muscle glycogen phosphorylase


Gene Symbol: muscle glycogen phosphorylase
Description: glycogen phosphorylase, muscle associated
Alias: Muscpho, glycogen phosphorylase, muscle form, Phosphorylase glycogen, Phosphorylase, glycogen; muscle (McArdle syndrome), muscle (McArdle syndrome), muscle glycogen phosphorylase, myophosphorylase, phosphorylase, glycogen, muscle
Species: rat

Top Publications

  1. Johnson L. Glycogen phosphorylase: control by phosphorylation and allosteric effectors. FASEB J. 1992;6:2274-82 pubmed
    Structural studies of muscle glycogen phosphorylase during the last two decades have provided a detailed mechanism for the molecular basis of the control by phosphorylation and by allosteric effectors and the catalytic mechanism...
  2. Buchbinder J, Rath V, Fletterick R. Structural relationships among regulated and unregulated phosphorylases. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct. 2001;30:191-209 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation, though common to both the yeast and mammalian enzymes, occurs at different sites and activates the enzymes by surprisingly different mechanisms. ..
  3. Garduno E, Nogues M, Merino J, Gutierrez Merino C, Henao F. The content of glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen in preparations of sarcoplasmic reticulum-glycogenolytic complex is enhanced in diabetic rat skeletal muscle. Diabetologia. 2001;44:1238-46 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that under diabetic conditions, both glycogen phosphorylase and a small percentage of muscle glycogen are relocalized in the sarcoplasmic reticulum-glycogenolytic complex. ..
  4. Kubisch C, Wicklein E, Jentsch T. Molecular diagnosis of McArdle disease: revised genomic structure of the myophosphorylase gene and identification of a novel mutation. Hum Mutat. 1998;12:27-32 pubmed a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the muscle glycogen metabolism caused by mutations in the muscle glycogen phosphorylase gene...
  5. Elsner P, Grunnet N, Quistorff B. Effects of electrostimulation on glycogenolysis in cultured rat myotubes. Pflugers Arch. 2003;447:356-62 pubmed
    ..The system also shows much less dynamic range of energy metabolism than in vivo, primarily because of a high resting ATP turnover. ..
  6. Gorin F, Herrick K, Froman B, Palmer W, Tait R, Carlsen R. Botulinum-induced muscle paralysis alters metabolic gene expression and fatigue recovery. Am J Physiol. 1996;270:R238-45 pubmed
    ..Histochemical evidence indicated that fast-twitch glycolytic fibers had increased lipid content. These biochemical alterations were reversed 120 days after BTX treatment despite persistent atrophy...
  7. Lees S, Williams J. Skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum glycogen status influences Ca2+ uptake supported by endogenously synthesized ATP. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2004;286:C97-104 pubmed
    ..Removal of glycogen from purified SR causes a change in Ca2+-handling properties as measured by ATPase and uptake activities. ..
  8. Hwang P, See Y, Vincentini A, Powers M, Fletterick R, Crerar M. Comparative sequence analysis of rat, rabbit, and human muscle glycogen phosphorylase cDNAs. Eur J Biochem. 1985;152:267-74 pubmed
    ..Similar sequences are found within regions of DNA that contain a variety of transcriptional enhancers, suggesting the possibility that the repeats may be functional. ..
  9. Dietz M, Chiasson J, Soderling T, Exton J. Epinephrine regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism. Studies utilizing the perfused rat hindlimb preparation. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:2301-7 pubmed
    ..These data provide a basis for speculation about in vivo regulation of the enzyme. ..

