Muc2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Muc2
Description: mucin 2, oligomeric mucus/gel-forming
Alias: HH-Muc, MLP, mucin-2, LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: mucin-2, intestinal mucin-like protein, MUC-2, intestinal mucin-2
Species: rat
Products:     Muc2

Top Publications

  1. Xu G, Huan L, Khatri I, Wang D, Bennick A, Fahim R, et al. cDNA for the carboxyl-terminal region of a rat intestinal mucin-like peptide. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:5401-7 pubmed
    ..A 2.6-kb cDNA (designated MLP 2677) was sequenced and revealed an open reading frame of 2.5 kb encoding 837 amino acids...
  2. Femia A, Tarquini E, Salvadori M, Ferri S, Giannini A, Dolara P, et al. K-ras mutations and mucin profile in preneoplastic lesions and colon tumors induced in rats by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:117-23 pubmed
    ..Two of three MDF mutated in K-ras also carried a missense mutation in Apc. We also tested the expression of MUC2, a mucin abundantly expressed in normal colon and M1/MUCA5C, up-regulated in colon carcinogenesis, using ..
  3. Hasnain S, Wang H, Ghia J, Haq N, Deng Y, Velcich A, et al. Mucin gene deficiency in mice impairs host resistance to an enteric parasitic infection. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1763-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the precise role of mucins in host defense in nematode infection is not known. We investigated the role of the mucin (Muc2) in worm expulsion and host immunity in a model of nematode infection.
  4. Femia A, Dolara P, Luceri C, Salvadori M, Caderni G. Mucin-depleted foci show strong activation of inflammatory markers in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced carcinogenesis and are promoted by the inflammatory agent sodium dextran sulfate. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:541-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we report here for the first time a strong activation of the inflammatory process in MDF, which may contribute to the further progression of MDF to tumours. ..
  5. Johansson M, Phillipson M, Petersson J, Velcich A, Holm L, Hansson G. The inner of the two Muc2 mucin-dependent mucus layers in colon is devoid of bacteria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15064-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteomics revealed that both of these layers have similar protein composition, with the large gel-forming mucin Muc2 as the major structural component...
  6. Bell S, Xu G, Khatri I, Wang R, Rahman S, Forstner J. N-linked oligosaccharides play a role in disulphide-dependent dimerization of intestinal mucin Muc2. Biochem J. 2003;373:893-900 pubmed
    ..intramolecular cystine bonds of the knot are important for stability of the dimers formed by rat intestinal mucin Muc2. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the two N-glycans N9 and N10, located near the first and ..
  7. Webb R, Hoque T, Dimas S. Expulsion of the gastrointestinal cestode, Hymenolepis diminuta by tolerant rats: evidence for mediation by a Th2 type immune enhanced goblet cell hyperplasia, increased mucin production and secretion. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:11-21 pubmed
    ..A strong correlation between Muc2 mRNA expression and decreased worm number or biomass in a 50-worm infection was observed...
  8. Khatri I, Forstner G, Forstner J. Susceptibility of the cysteine-rich N-terminal and C-terminal ends of rat intestinal mucin muc 2 to proteolytic cleavage. Biochem J. 1998;331 ( Pt 1):323-30 pubmed
    The present study reveals that partial proteolytic degradation of rat Muc 2 mucin can occur rapidly even in the presence of a battery of proteinase inhibitors...
  9. Femia A, Luceri C, Toti S, Giannini A, Dolara P, Caderni G. Gene expression profile and genomic alterations in colonic tumours induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:194 pubmed publisher
    ..Fold Change (FC) compared with NM: 183, 48, 39, 38, 36 and 32, respectively), while Slc26a3, Mptx, Retlna and Muc2 were strongly down-regulated (FC: -500; -376, -167, -79, respectively)...

