Gene Symbol: Myo5a
Description: myosin VA
Alias: Dop, Myh12, unconventional myosin-Va, dilute myosin heavy chain, non-muscle, dilute-opisthotonus, myosin 5a, myosin-Va
Species: rat
Products:     Myo5a

Top Publications

  1. Ivarsson R, Jing X, Waselle L, Regazzi R, Renstrom E. Myosin 5a controls insulin granule recruitment during late-phase secretion. Traffic. 2005;6:1027-35 pubmed
    We have examined the importance of the actin-based molecular motor myosin 5a for insulin granule transport and insulin secretion. Expression of myosin 5a was downregulated in clonal INS-1E cells using RNAinterference...
  2. Wu X, Rao K, Zhang H, Wang F, Sellers J, Matesic L, et al. Identification of an organelle receptor for myosin-Va. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:271-8 pubmed
  3. Moore J, Krementsova E, Trybus K, Warshaw D. Myosin V exhibits a high duty cycle and large unitary displacement. J Cell Biol. 2001;155:625-35 pubmed
    ..The second step is characterized by an increased displacement variance, suggesting a model for how the two heads of myosin V function in processive motion. ..
  4. Huang J, Mermall V, Strobel M, Russell L, Mooseker M, Copeland N, et al. Molecular genetic dissection of mouse unconventional myosin-VA: tail region mutations. Genetics. 1998;148:1963-72 pubmed
    ..Our results also provide support for the notion that different myosin tail isoforms produced by alternative splicing encode important cell-type-specific functions. ..
  5. Wu X, Bowers B, Wei Q, Kocher B, Hammer J. Myosin V associates with melanosomes in mouse melanocytes: evidence that myosin V is an organelle motor. J Cell Sci. 1997;110 ( Pt 7):847-59 pubmed
  6. Takagishi Y, Oda S, Hayasaka S, Dekker Ohno K, Shikata T, Inouye M, et al. The dilute-lethal (dl) gene attacks a Ca2+ store in the dendritic spine of Purkinje cells in mice. Neurosci Lett. 1996;215:169-72 pubmed
  7. Bittins C, Eichler T, Gerdes H. Expression of the dominant-negative tail of myosin Va enhances exocytosis of large dense core vesicles in neurons. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2009;29:597-608 pubmed publisher
    ..The F-actin-binding motor protein myosin Va was recently shown to be involved in exocytosis of peptide-containing large dense core vesicles of ..
  8. Zaid H, Antonescu C, Randhawa V, Klip A. Insulin action on glucose transporters through molecular switches, tracks and tethers. Biochem J. 2008;413:201-15 pubmed publisher
  9. Engle L, Kennett R. Cloning, analysis, and chromosomal localization of myoxin (MYH12), the human homologue to the mouse dilute gene. Genomics. 1994;19:407-16 pubmed
    ..We report the isolation and sequencing of "myoxin" (MYH12), the human homologue of the mouse dilute gene, and its assignment to human chromosome 15.

More Information


  1. Chen Y, Wang Y, Zhang J, Deng Y, Jiang L, Song E, et al. Rab10 and myosin-Va mediate insulin-stimulated GLUT4 storage vesicle translocation in adipocytes. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:545-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, multiple Rab proteins regulate the trafficking of GLUT4, with Rab10 coordinating with myosin-Va to mediate the final steps of insulin-stimulated GSV translocation to the PM...
  2. Provance D, Wei M, Ipe V, Mercer J. Cultured melanocytes from dilute mutant mice exhibit dendritic morphology and altered melanosome distribution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:14554-8 pubmed
    ..These experiments show that the dilute myosin is necessary for the localization of melanosomes, either by active transport or tethering. ..
  3. Correia S, Bassani S, Brown T, Lise M, Backos D, El Husseini A, et al. Motor protein-dependent transport of AMPA receptors into spines during long-term potentiation. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..AMPARs) into spines during synaptic plasticity requires a specific motor protein, which we identified as myosin Va. We found that myosin Va associates with AMPARs through its cargo binding domain...
  4. Pastural E, Barrat F, Dufourcq Lagelouse R, Certain S, Sanal O, Jabado N, et al. Griscelli disease maps to chromosome 15q21 and is associated with mutations in the myosin-Va gene. Nat Genet. 1997;16:289-92 pubmed
    ..Here we report that the Griscelli disease locus co-localizes on chromosome 15q21 with the myosin-Va gene, MYO5a, and that mutations of this gene occur in two patients with the disease...