More Information


  1. Crerar M, Hudson J, Matthews K, David E, Golding G. Studies on the expression and evolution of the glycogen phosphorylase gene family in the rat. Genome. 1988;30:582-90 pubmed
    ..Differences in the relative rates of change of the three isozymes were observed and this may reflect different constraints on their evolution perhaps related to their functional roles and (or) tissue-specific expression. ..
  2. Bouhamdan M, Yan H, Yan X, Bannon M, Andrade R. Brain-specific regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 selectively interacts with alpha-actinin-2 to regulate calcium-dependent inactivation of NMDA receptors. J Neurosci. 2006;26:2522-30 pubmed
    ..These results identify an unexpected functional interaction between RGS9-2 and alpha-actinin-2 and suggest a potential novel role for RGS9-2 in the regulation of NMDA receptor function. ..
  3. Yang S, Oh K, Park E, Chang H, Park J, Seong M, et al. USP47 and C terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP) antagonistically regulate katanin-p60-mediated axonal growth. J Neurosci. 2013;33:12728-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that USP47 plays a crucial role in the control of axonal growth during neuronal development by antagonizing CHIP-mediated katanin-p60 degradation. ..
  4. Satoh K, Sato K. Glycogen-binding protein components of rat tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1980;96:28-33 pubmed
  5. Birch A, Kenny P, Oikonomakos N, Otterbein L, Schofield P, Whittamore P, et al. Development of potent, orally active 1-substituted-3,4-dihydro-2-quinolone glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2007;17:394-9 pubmed
    ..X-ray crystallographic data are presented, showing an unexpected variety of binding orientations at the dimer interface site. ..
  6. Pfeiffer Guglielmi B, Broer S, Bröer A, Hamprecht B. Isozyme pattern of glycogen phosphorylase in the rat nervous system and rat astroglia-rich primary cultures: electrophoretic and polymerase chain reaction studies. Neurochem Res. 2000;25:1485-91 pubmed
    ..In immature brain and cultured glial cells, the additional presence of the L isozyme is possible. These results support the idea that astrocytes express two or even three GP isozymes simultaneously. ..
  7. Froman B, Herrick K, Gorin F. Regulation of the rat muscle glycogen phosphorylase-encoding gene during muscle cell development. Gene. 1994;149:245-52 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that rat MGP transcription in C2C12 muscle cells is modulated by a potent enhancer that utilizes novel regulatory elements. ..
  8. Dairou J, Pluvinage B, Noiran J, Petit E, Vinh J, Haddad I, et al. Nitration of a critical tyrosine residue in the allosteric inhibitor site of muscle glycogen phosphorylase impairs its catalytic activity. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:1009-21 pubmed
    b>Muscle glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is a key enzyme in glucose metabolism, and its impairment can lead to muscle dysfunction...
  9. Sharifi J, Brady D, Koenig J. Estrogen modulates RGS9 expression in the nucleus accumbens. Neuroreport. 2004;15:2433-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide evidence for estrogen as a factor that enhances dopamine receptor signaling by altering RGS9 mRNA expression which could underlie gender specific patterns of psychostimulant abuse. ..
  10. Kim K, Moriyama K, Han K, Sharma M, Han X, Xie G, et al. Differential expression of the regulator of G protein signaling RGS9 protein in nociceptive pathways of different age rats. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2005;160:28-39 pubmed
    ..Such differential expression may play an important role in neuronal differentiation and development as well as in neuronal function, such as dopamine and opioid signaling. ..
  11. Osawa S, Chiu R, McDonough A, Miller T, Johnson G. Isolation of partial cDNAs for rat liver and muscle glycogen phosphorylase isozymes. FEBS Lett. 1986;202:282-8 pubmed
    cDNA clones for the rat liver and muscle glycogen phosphorylase isozymes have been isolated using isozyme-selective antibodies and libraries prepared in the expression vector, lambda gt11. A 1...
  12. Schliselfeld L, Danon M. Inverse relationship of skeletal muscle glycogen from wild-type and genetically modified mice to their phosphorylase a activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;290:874-7 pubmed
    ..00 mM AMP (4.8% and less glycogen phosphorylase a). This suggests that there is an inverse relationship between mouse muscle phosphorylase a and the muscle's glycogen content. ..
  13. Fraser H, Lopaschuk G, Clanachan A. Alteration of glycogen and glucose metabolism in ischaemic and post-ischaemic working rat hearts by adenosine A1 receptor stimulation. Br J Pharmacol. 1999;128:197-205 pubmed
    ..7. These results indicate that CHA-induced cardioprotection is associated with alterations of glycogen turnover during reperfusion as well as improved metabolic coupling of glycolysis to glucose oxidation. ..
  14. Hudson J, Hefferon K, Crerar M. Comparative analysis of species-independent, isozyme-specific amino-acid substitutions in mammalian muscle, brain and liver glycogen phosphorylases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993;1164:197-208 pubmed
    ..Substitutions in the brain isozyme at residues 21-23, 405 and 435 may play a role in its poor response to activation by phosphorylation. ..
  15. Cros N, Tkatchenko A, Pisani D, Leclerc L, Leger J, Marini J, et al. Analysis of altered gene expression in rat soleus muscle atrophied by disuse. J Cell Biochem. 2001;83:508-19 pubmed
    ..In addition, the cloning of novel cDNAs underlined the efficiency of the chosen technical approach and gave novel possibilities to further decipher the molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy. ..
  16. Li P, Li J, Feng X, Li Z, Hou R, Han C, et al. Gene expression profile of cardiomyocytes in hypertrophic heart induced by continuous norepinephrine infusion in the rats. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2003;60:2200-9 pubmed
  17. Lang C, Schafer M, Varga L, Zimmermann A, Krahenbuhl S, Krahenbuhl L. Hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism in rats with short-term cholestasis. J Hepatol. 2002;36:22-9 pubmed
  18. Nogues M, Cuenda A, Henao F, Gutierrez Merino C. Ca2+ uptake coupled to glycogen phosphorolysis in the glycogenolytic-sarcoplasmic reticulum complex from rat skeletal muscle. Z Naturforsch C. 1996;51:591-8 pubmed
  19. Schellens J, Vreeling Sindelárová H, Van den Munckhof R, Frederiks W. Electron microscopical study of a cytosolic enzyme in unfixed cryostat sections: demonstration of glycogen phosphorylase activity in rat liver and heart tissue. Histochem J. 1995;27:609-14 pubmed
  20. Vigoda A, Mamedova L, Shneyvays V, Katz A, Shainberg A. Glycogen metabolism in rat heart muscle cultures after hypoxia. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003;254:311-8 pubmed
    ..This model should prove useful in studying the cardioprotective effects of glycogen. ..
  21. Pederson B, Chen H, Schroeder J, Shou W, DePaoli Roach A, Roach P. Abnormal cardiac development in the absence of heart glycogen. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:7179-87 pubmed
  22. Jensen J, Aslesen R, Jebens E, Skrondal A. Adrenaline-mediated glycogen phosphorylase activation is enhanced in rat soleus muscle with increased glycogen content. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1472:215-21 pubmed
    ..Glycogen phosphorylase activation during adrenaline stimulation was much higher in epitrochlearis than in soleus muscles with a similar content of glycogen. ..
  23. Pinacho R, Vila E, Prades R, Tarrago T, Castro E, Ferrer I, et al. The glial phosphorylase of glycogen isoform is reduced in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in chronic schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2016;177:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this study provides evidence of a NMDA-dependent transient local energy deficit in neuron-glia crosstalk in schizophrenia, contributing to energy deficits of the disorder. ..