Gene Symbol: Mstn
Description: myostatin
Alias: Gdf8, growth/differentiation factor 8, GDF-8
Species: rat
Products:     Mstn

Top Publications

  1. McPherron A, Lee S. Double muscling in cattle due to mutations in the myostatin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:12457-61 pubmed
  2. Sun D, Chen Y, Rabkin R. Work-induced changes in skeletal muscle IGF-1 and myostatin gene expression in uremia. Kidney Int. 2006;70:453-9 pubmed
  3. Lee S, McPherron A. Regulation of myostatin activity and muscle growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9306-11 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that the propeptide, follistatin, or other molecules that block signaling through this pathway may be useful agents for enhancing muscle growth for both human therapeutic and agricultural applications. ..
  4. McPherron A, Lee S. Suppression of body fat accumulation in myostatin-deficient mice. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:595-601 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking the myostatin gene (Mstn) have a widespread increase in skeletal muscle mass resulting from a combination of muscle fiber hypertrophy and ..
  5. Yamaguchi A, Fujikawa T, Shimada S, Kanbayashi I, Tateoka M, Soya H, et al. Muscle IGF-I Ea, MGF, and myostatin mRNA expressions after compensatory overload in hypophysectomized rats. Pflugers Arch. 2006;453:203-10 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the expression of IGF-I Ea, MGF, and myostatin mRNAs due to compensatory overload would be associated in a growth-hormone-independent manner. ..
  6. Trendelenburg A, Meyer A, Rohner D, Boyle J, Hatakeyama S, Glass D. Myostatin reduces Akt/TORC1/p70S6K signaling, inhibiting myoblast differentiation and myotube size. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C1258-70 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; In vivo, inhibition of myostatin increases muscle creatine kinase activity, coincident with an increase in muscle size, demonstrating that this in vitro differentiation measure is also upregulated in vivo. ..
  7. Hill J, Qiu Y, Hewick R, Wolfman N. Regulation of myostatin in vivo by growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein-1: a novel protein with protease inhibitor and follistatin domains. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:1144-54 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, recombinant GASP-1 binds directly not only to mature myostatin, but also to the myostatin propeptide. Thus, GASP-1 represents a novel class of inhibitory TGFbeta binding proteins. ..
  8. Cash J, Rejon C, McPherron A, Bernard D, Thompson T. The structure of myostatin:follistatin 288: insights into receptor utilization and heparin binding. EMBO J. 2009;28:2662-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we have identified several characteristics unique to myostatin that will be paramount to the rational design of myostatin inhibitors that could be used in the treatment of muscle-wasting disorders. ..
  9. Zhao B, Wall R, Yang J. Transgenic expression of myostatin propeptide prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;337:248-55 pubmed
    ..An increased secretion of adiponectin may promote energy partition toward skeletal muscles, suggesting that a beneficial interaction between muscle and adipose tissue play a role in preventing obesity and insulin resistance. ..

More Information


  1. Lee S. Genetic analysis of the role of proteolysis in the activation of latent myostatin. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e1628 pubmed publisher
  2. Schuelke M, Wagner K, Stolz L, Hübner C, Riebel T, Kömen W, et al. Myostatin mutation associated with gross muscle hypertrophy in a child. N Engl J Med. 2004;350:2682-8 pubmed
  3. Ma K, Mallidis C, Bhasin S, Mahabadi V, Artaza J, Gonzalez Cadavid N, et al. Glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with upregulation of myostatin gene expression. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2003;285:E363-71 pubmed
    ..We propose that dexamethasone-induced muscle loss is mediated, at least in part, by the upregulation of myostatin expression through a glucocorticoid receptor-mediated pathway. ..
  4. McPherron A, Lawler A, Lee S. Regulation of skeletal muscle mass in mice by a new TGF-beta superfamily member. Nature. 1997;387:83-90 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that GDF-8 functions specifically as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. ..