More Information

Publications57

  1. Velcich A, Yang W, Heyer J, Fragale A, Nicholas C, Viani S, et al. Colorectal cancer in mice genetically deficient in the mucin Muc2. Science. 2002;295:1726-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the importance of mucin in intestinal carcinogenesis, we constructed mice genetically deficient in Muc2, the most abundant secreted gastrointestinal mucin...
  2. Johansson M, Thomsson K, Hansson G. Proteomic analyses of the two mucus layers of the colon barrier reveal that their main component, the Muc2 mucin, is strongly bound to the Fcgbp protein. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:3549-57 pubmed publisher
    ..A major protein was the Muc2 mucin that by its net-like disulfide-bonded polymer structure builds the mucus...
  3. Moehle C, Ackermann N, Langmann T, Aslanidis C, Kel A, Kel Margoulis O, et al. Aberrant intestinal expression and allelic variants of mucin genes associated with inflammatory bowel disease. J Mol Med (Berl). 2006;84:1055-66 pubmed
    ..A significant downregulation in the colon was obtained for MUC2 in CD and MUC12 in CD and UC...
  4. Wang Y, Gao J, Li Z, Jin Z, Gong Y, Man X. Diagnostic value of mucins (MUC1, MUC2 and MUC5AC) expression profile in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration specimens of the pancreas. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:2716-22 pubmed
    Mucins are aberrantly expressed in various malignancies. We immunohistochemically tested mucins expression (MUC1, MUC2 and MUC5AC) in EUS-FNA samples from pancreatic occupying lesions for the diagnostic utility...
  5. Faure M, Moennoz D, Montigon F, Mettraux C, Mercier S, Schiffrin E, et al. Mucin production and composition is altered in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats. Dig Dis Sci. 2003;48:1366-73 pubmed
    ..DSS-treated rats showed increased colonic MUC2,3 mRNA levels compared pair-fed controls...
  6. Lee K, Liu T. Altered mucin gene expression in stone-containing intrahepatic bile ducts and cholangiocarcinomas. Dig Dis Sci. 2001;46:2166-72 pubmed
    ..of stone-containing intrahepatic bile ducts, cholangiocarcinomas, and normal controls to identify the expression of MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, MUC5B, and MUC5AC in nonneoplastic and neoplastic biliary epithelium...
  7. Qadura M, Waters B, Burnett E, Chegeni R, Bradshaw S, Hough C, et al. Recombinant and plasma-derived factor VIII products induce distinct splenic cytokine microenvironments in hemophilia A mice. Blood. 2009;114:871-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these studies report new mechanisms that contribute to reduced anti-FVIII antibody development in hemophilia A after pdFVIII infusions. ..
  8. Ikeda H, Sasaki M, Ohira S, Ishikawa A, Sato Y, Harada K, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces the aberrant expression of mucus core protein-2 in non-neoplastic biliary epithelial cells via the upregulation of CDX2 in chronic cholangitis. Hepatol Res. 2008;38:1006-17 pubmed publisher
    ..is frequently associated with goblet cell metaplasia and the aberrant expression of mucus core protein-2 (MUC2)...
  9. Amit Romach E, Uni Z, Cheled S, Berkovich Z, Reifen R. Bacterial population and innate immunity-related genes in rat gastrointestinal tract are altered by vitamin A-deficient diet. J Nutr Biochem. 2009;20:70-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mucin (MUC) dynamics, as reflected by the enlarged goblet-cell "cup" area relative to controls; decreased MUC2 mRNA expression in the jejunum, ileum and colon of VAD rats and increased MUC3 mRNA expression in the ileum and ..
  10. Chang M, Alsaigh T, Kistler E, Schmid Schonbein G. Breakdown of mucin as barrier to digestive enzymes in the ischemic rat small intestine. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40087 pubmed publisher
    ..rat model of 30 min splanchnic arterial occlusion (SAO) was used to study the degradation of two mucin isoforms (mucin 2 and 13) and two epithelial membrane proteins (E-cadherin and toll-like receptor 4, TLR4)...