  5. Strom M, Hume A, Tarafder A, Barkagianni E, Seabra M. A family of Rab27-binding proteins. Melanophilin links Rab27a and myosin Va function in melanosome transport. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:25423-30 pubmed
    ..We also show that melanophilin associates with Rab27a and myosin Va on melanosomes in melanocytes, and present evidence that a domain within the carboxyl-terminal region of ..
  6. Jones J, Huang J, Mermall V, Hamilton B, Mooseker M, Escayg A, et al. The mouse neurological mutant flailer expresses a novel hybrid gene derived by exon shuffling between Gnb5 and Myo5a. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:821-8 pubmed
    ..two exons of guanine nucleotide binding protein beta 5 (Gnb5) with the C-terminal exons of the closely linked Myosin 5A (MyoVA) gene (Myo5a)...
  7. Krementsov D, Krementsova E, Trybus K. Myosin V: regulation by calcium, calmodulin, and the tail domain. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:877-86 pubmed
    ..We propose that a folded-to-extended conformational change that is controlled by calcium and CaM, and probably by cargo binding itself, regulates myosin V's ability to transport cargo in the cell. ..
  8. Miyata M, Finch E, Khiroug L, Hashimoto K, Hayasaka S, Oda S, et al. Local calcium release in dendritic spines required for long-term synaptic depression. Neuron. 2000;28:233-44 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal that IP3 must release Ca2+ locally in the dendritic spines to produce LTD and indicate that one function of dendritic spines is to target IP3-mediated Ca2+ release to the proper subcellular domain. ..
  9. Hume A, Collinson L, Rapak A, Gomes A, Hopkins C, Seabra M. Rab27a regulates the peripheral distribution of melanosomes in melanocytes. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:795-808 pubmed
  10. Varadi A, Tsuboi T, Rutter G. Myosin Va transports dense core secretory vesicles in pancreatic MIN6 beta-cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2670-80 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate colocalization of myosin Va (MyoVa) with insulin in pancreatic beta-cells and show that MyoVa copurifies with insulin in density gradients ..
  11. Tilelli C, Martins A, Larson R, Garcia Cairasco N. Immunohistochemical localization of myosin Va in the adult rat brain. Neuroscience. 2003;121:573-86 pubmed
    Brain myosin Va (MVa) is a molecular motor associated with plastic changes during development...
  12. Watanabe M, Nomura K, Ohyama A, Ishikawa R, Komiya Y, Hosaka K, et al. Myosin-Va regulates exocytosis through the submicromolar Ca2+-dependent binding of syntaxin-1A. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4519-30 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the interaction between myosin-Va and syntaxin-1A is involved in exocytosis and suggest that the myosin-Va neck contributes not only to the large step size but also to the regulation of exocytosis by Ca2+. ..
  13. Rudolf R, Kogel T, Kuznetsov S, Salm T, Schlicker O, Hellwig A, et al. Myosin Va facilitates the distribution of secretory granules in the F-actin rich cortex of PC12 cells. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:1339-48 pubmed
    ..Here we provide morphological and biochemical evidence that myosin Va is associated with secretory granules...
  14. Geething N, Spudich J. Identification of a minimal myosin Va binding site within an intrinsically unstructured domain of melanophilin. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21518-28 pubmed
    ..distribution of melanosomes, a dense pigment-containing organelle, is dependent on actin and the activity of myosin Va. The recruitment of myosin Va to the melanosome and proper transport of the melanosome requires melanophilin, ..
  15. Mercer J, Seperack P, Strobel M, Copeland N, Jenkins N. Novel myosin heavy chain encoded by murine dilute coat colour locus. Nature. 1991;349:709-13 pubmed
    ..These results suggest an important role for the dilute gene product in the elaboration, maintenance, or function of cellular processes of melanocytes and neurons. ..
  16. Seperack P, Mercer J, Strobel M, Copeland N, Jenkins N. Retroviral sequences located within an intron of the dilute gene alter dilute expression in a tissue-specific manner. EMBO J. 1995;14:2326-32 pubmed
    ..These findings have important implications for understanding the effects of viral sequences on mammalian gene expression. ..