  5. Lima S, Caierão Q, Peviani S, Russo T, Somazz M, Salvini T, et al. Muscle and nerve responses after different intervals of electrical stimulation sessions on denervated rat muscle. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2009;88:126-35 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the responses of both muscle and nerve to electrical stimulation after muscle denervation depend on the intervals of electrical stimulation application. ..
  6. Damatto R, Lima A, Martinez P, Cezar M, Okoshi K, Okoshi M. Myocardial myostatin in spontaneously hypertensive rats with heart failure. Int J Cardiol. 2016;215:384-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Myostatin and follistatin protein expression is reduced in the long-term hypertrophied myocardium from spontaneously hypertensive rats with heart failure. ..
  7. Smith I, Aversa Z, Alamdari N, Petkova V, Hasselgren P. Sepsis downregulates myostatin mRNA levels without altering myostatin protein levels in skeletal muscle. J Cell Biochem. 2010;111:1059-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of myostatin may vary between different conditions characterized by muscle wasting. Downstream signaling through Smad2 and 3 is probably regulated not only by myostatin but by other mechanisms as well. ..
  8. Gruson D, Ginion A, Lause P, Ketelslegers J, Thissen J, Bertrand L. Urotensin II and urocortin trigger the expression of myostatin, a negative regulator of cardiac growth, in cardiomyocytes. Peptides. 2012;33:351-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study investigated the effects of UII and UCN on the expression of myostatin (Mstn) in primary culture of adult cardiomyocytes. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were stimulated for 48 h with UII and UCN...
  9. Rodgers B, Interlichia J, Garikipati D, Mamidi R, Chandra M, Nelson O, et al. Myostatin represses physiological hypertrophy of the heart and excitation-contraction coupling. J Physiol. 2009;587:4873-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the controlled inhibition of myostatin action could potentially help repair damaged cardiac muscle by inducing physiological hypertrophy. ..
  10. Salehian B, Mahabadi V, Bilas J, Taylor W, Ma K. The effect of glutamine on prevention of glucocorticoid-induced skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with myostatin suppression. Metabolism. 2006;55:1239-47 pubmed
    ..Administration of glutamine partially prevents GC-induced myostatin expression and muscle atrophy, providing a potential mechanism for the prevention of muscle atrophy induced by glucocorticoids. ..
  11. Ciarmela P, Wiater E, Smith S, Vale W. Presence, actions, and regulation of myostatin in rat uterus and myometrial cells. Endocrinology. 2009;150:906-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, myometrial cells are myostatin sensitive, myostatin mRNA levels are modulated in vivo in rats during the estrous cycle, and in response to steroid deprivation and replacement. ..
  12. Lang C, Frost R, Svanberg E, Vary T. IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ameliorates alterations in protein synthesis, eIF4E availability, and myostatin in alcohol-fed rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286:E916-26 pubmed
    ..The data support the role of IGF-I as a mediator of chronic alcohol myopathy in rats. ..
  13. Magee T, Artaza J, Ferrini M, Vernet D, Zuniga F, Cantini L, et al. Myostatin short interfering hairpin RNA gene transfer increases skeletal muscle mass. J Gene Med. 2006;8:1171-81 pubmed
    ..Satellite cell number was increased by over 2-fold. This is the first demonstration that myostatin shRNA gene transfer is a potential strategy to increase muscle mass. ..
  14. Valdés J, Flores S, Fuentes E, Osorio Fuentealba C, Jaimovich E, Molina A. IGF-1 induces IP3 -dependent calcium signal involved in the regulation of myostatin gene expression mediated by NFAT during myoblast differentiation. J Cell Physiol. 2013;228:1452-63 pubmed publisher
    ..coordinated by positive and negative signals such as the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and myostatin (MSTN), respectively...
  15. Lima A, Martinez P, Okoshi K, Guizoni D, Zornoff L, Campos D, et al. Myostatin and follistatin expression in skeletal muscles of rats with chronic heart failure. Int J Exp Pathol. 2010;91:54-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data show that during chronic heart failure, decreased skeletal muscle trophism is combined with unchanged myostatin and reduced follistatin expression. ..