  11. Dogru M, Okada N, Asano Kato N, Igarashi A, Fukagawa K, Shimazaki J, et al. Alterations of the ocular surface epithelial mucins 1, 2, 4 and the tear functions in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006;36:1556-65 pubmed
  12. Yu H, He Y, Zhang X, Peng Z, Yang Y, Zhu R, et al. The rat IgGFc?BP and Muc2 C-terminal domains and TFF3 in two intestinal mucus layers bind together by covalent interaction. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20334 pubmed publisher
    ..Rat goblet cell-secreted TFF3, IgGFc?BP and Muc2, existing in the two intestinal mucus layers, are bound together by covalent interactions in the soluble fraction ..
  13. Ohmori H, Dohrman A, Gallup M, Tsuda T, Kai H, Gum J, et al. Molecular cloning of the amino-terminal region of a rat MUC 2 mucin gene homologue. Evidence for expression in both intestine and airway. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:17833-40 pubmed
    ..a rat intestinal cDNA library in lambda ZAPII using an upstream non-tandem repeat cDNA fragment of the human MUC 2 gene (Gum, J., Hicks, J., Toribara, N., Rothe, E., Lagace, R., and Y., K. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 21375-21383)...
  14. Ishikawa A, Sasaki M, Ohira S, Ohta T, Oda K, Nimura Y, et al. Aberrant expression of CDX2 is closely related to the intestinal metaplasia and MUC2 expression in intraductal papillary neoplasm of the liver in hepatolithiasis. Lab Invest. 2004;84:629-38 pubmed
    ..papillary neoplasia of the liver (IPNL) frequently presents gastrointestinal metaplasia with aberrant expression of MUC2 and MUC5AC and oversecretion of mucin into the ductal lumen...
  15. Vinall L, Fowler J, Jones A, Kirkbride H, de Bolos C, Laine A, et al. Polymorphism of human mucin genes in chest disease: possible significance of MUC2. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000;23:678-86 pubmed
    ..There was no significant difference in the distribution of alleles of MUC1, MUC4, MUC5AC, and MUC5B. MUC2, however, showed a highly significant difference in distribution...
  16. De Stefano D, Coletta C, Bianca R, Falcone L, d Angelo I, Ungaro F, et al. A decoy oligonucleotide to NF-?B delivered through inhalable particles prevents LPS-induced rat airway inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2013;49:288-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We consider it noteworthy that the developed LPPs, preventing the accumulation of neutrophils and NF-?B-related gene expression, may provide a new therapeutic option for the local treatment of inflammation associated with lung disease. ..
  17. El Homsi M, Ducroc R, Claustre J, Jourdan G, Gertler A, Estienne M, et al. Leptin modulates the expression of secreted and membrane-associated mucins in colonic epithelial cells by targeting PKC, PI3K, and MAPK pathways. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;293:G365-73 pubmed
    ..nmol/l, 60 min) dose dependently increased the secretion of mucins (210 +/- 3% of controls) and the expression of Muc2, Muc3, and Muc4 (twofold basal level) but not of Muc1 and Muc5AC. Luminal perfusion of leptin (60 min, 0...
  18. Xie Y, Liu S, Liu X, Luo Z, Zhu B, Li Z, et al. Intestinal microbiota and innate immunity-related gene alteration in cirrhotic rats with liver transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2011;43:3973-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Mucins (MUC2, MUC3) and Toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR4) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression were significantly higher in the LC and ..
  19. Chang H, Kim S, Lee B, Hong E, Kim W. Phenotypic alterations of mucins and cytokeratins during gallbladder carcinogenesis. Pathol Int. 2004;54:576-84 pubmed
    ..of mucin and cytokeratin during gallbladder carcinogenesis, we characterized the expressional profiles of MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CK7 and CK20 in 33 normal mucosa, 31 adenomas, 55 dysplasias and 131 carcinomas of the gallbladder...