  17. Selamat W, Jamari I, Wang Y, Takumi T, Wong F, Fujii R. TLS interaction with NMDA R1 splice variant in retinal ganglion cell line RGC-5. Neurosci Lett. 2009;450:163-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that TLS might be involved in a calcium-dependent trafficking of specific NR1 splice variants in RGCs. ..
  18. Rao M, Engle L, Mohan P, Yuan A, Qiu D, Cataldo A, et al. Myosin Va binding to neurofilaments is essential for correct myosin Va distribution and transport and neurofilament density. J Cell Biol. 2002;159:279-90 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that a molecular motor protein, myosin Va, is present in high proportions in the cytoskeleton of mouse CNS and peripheral nerves...
  19. Lu Z, Shen M, Cao Y, Zhang H, Yao L, Li X. Calmodulin bound to the first IQ motif is responsible for calcium-dependent regulation of myosin 5a. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16530-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Myosin 5a is as yet the best-characterized unconventional myosin motor involved in transport of organelles along actin filaments. It is well-established that myosin 5a is regulated by its tail in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner...
  20. Coleman D. Effect of genic substitution on the incorporation of tyrosine into the melanin of mouse skin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1962;96:562-8 pubmed
  21. Oke O, Burgess S, Forgacs E, Knight P, Sakamoto T, Sellers J, et al. Influence of lever structure on myosin 5a walking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2509-14 pubmed publisher
    Using electron microscopy and image processing, we have observed myosin 5a modified with lever arms of different lengths (four, six, and eight calmodulin-binding IQ domains) and orientations walking along actin filaments...
  22. Copeland N, Hutchison K, Jenkins N. Excision of the DBA ecotropic provirus in dilute coat-color revertants of mice occurs by homologous recombination involving the viral LTRs. Cell. 1983;33:379-87 pubmed
  23. Futter C, Ramalho J, Jaissle G, Seeliger M, Seabra M. The role of Rab27a in the regulation of melanosome distribution within retinal pigment epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:2264-75 pubmed
    ..interaction with the cortical actin cytoskeleton mediated by a tripartite complex of Rab27a, melanophilin, and myosin Va. In ashen (Rab27a null) mice RPE, melanosomes are unable to move beyond the adherens junction axis and do not ..
  24. Sun Y, Chiu T, Foley K, Bilan P, Klip A. Myosin Va mediates Rab8A-regulated GLUT4 vesicle exocytosis in insulin-stimulated muscle cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:1159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the unconventional motor protein myosin Va (MyoVa) is an effector of Rab8A in this process...
  25. Westbroek W, Lambert J, De Schepper S, Kleta R, Van Den Bossche K, Seabra M, et al. Rab27b is up-regulated in human Griscelli syndrome type II melanocytes and linked to the actin cytoskeleton via exon F-Myosin Va transcripts. Pigment Cell Res. 2004;17:498-505 pubmed
    ..a tripartite complex on the melanosome membrane with Melanophilin, a Rab27a effector, and protein products of Myosin Va transcripts that contain exon F...
  26. Buss F, Kendrick Jones J, Lionne C, Knight A, Cote G, Paul Luzio J. The localization of myosin VI at the golgi complex and leading edge of fibroblasts and its phosphorylation and recruitment into membrane ruffles of A431 cells after growth factor stimulation. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:1535-45 pubmed
    ..These results strongly support a role for myosin VI in membrane traffic on secretory and endocytic pathways. ..
  27. Stachelek S, Tuft R, Lifschitz L, Leonard D, Farwell A, Leonard J. Real-time visualization of processive myosin 5a-mediated vesicle movement in living astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:35652-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the interruption of normal dimerization of native myosin 5a monomers inactivated vesicle transport, indicating that single-headed myosin 5a motors do not transport cargo in ..
  28. Balasanyan V, Arnold D. Actin and myosin-dependent localization of mRNA to dendrites. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e92349 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Myosin Va and actin filaments are necessary for the dendritic localization of the mRNA binding protein Staufen 1 and of ..
  29. Volkmann N, Liu H, Hazelwood L, Krementsova E, Lowey S, Trybus K, et al. The structural basis of myosin V processive movement as revealed by electron cryomicroscopy. Mol Cell. 2005;19:595-605 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal how the structural elements of myosin V work together to allow myosin V to step along actin for multiple ATPase cycles without dissociating. ..