  16. Holzbaur E, Howland D, Weber N, Wallace K, She Y, Kwak S, et al. Myostatin inhibition slows muscle atrophy in rodent models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurobiol Dis. 2006;23:697-707 pubmed
  17. Wu R, Wang P, Yang L, Li Y, Liu Y, Liu M. A potential indicator of denervated muscle atrophy: the ratio of myostatin to follistatin in peripheral blood. Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:3914-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The ratio of follistatin/myostatin could be used to monitor the progress of target muscle atrophy and recovery. Our study provides a potential serological test to detect denervated muscle atrophy for clinical purposes. ..
  18. Matsakas A, Friedel A, Hertrampf T, Diel P. Short-term endurance training results in a muscle-specific decrease of myostatin mRNA content in the rat. Acta Physiol Scand. 2005;183:299-307 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrated that short-term endurance training may modulate myostatin mRNA levels, implying a probable role of myostatin in remodelling of skeletal muscle in response to training. ..
  19. Augustin H, McGourty K, Steinert J, Cochemé H, Adcott J, Cabecinha M, et al. Myostatin-like proteins regulate synaptic function and neuronal morphology. Development. 2017;144:2445-2455 pubmed publisher
    Growth factors of the TGFβ superfamily play key roles in regulating neuronal and muscle function. Myostatin (or GDF8) and GDF11 are potent negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass...
  20. Babcock L, Knoblauch M, Clarke M. The role of myostatin and activin receptor IIB in the regulation of unloading-induced myofiber type-specific skeletal muscle atrophy. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2015;119:633-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that differential expression of actRIIB may be responsible for myostatin-induced myofiber type-selective atrophy observed during chronic unloading. ..
  21. Lenk K, Schur R, Linke A, Erbs S, Matsumoto Y, Adams V, et al. Impact of exercise training on myostatin expression in the myocardium and skeletal muscle in a chronic heart failure model. Eur J Heart Fail. 2009;11:342-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These alterations in myostatin expression in the skeletal and heart muscle following exercise training could help to explain the beneficial anti-catabolic effects of exercise training in CHF. ..
  22. Mendias C, Lynch E, Gumucio J, Flood M, Rittman D, Van Pelt D, et al. Changes in skeletal muscle and tendon structure and function following genetic inactivation of myostatin in rats. J Physiol. 2015;593:2037-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that, in comparison to wild-type (MSTN(+/+) ) rats, rats in which zinc finger nucleases were used to genetically inactivate myostatin (MSTN(Δ/Δ) ) ..
  23. Hosoyama T, Tachi C, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Long term adrenal insufficiency induces skeletal muscle atrophy and increases the serum levels of active form myostatin in rat serum. Zoolog Sci. 2005;22:229-36 pubmed
  24. Durieux A, Amirouche A, Banzet S, Koulmann N, Bonnefoy R, Pasdeloup M, et al. Ectopic expression of myostatin induces atrophy of adult skeletal muscle by decreasing muscle gene expression. Endocrinology. 2007;148:3140-7 pubmed
    ..Our observations support an important role for myostatin in muscle atrophy in physiological and physiopathological situations where myostatin expression is induced. ..
  25. Amirouche A, Durieux A, Banzet S, Koulmann N, Bonnefoy R, Mouret C, et al. Down-regulation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway in response to myostatin overexpression in skeletal muscle. Endocrinology. 2009;150:286-94 pubmed publisher
  26. Rigamonti A, Locatelli L, Cella S, Bonomo S, Giunta M, Molinari F, et al. Muscle expressions of MGF, IGF-IEa, and myostatin in intact and hypophysectomized rats: effects of rhGH and testosterone alone or combined. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:23-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, rhGH and/or testosterone anabolic effects in the muscle are mediated by a different expression of MGF/IGF-IEa/myostatin, which is related to the pituitary function. ..