  20. Yamauchi J, Kawai Y, Yamada M, Uchikawa R, Tegoshi T, Arizono N. Altered expression of goblet cell- and mucin glycosylation-related genes in the intestinal epithelium during infection with the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in rat. APMIS. 2006;114:270-8 pubmed
  21. Algieri F, Zorrilla P, Rodríguez Nogales A, Garrido Mesa N, Banuelos O, González Tejero M, et al. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Phlomis purpurea L. and Phlomis lychnitis L. in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;146:750-9 pubmed publisher
    ..purpurea in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis, a well characterized experimental model with some resemblance to human IBD...
  22. Shahzeidi S, Aujla P, Nickola T, Chen Y, Alimam M, Rose M. Temporal analysis of goblet cells and mucin gene expression in murine models of allergic asthma. Exp Lung Res. 2003;29:549-65 pubmed
    ..Increased Muc5ac and Muc2 mRNA expression occurred following ovalbumin or IL13, but not saline, exposure...
  23. Wasserberg N, Salgar S, Yang D, Ruiz P, Ho S, De Faria W, et al. Expression of MUC2 and MUC4 proteins and cytokines: early markers of intestinal graft rejection. Transplantation. 2003;75:1249-55 pubmed
    ..HP was performed on hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid Schiff-stained sections. Expression of MUC2 and MUC4 proteins and of mRNA was detected by immunohistochemistry and Northern analysis, respectively...
  24. Makkink M, Schwerbrock N, Mahler M, Boshuizen J, Renes I, Cornberg M, et al. Fate of goblet cells in experimental colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2002;47:2286-97 pubmed
    ..The mucin Muc2, which is a major determinant of goblet cell morphology, was expressed in most goblet cells, yet only in cells ..
  25. T rkmen I, Ba s ll N, Uraz S, Yerdel M, Mem o lu R, B lb l Do usoy G. CDX2, COX2 and MUC2 expressions in Barrett's esophagus: can they be useful in determination of the dysplasia?. Turk Patoloji Derg. 2012;28:251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed to search the immunohistochemical expression of CDX2, COX2 and MUC2 in Barrett's esophagus to detect any early evidence of intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia. ..
  26. Li D, Wang D, Majumdar S, Jany B, Durham S, Cottrell J, et al. Localization and up-regulation of mucin (MUC2) gene expression in human nasal biopsies of patients with cystic fibrosis. J Pathol. 1997;181:305-10 pubmed
    ..Using digoxigenin-UTP-labelled human HAM-1 (92 bp) or SMUC41 (850 bp) cRNA probes, the expression and localization of MUC2 gene transcripts were determined by in situ hybridization in human nasal tissues obtained as biopsies from 12 ..
  27. Adsay N, Merati K, Nassar H, Shia J, Sarkar F, Pierson C, et al. Pathogenesis of colloid (pure mucinous) carcinoma of exocrine organs: Coupling of gel-forming mucin (MUC2) production with altered cell polarity and abnormal cell-stroma interaction may be the key factor in the morphogenesis and indolent behavior of . Am J Surg Pathol. 2003;27:571-8 pubmed
    ..2) To determine the expression frequency of MUC2 in CCs and to compare it with that in DCs and normal tissue, immunohistochemical stains with MUC2 (clone ccp58) ..
  28. Jankovic Velickovic L, Katic V, Hattori T, Kushima R, Marjanovic G, Stefanovic V. Differences in the expression of mucins in various forms of cystitis glandularis. Pathol Res Pract. 2007;203:653-8 pubmed
    ..For this examination, we used a panel of monoclonal-specific antibodies for MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6...