  30. Satoh T. Rho GTPases in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Small Gtpases. 2014;5:e28102 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the role for another Rho family member TC10 and its regulatory mechanism in adipocyte insulin signaling are described. ..
  31. da Costa A, Calábria L, Nascimento R, Carvalho W, Goulart L, Espindola F. The streptozotocin-induced rat model of diabetes mellitus evidences significant reduction of myosin-Va expression in the brain. Metab Brain Dis. 2011;26:247-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, diabetic rat brains displayed altered expression and distribution of myosin-Va, and these finding may contribute to the basic understanding about this myosin role in brain function related to diabetes. ..
  32. Brozzi F, Diraison F, Lajus S, Rajatileka S, Philips T, Regazzi R, et al. Molecular mechanism of myosin Va recruitment to dense core secretory granules. Traffic. 2012;13:54-69 pubmed publisher
    The brain-spliced isoform of Myosin Va (BR-MyoVa) plays an important role in the transport of dense core secretory granules (SGs) to the plasma membrane in hormone and neuropeptide-producing cells...
  33. Fukuda M, Kuroda T. Missense mutations in the globular tail of myosin-Va in dilute mice partially impair binding of Slac2-a/melanophilin. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:583-91 pubmed
    ..On the basis of our findings, we propose that myosin-Va interacts with Slac2-a.Rab27A complex on the melanosome via two distinct domains, both of which are essential for melanosome transport in melanocytes. ..
  34. Kierszenbaum A, Tres L, Rivkin E, Kang Decker N, van Deursen J. The acroplaxome is the docking site of Golgi-derived myosin Va/Rab27a/b- containing proacrosomal vesicles in wild-type and Hrb mutant mouse spermatids. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:1400-10 pubmed
    ..We also show that the actin-based motor protein myosin Va and its receptor, Rab27a/b, known to be involved in vesicle transport, are present in the Golgi and Golgi-..
  35. Haddad E, Wu X, Hammer J, Henkart P. Defective granule exocytosis in Rab27a-deficient lymphocytes from Ashen mice. J Cell Biol. 2001;152:835-42 pubmed
  36. Kogel T, Gerdes H. Roles of myosin Va and Rab3D in membrane remodeling of immature secretory granules. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:1303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the roles of myosin Va and Rab3 isoforms in the maturation of ISGs in neuroendocrine PC12 cells...
  37. Hume A, Collinson L, Hopkins C, Strom M, Barral D, Bossi G, et al. The leaden gene product is required with Rab27a to recruit myosin Va to melanosomes in melanocytes. Traffic. 2002;3:193-202 pubmed
    ..Melanocytes from Griscelli syndrome patients and respective murine models ashen (Rab27a mutant), dilute (myosin Va mutant), and leaden exhibit perinuclear clustering of melanosomes...
  38. Murad S, Kishimoto Y. Alpha hydroxylation of lignoceric acid to cerebronic acid during brain development. Diminished hydroxylase activity in myelin-deficient mouse mutants. J Biol Chem. 1975;250:5841-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a close association of the synthesis of cerebronic acid with the synthesis of the characteristic myelin lipid that is cerebroside (N-acyl sphingosine beta-D-galactoside)...
  39. Sotelo J, Canclini L, Kun A, Sotelo Silveira J, Xu L, Wallrabe H, et al. Myosin-Va-dependent cell-to-cell transfer of RNA from Schwann cells to axons. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61905 pubmed publisher
  40. Zhang M, Yang M, Liu L, Lau W, Gao H, Xin M, et al. BMP-2 overexpression augments vascular smooth muscle cell motility by upregulating myosin Va via Erk signaling. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2014;2014:294150 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot and real-time PCR detected the expression of myosin Va and the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2)...
  41. Takagishi Y, Futaki S, Itoh K, Espreafico E, Murakami N, Murata Y, et al. Localization of myosin II and V isoforms in cultured rat sympathetic neurones and their potential involvement in presynaptic function. J Physiol. 2005;569:195-208 pubmed
    ..synaptic vesicle density in presynaptic terminals of cultured superior cervical ganglion neurones (SCGNs) from myosin Va null rats (dilute-opisthotonus, dop)...
