced CFTR down-regulation results in disruption of testicular tight junctions through up-regulation of NF-?B/COX-2/PGE2. Hum Reprod. 2012;27:2585-97 pubmed publisher
    ..conductance regulator (CFTR) down-regulation in Sertoli cells in cryptorchid testis disrupt testicular tight junctions (TJs) through the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B)/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) pathway?..
  35. Baeuerle P, Baltimore D. I kappa B: a specific inhibitor of the NF-kappa B transcription factor. Science. 1988;242:540-6 pubmed
    ..The data show the existence of a phorbol ester-responsive regulatory protein that acts by controlling the DNA binding activity and subcellular localization of a transcription factor. ..
  36. Ross J, Kallakury B, Sheehan C, Fisher H, Kaufman R, Kaur P, et al. Expression of nuclear factor-kappa B and I kappa B alpha proteins in prostatic adenocarcinomas: correlation of nuclear factor-kappa B immunoreactivity with disease recurrence. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:2466-72 pubmed
    ..Using prostatectomy specimens, we performed immunohistochemical staining for NF kappa B and I kappa B alpha (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections obtained from 136 patients with PAC...
  37. Manna P, Das J, Ghosh J, Sil P. Contribution of type 1 diabetes to rat liver dysfunction and cellular damage via activation of NOS, PARP, IkappaBalpha/NF-kappaB, MAPKs, and mitochondria-dependent pathways: Prophylactic role of arjunolic acid. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;48:1465-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of iNOS, IkappaBalpha/NF-kappaB, and MAPK pathways as well as signals from mitochondria were found to be involved in initiating ..
  38. Kim J, Jobin C. The flavonoid luteolin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappaB signalling and gene expression by blocking IkappaB kinase activity in intestinal epithelial cells and bone-marrow derived dendritic cells. Immunology. 2005;115:375-87 pubmed
    ..Modulation of innate immunity by natural plant products may represent an attractive strategy to prevent intestinal inflammation associated with dysregulated innate immune responses. ..
  39. Ferreira V, van Dijk K, Groen A, Vos R, van der Kaa J, Gijbels M, et al. Macrophage-specific inhibition of NF-kappaB activation reduces foam-cell formation. Atherosclerosis. 2007;192:283-90 pubmed
    ..activation is specifically inhibited in macrophages by overexpressing a trans-dominant, non-degradable form of IkappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha (32A/36A)) under control of the macrophage-specific SR-A promoter...
  40. Chang N. The non-ankyrin C terminus of Ikappa Balpha physically interacts with p53 in vivo and dissociates in response to apoptotic stress, hypoxia, DNA damage, and transforming growth factor-beta 1-mediated growth suppression. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:10323-31 pubmed
    ..Exposure of Mv1Lu cells to TGF-beta1 rapidly resulted in down-regulation of cytosolic IkappaBalpha and hyaluronidase prevented this effect, suggesting a possible role of IkappaBalpha in the growth regulation...
  41. Emmerich F, Meiser M, Hummel M, Demel G, Foss H, Jundt F, et al. Overexpression of I kappa B alpha without inhibition of NF-kappaB activity and mutations in the I kappa B alpha gene in Reed-Sternberg cells. Blood. 1999;94:3129-34 pubmed
    ..system, which might be responsible for constitutive NF-kappaB activity, we have analyzed the inhibitor I kappa B alpha (IkappaBalpha) in primary and cultured HRS cells on protein, mRNA, and genomic levels...
  42. Parcellier A, Schmitt E, Gurbuxani S, Seigneurin Berny D, Pance A, Chantome A, et al. HSP27 is a ubiquitin-binding protein involved in I-kappaBalpha proteasomal degradation. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5790-802 pubmed
    ..This novel function of HSP27 would account for its antiapoptotic properties through the enhancement of NF-kappaB activity. ..
  43. Tang J, Michaelis K, Nozik Grayck E, Seedorf G, Hartman Filson M, Abman S, et al. The NF-?B inhibitory proteins I?B? and I?B? mediate disparate responses to inflammation in fetal pulmonary endothelial cells. J Immunol. 2013;190:2913-23 pubmed publisher
  44. Cabannes E, Khan G, Aillet F, Jarrett R, Hay R. Mutations in the IkBa gene in Hodgkin's disease suggest a tumour suppressor role for IkappaBalpha. Oncogene. 1999;18:3063-70 pubmed
    ..The presence of defective IkappaBalpha is thus likely to explain the constitutive activation of NF-kappaB in these cells and suggests that ..
  45. Kobayashi K, Chamaillard M, Ogura Y, Henegariu O, Inohara N, Nunez G, et al. Nod2-dependent regulation of innate and adaptive immunity in the intestinal tract. Science. 2005;307:731-4 pubmed
    ..The Nod2 protein is thus a critical regulator of bacterial immunity within the intestine, providing a possible mechanism for Nod2 mutations in CD. ..
  46. Cheshire J, Baldwin A. Synergistic activation of NF-kappaB by tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon via enhanced I kappaB alpha degradation and de novo I kappaBbeta degradation. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6746-54 pubmed
  47. Peng Y, Yi S, Feng Y, Shi D, Hou Y, Lin Y. [Serumimmunological study of moxibustion on helicobacter pylori gastritis in rats]. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2014;34:783-90 pubmed
    ..mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and western blot method was used to measure content of NFkappaB and IkappaBalpha in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
  48. Motta K, Barbosa A, Bobinski F, Boschero A, Rafacho A. JNK and IKKβ phosphorylation is reduced by glucocorticoids in adipose tissue from insulin-resistant rats. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2015;145:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The insulin-resistant status of rats induced by dexamethasone administration have PKB and IRS-1 activity attenuated in epididymal fat without increases in the phosphorylation of the proinflammatory signals JNK and IKKβ. ..
  49. Zabel U, Henkel T, Silva M, Baeuerle P. Nuclear uptake control of NF-kappa B by MAD-3, an I kappa B protein present in the nucleus. EMBO J. 1993;12:201-11 pubmed
  50. Mitola S, Moroni E, Ravelli C, Andres G, Belleri M, Presta M. Angiopoietin-1 mediates the proangiogenic activity of the bone morphogenic protein antagonist Drm. Blood. 2008;112:1154-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the data indicate that the proangiogenic activity of Drm is mediated by the activation of an Ang-1-dependent autocrine loop of stimulation in EC. ..
  51. Kang Y, Ma Y, Zheng J, Elks C, Sriramula S, Yang Z, et al. Brain nuclear factor-kappa B activation contributes to neurohumoral excitation in angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;82:503-12 pubmed publisher
    ..IKKbeta, NF-kappaB subunits, AT1-R, superoxide, and gp91phox (a subunit of NADP(H) oxidase) and lower levels of IkappaBalpha in the PVN than control animals...
  52. Zhou J, Li G, Hai Y, Guan L, Huang X, Sun P. Protection of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule against lung injury induced by limb ischemia-reperfusion. Chin J Traumatol. 2009;12:71-6 pubmed
  53. Teng W, Wang L, Xue W, Guan C. Activation of TLR4-mediated NFkappaB signaling in hemorrhagic brain in rats. Mediators Inflamm. 2009;2009:473276 pubmed publisher
    ..TLR4 mRNA and protein, the phosphorylation of inhibitors of kappa B (p-IkappaBalpha), and the activity of NFkappaB were examined in hemorrhagic cerebral tissue by Rt-PCR, Western blots, ..