  29. Yamashita S, Wakazono K, Sugimura T, Ushijima T. Profiling and selection of genes differentially expressed in the pylorus of rat strains with different proliferative responses and stomach cancer susceptibility. Carcinogenesis. 2002;23:923-8 pubmed
  30. Stringer A, Gibson R, Logan R, Bowen J, Yeoh A, Laurence J, et al. Irinotecan-induced mucositis is associated with changes in intestinal mucins. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009;64:123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Goblet cells and mucin secretion were investigated, as well as mucin expression (Muc2 and Muc4) and kruppel-like factor (Klf) 4 using immunohistochemistry in the gastrointestinal tract...
  31. Martin N, Mount Patrick S, Estrada T, Frisk H, Rogan D, Dvorak B, et al. Active transport of bile acids decreases mucin 2 in neonatal ileum: implications for development of necrotizing enterocolitis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27191 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that mucin 2 (Muc2) positive goblet cells are significantly decreased in NEC...
  32. Amagase K, Ochi A, Kojo A, Mizunoe A, Taue M, Kinoshita N, et al. New therapeutic strategy for amino acid medicine: prophylactic and healing promoting effect of monosodium glutamate against NSAID-induced enteropathy. J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;118:131-7 pubmed
    ..Loxoprofen (60 mg/kg, p.o.) induced lesions in the small intestine within 24 h, accompanied by a decrease of Muc2 expression and an increase in enterobacterial invasion and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression...
  33. Cao W, Adley B, Liao J, Lin X, Talamonti M, Bentrem D, et al. Mucinous nonneoplastic cyst of the pancreas: apomucin phenotype distinguishes this entity from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. Hum Pathol. 2010;41:513-21 pubmed publisher
    ..of mucinous nonneoplastic cyst showed MUC1 expressed in 27% (4/15) cases, MUC5AC in 67% (10/15 cases), and MUC2 was were negative in all cases, whereas intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (n = 17; 5 main duct type, 12 ..
  34. Khatri I, Ho C, Specian R, Forstner J. Characteristics of rodent intestinal mucin Muc3 and alterations in a mouse model of human cystic fibrosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;280:G1321-30 pubmed
    ..In a mouse model of human cystic fibrosis, both soluble Muc3 and goblet cell Muc2 were increased in amount and hypersecreted...
  35. Zoghbi S, Drouin E, Claustre J, Bara J, Scoazec J, Plaisancie P. Intestinal MUC2 and gastric M1/MUC5AC in preneoplastic lesions induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rat: a sequential analysis. Int J Oncol. 2007;30:489-97 pubmed
    Our study was performed to sequentially analyze the expression of the intestinal mucin MUC2 and of the gastric mucin MUC5AC as indicators during progression of preneoplastic biomarkers in rat colon...
  36. Femia A, Swidsinski A, Dolara P, Salvadori M, Amedei A, Caderni G. Mucin depleted foci, colonic preneoplastic lesions lacking Muc2, show up-regulation of Tlr2 but not bacterial infiltration. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29918 pubmed publisher
    ..The data of FISH experiments do not support the hypothesis that inflammation in MDF and tumors is stimulated by bacterial infiltration. ..
  37. Schiffrin E, El Yousfi M, Faure M, Combaret L, Donnet A, Blum S, et al. Milk casein-based diet containing TGF-beta controls the inflammatory reaction in the HLA-B27 transgenic rat model. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2005;29:S141-8; discussion S149-50, S184-8 pubmed
    ..Intestinal inflammation was assessed by histology, myeloperoxidase, and mRNA expression of cytokines. MUC2 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Breakdown of muscle protein was examined...
  38. Wang L, Sun M. [Effects of platelet activating factor receptor antagonist in intestinal mucin-2 during endotoxemia on young rats]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2008;46:680-3 pubmed
    ..to investigate the roles of platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist in damage to intestinal mucin-2 (MUC2) during endotoxemia on young rats...