  42. O Sullivan T, Wu X, Rachel R, Huang J, Swing D, Matesic L, et al. dsu functions in a MYO5A-independent pathway to suppress the coat color of dilute mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16831-6 pubmed
    b>MYO5A is a major actin-based vesicle transport motor that binds to one of its cargos, the melanosome, by means of a RAB27A/MLPH receptor...
  43. Futaki S, Takagishi Y, Hayashi Y, Ohmori S, Kanou Y, Inouye M, et al. Identification of a novel myosin-Va mutation in an ataxic mutant rat, dilute-opisthotonus. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:649-55 pubmed
    Mutations of the myosin-Va gene (Myo5a) cause diluted coat color in mice and are occasionally associated with severe neurological disorders...
  44. Anikster Y, Huizing M, Anderson P, Fitzpatrick D, Klar A, Gross Kieselstein E, et al. Evidence that Griscelli syndrome with neurological involvement is caused by mutations in RAB27A, not MYO5A. Am J Hum Genet. 2002;71:407-14 pubmed
    ..Two patients with neurological involvement have mutations in MYO5A, which codes for an actin-based molecular motor...
  45. Calliari A, Farias J, Puppo A, Canclini L, Mercer J, Munroe D, et al. Myosin Va associates with mRNA in ribonucleoprotein particles present in myelinated peripheral axons and in the central nervous system. Dev Neurobiol. 2014;74:382-96 pubmed publisher
    ..A similar role appears to exist in higher eukaryotes for the myosins. Myosin Va (Myo5a) has been described as a component of ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) in the adult rat nervous system ..
  46. Ultanir S, Yadav S, Hertz N, Oses Prieto J, Claxton S, Burlingame A, et al. MST3 kinase phosphorylates TAO1/2 to enable Myosin Va function in promoting spine synapse development. Neuron. 2014;84:968-82 pubmed publisher
    ..stable isotope labeling by amino acids in culture (SILAC), we show that phosphorylated TAO1/2 associates with Myosin Va and is necessary for its dendritic localization, thus revealing a mechanism for excitatory synapse development ..
  47. Bittins C, Eichler T, Hammer J, Gerdes H. Dominant-negative myosin Va impairs retrograde but not anterograde axonal transport of large dense core vesicles. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:369-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we suggest a role for the actin-based motor protein myosin Va specifically in retrograde axonal transport of LDCVs...
  48. Takagishi Y, Murata Y. Myosin Va mutation in rats is an animal model for the human hereditary neurological disease, Griscelli syndrome type 1. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1086:66-80 pubmed
    ..We found that the mutation affected the gene encoding Myosin Va (MyoVA), an actin-based molecular motor...
  49. Sawada K, Komatsu S, Haga H, Oda S, Fukui Y. Abnormal expression of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in Purkinje cells precedes the onset of ataxia in dilute-lethal mice. Brain Res. 1999;844:188-91 pubmed
    ..These results revealed that abnormal TH expression occurred in some Purkinje cells of DL cerebella, preceding the onset of ataxia. ..
  50. Hirobe T, Wakamatsu K, Ito S. Effects of genic substitution at the agouti, brown, albino, dilute, and pink-eyed dilution loci on the proliferation and differentiation of mouse epidermal melanocytes in serum-free culture. Eur J Cell Biol. 1998;75:184-91 pubmed
  51. Seperack P, Strobel M, Corrow D, Jenkins N, Copeland N. Somatic and germ-line reverse mutation rates of the retrovirus-induced dilute coat-color mutation of DBA mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:189-92 pubmed
  52. Opartkiattikul N, Funahara Y, Fucharoen S, Talalak P. Increase in spontaneous platelet aggregation in beta-thalassemia/hemoglobin E disease: a consequence of splenectomy. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1992;23 Suppl 2:36-41 pubmed
    ..abstract truncated at 250 words) ..
  53. Lise M, Srivastava D, Arstikaitis P, Lett R, Sheta R, Viswanathan V, et al. Myosin-Va-interacting protein, RILPL2, controls cell shape and neuronal morphogenesis via Rac signaling. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3810-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This might represent a novel mechanism linking RILPL2, the motor protein MyoVa and Rac1 with neuronal structure and function. ..