  27. Russo T, Peviani S, Durigan J, Gigo Benato D, Delfino G, Salvini T. Stretching and electrical stimulation reduce the accumulation of MyoD, myostatin and atrogin-1 in denervated rat skeletal muscle. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2010;31:45-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, although ES, St and ES + St changed gene expression, they were insufficient to avoid muscle fibre atrophy due to denervation. ..
  28. Carneiro I, González T, Lopez M, Señarís R, Devesa J, Arce V. Myostatin expression is regulated by underfeeding and neonatal programming in rats. J Physiol Biochem. 2013;69:15-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data suggest that myostatin gene expression is programmed by nutritional status in neonatal life. ..
  29. Proserpio V, Fittipaldi R, Ryall J, Sartorelli V, Caretti G. The methyltransferase SMYD3 mediates the recruitment of transcriptional cofactors at the myostatin and c-Met genes and regulates skeletal muscle atrophy. Genes Dev. 2013;27:1299-312 pubmed publisher
  30. Szláma G, Trexler M, Patthy L. Latent myostatin has significant activity and this activity is controlled more efficiently by WFIKKN1 than by WFIKKN2. FEBS J. 2013;280:3822-39 pubmed publisher
  31. Kesik V, Honca T, Gulgun M, Uysal B, Kurt Y, Cayci T, et al. Myostatin as a Marker for Doxorubicin Induced Cardiac Damage. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2016;46:26-31 pubmed
    ..Myostatin, NT-proBNP, and hs-TnT but not CK rose significantly during DXR treatment. Myostatin can be used as an early marker of DXR induced cardiotoxicity. ..
  32. Gao C, Xiong W, Li Y. The myofibrosis mechanism of differentiation growth factor-8 on rat abdominal aorta grafts. Transplant Proc. 2007;39:3420-3 pubmed
    ..Prolonged cold ischemia accelerated grafts myofibrosis by down-regulating the expression of GDF-8, which plays a key role in the myofibrosis process of rat abdominal aortic grafts. ..
  33. Carneiro I, Castro Piedras I, Munoz A, Labandeira Garcia J, Devesa J, Arce V. Hypothyroidism is associated with increased myostatin expression in rats. J Endocrinol Invest. 2008;31:773-8 pubmed
    ..In all, our findings demonstrate that myostatin expression is increased in hypothyroid rats, thus supporting a possible role for this factor in the pathogenesis of the muscle loss that may occur in hypothyroidism. ..
  34. Tsai W, McCormick K, Brazeau D, Brazeau G. Estrogen effects on skeletal muscle insulin-like growth factor 1 and myostatin in ovariectomized rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232:1314-25 pubmed
    ..Increased levels of muscle myostatin protein may also have a role in mediating estrogen's effects on growth in slow but not fast skeletal muscle. ..
  35. Nishimura T, Oyama K, Kishioka Y, Wakamatsu J, Hattori A. Spatiotemporal expression of decorin and myostatin during rat skeletal muscle development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;361:896-902 pubmed
    ..Taken together with our previous data, these results suggest that decorin binds myostatin and sequesters it in the ECM during the development of rat skeletal. ..
  36. Lalani R, Bhasin S, Byhower F, Tarnuzzer R, Grant M, Shen R, et al. Myostatin and insulin-like growth factor-I and -II expression in the muscle of rats exposed to the microgravity environment of the NeuroLab space shuttle flight. J Endocrinol. 2000;167:417-28 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that reciprocal changes in the expression of myostatin and IGF-II may contribute to the multifactorial pathophysiology of muscle atrophy that occurs during spaceflight. ..
  37. Ochi E, Hirose T, Hiranuma K, Min S, Ishii N, Nakazato K. Elevation of myostatin and FOXOs in prolonged muscular impairment induced by eccentric contractions in rat medial gastrocnemius muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;108:306-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that EC intensity plays a key role in impairment of muscular function and activation of protein synthesis and/or protein degradation signaling pathways. ..
  38. Cantini L, Ferrini M, Vernet D, Magee T, Qian A, Gelfand R, et al. Profibrotic role of myostatin in Peyronie's disease. J Sex Med. 2008;5:1607-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Although myostatin induces a plaque in the rat TA, it does not appear to mediate the one triggered by TGFbeta1, thus suggesting that both proteins act concurrently and that therapy should target their common downstream effectors. ..