  39. Boshuizen J, Reimerink J, Korteland Van Male A, van Ham V, Bouma J, Gerwig G, et al. Homeostasis and function of goblet cells during rotavirus infection in mice. Virology. 2005;337:210-21 pubmed
    ..Goblet cells in infected animals accumulated at the tips of the villi. Muc2 mRNA levels were increased during the peak of viral replication at 1 dpi, whereas at other time points Muc2 and ..
  40. Ferretti V, Segal Eiras A, Barbeito C, Croce M. Temporal and spatial expression of Muc2 and Muc5ac mucins during rat respiratory and digestive tracts development. Res Vet Sci. 2016;104:136-45 pubmed publisher
    Secreted mucins constitute a crucial part of the gel that protects respiratory and digestive epithelia, being MUC2/Muc2 the predominant gel-forming mucin of the intestine while MUC5AC/Muc5ac is one of the gel-forming mucins most expressed ..
  41. Birchenough G, Johansson M, Stabler R, Dalgakiran F, Hansson G, Wren B, et al. Altered innate defenses in the neonatal gastrointestinal tract in response to colonization by neuropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infect Immun. 2013;81:3264-75 pubmed publisher
    ..developmental expression of Tff2 was dysregulated in P2 tissues and was accompanied by a decrease in mucin Muc2. Conversely, α-defensin genes were upregulated in P9 tissues...
  42. Dharmani P, Leung P, Chadee K. Tumor necrosis factor-? and Muc2 mucin play major roles in disease onset and progression in dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25058 pubmed publisher
    ..regulation in the expression of regulatory cytokines (40-fold for IL-10 and TGF?) and mucin genes (15-18 fold for Muc2 and Muc3) concomitant with depletion of goblet cell and adherent mucin...
  43. Chen Y, Chen Y, Liu W, Zhou T, Cai J, Du Q, et al. Therapeutic effects of rectal administration of muscovite on experimental colitis in rats. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;24:912-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), mucin2 (MUC2) and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) in the colonic tissues was assessed by semiquantitative reverse transcription ..
  44. Shigeshiro M, Tanabe S, Suzuki T. Repeated exposure to water immersion stress reduces the Muc2 gene level in the rat colon via two distinct mechanisms. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26:1061-5 pubmed publisher
    The mucin family plays a number of important roles in intestinal homeostasis. Among its members, the gel-forming Muc2, produced in goblet cells, is a major component of mucus and contributes to intestinal barrier integrity...
  45. Hino S, Sonoyama K, Bito H, Kawagishi H, Aoe S, Morita T. Low-methoxyl pectin stimulates small intestinal mucin secretion irrespective of goblet cell proliferation and is characterized by jejunum Muc2 upregulation in rats. J Nutr. 2013;143:34-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The KMH and LPC groups, but not the HPC group, had greater luminal mucin than the control group, whereas jejunum Muc2 expression was higher only in the LPC group...
  46. Ikeda H, Sasaki M, Ishikawa A, Sato Y, Harada K, Zen Y, et al. Interaction of Toll-like receptors with bacterial components induces expression of CDX2 and MUC2 in rat biliary epithelium in vivo and in culture. Lab Invest. 2007;87:559-71 pubmed
    ..CDX2, an intestine-specific transcription factor, is thought to regulate intestinal mucin MUC2 (mucus core protein) expression...
  47. Caballero Franco C, Keller K, De Simone C, Chadee K. The VSL#3 probiotic formula induces mucin gene expression and secretion in colonic epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;292:G315-22 pubmed
    ..rat colonic loops to the VSL#3 probiotic formula, which significantly stimulated colonic mucin (MUC) secretion and MUC2 gene expression; however, MUC1 and MUC3 gene expression were only slightly elevated...
  48. Fança Berthon P, Michel C, Pagniez A, Rival M, Van Seuningen I, Darmaun D, et al. Intrauterine growth restriction alters postnatal colonic barrier maturation in rats. Pediatr Res. 2009;66:47-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Before weaning, mucin 2 and Tff3 protein levels were reduced in colonic mucosa of rats with IUGR compared with controls...