  39. Mendler L, Zador E, Ver Heyen M, Dux L, Wuytack F. Myostatin levels in regenerating rat muscles and in myogenic cell cultures. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2000;21:551-63 pubmed
    ..Myostatin production in vitro seems not to be dependent on myocyte fusion either, since it is observed in differentiated BC3H1 cells, which are defective in myofiber formation. ..
  40. Lee K, Ochi E, Song H, Nakazato K. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase induce expression of FoxO1, FoxO3a, and myostatin after exercise-induced muscle damage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;466:289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that activation of AMPK plays a key role in increasing the level of FoxO1, FoxO3a, and myostatin in gastrocnemius after EIMD. ..
  41. Faturi F, Franco R, Gigo Benato D, Turi A, Silva Couto M, Messa S, et al. Intermittent stretching induces fibrosis in denervated rat muscle. Muscle Nerve. 2016;53:118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Stretching denervated muscle does not prevent atrophy, but it increases fibrosis via temporal modulation of TGF-β1/myostatin and MMP-9 cascades. ..
  42. Mackenzie M, Hamilton D, Pepin M, Patton A, Baar K. Inhibition of myostatin signaling through Notch activation following acute resistance exercise. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68743 pubmed publisher
  43. Dutra D, Bueno P, Silva R, Nakahara N, Selistre Araújo H, Nonaka K, et al. Expression of myostatin, myostatin receptors and follistatin in diabetic rats submitted to exercise. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2012;39:417-22 pubmed publisher
    Myostatin (MSTN) has been implicated in metabolic adaptation to physiological stimuli, such as physical exercise, which is linked to improved glucose homeostasis...
  44. Yamada M, Tatsumi R, Yamanouchi K, Hosoyama T, Shiratsuchi S, Sato A, et al. High concentrations of HGF inhibit skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation in vitro by inducing expression of myostatin: a possible mechanism for reestablishing satellite cell quiescence in vivo. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C465-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This time lag may delay action of the quiescence signaling program in proliferating satellite cells during initial phases of muscle regeneration followed by induction of quiescence in a subset of cells during later phases...
  45. Diel P, Schiffer T, Geisler S, Hertrampf T, Mosler S, Schulz S, et al. Analysis of the effects of androgens and training on myostatin propeptide and follistatin concentrations in blood and skeletal muscle using highly sensitive immuno PCR. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;330:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary our data demonstrate that moderate training does not affect the concentrations of MYOPRO to FOLLI. In contrast androgen treatment results in a significant increase of MYOPRO in skeletal muscle and serum. ..
  46. Retamales A, Zuloaga R, Valenzuela C, Gallardo Escárate C, Molina A, Valdés J. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;464:596-602 pubmed publisher
    ..This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1)...
  47. Walker R, Czepnik M, Goebel E, McCoy J, Vujic A, Cho M, et al. Structural basis for potency differences between GDF8 and GDF11. BMC Biol. 2017;15:19 pubmed publisher
    Growth/differentiation factor 8 (GDF8) and GDF11 are two highly similar members of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) family...
  48. Rossi S, Stoppani E, Gobbo M, Caroli A, Fanzani A. L6E9 myoblasts are deficient of myostatin and additional TGF-beta members are candidates to developmentally control their fiber formation. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:326909 pubmed publisher
  49. Rebbapragada A, Benchabane H, Wrana J, Celeste A, Attisano L. Myostatin signals through a transforming growth factor beta-like signaling pathway to block adipogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7230-42 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results reveal a strikingly specific antagonism of BMP7-mediated processes by myostatin and suggest that myostatin is an important regulator of adipogenesis. ..
  50. Kawada S, Ishii N. Peripheral venous occlusion causing cardiac hypertrophy and changes in biological parameters in rats. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;105:909-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that peripheral occlusion alone causes cardiac hypertrophy associated with changes in biological parameters. ..
  51. Delfino G, Peviani S, Durigan J, Russo T, Baptista I, Ferretti M, et al. Quadriceps muscle atrophy after anterior cruciate ligament transection involves increased mRNA levels of atrogin-1, muscle ring finger 1, and myostatin. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;92:411-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Quadriceps atrophy after ACL transection involves increased levels of myostatin, atrogin-1, and muscle ring finger 1 mRNA and the accumulation of ubiquitinated protein. ..
  52. Padrão A, Moreira Gonçalves D, Oliveira P, Teixeira C, Faustino Rocha A, Helguero L, et al. Endurance training prevents TWEAK but not myostatin-mediated cardiac remodelling in cancer cachexia. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2015;567:13-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies focused on the cellular pathways underlying cardiac remodelling will assist in the development of exercise programs targeting cancer-related cardiac alterations. ..
  53. Lang C, Silvis C, Nystrom G, Frost R. Regulation of myostatin by glucocorticoids after thermal injury. FASEB J. 2001;15:1807-9 pubmed
  54. Geng J, Peng F, Xiong F, Shang Y, Zhao C, Li W, et al. Inhibition of myostatin promotes myogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. Cytotherapy. 2009;11:849-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus MSC treatment for DMD is restricted. Myostatin (Mstn), a negative regulator of myogenesis, is known to be responsible for limiting skeletal muscle regeneration...
  55. Costelli P, Muscaritoli M, Bonetto A, Penna F, Reffo P, Bossola M, et al. Muscle myostatin signalling is enhanced in experimental cancer cachexia. Eur J Clin Invest. 2008;38:531-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that myostatin pathway should be regarded as a potential therapeutic target in cancer cachexia. ..
  56. Peiris H, Ponnampalam A, Osepchook C, Mitchell M, Green M. Placental expression of myostatin and follistatin-like-3 protein in a model of developmental programming. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E854-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Myostatin, through the disruption of maternal nutrient supply to the fetus, may thus be a potential mediator of offspring phenotype. ..
  57. Gu H, Cao Y, Qiu B, Zhou Z, Deng R, Chen Z, et al. Establishment and phenotypic analysis of an Mstn knockout rat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;477:115-22 pubmed publisher
    Myostatin (Mstn) is an inhibitor of myogenesis, regulating the number and size of skeletal myocytes. In addition to its myogenic regulatory function, Mstn plays important roles in the development of adipose tissues and in metabolism...
  58. Zhang D, Liu M, Ding F, Gu X. Expression of myostatin RNA transcript and protein in gastrocnemius muscle of rats after sciatic nerve resection. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2006;27:37-44 pubmed
    ..Our present study perhaps provides a new window into myostatin regulation in association with a specific type of muscle atrophy. ..
  59. Apgar J, Mader M, Agostinelli R, Benard S, Bialek P, Johnson M, et al. Beyond CDR-grafting: Structure-guided humanization of framework and CDR regions of an anti-myostatin antibody. MAbs. 2016;8:1302-1318 pubmed
    ..The overall "humanness" was increased for both the light and heavy chain variable regions. ..
  60. Baumann A, Ibebunjo C, Grasser W, Paralkar V. Myostatin expression in age and denervation-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2003;3:8-16 pubmed
    ..These disparate patterns of expression of myostatin during age- and denervation-induced atrophy suggest that the regulation of myostatin is complex and variable depending on whether the atrophy is slowly or rapidly progressive. ..
  61. Bueno P, Bassi D, Contrera D, Carnielli H, Silva R, Nonaka K, et al. Post-exercise changes in myostatin and actRIIB expression in obese insulin-resistant rats. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;339:159-64 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the expression of MSTN and ActRIIB mRNA in muscle and adipose tissue in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in rats subjected to exercise...
  62. Shyu K, Lu M, Wang B, Sun H, Chang H. Myostatin expression in ventricular myocardium in a rat model of volume-overload heart failure. Eur J Clin Invest. 2006;36:713-9 pubmed
    ..Treatment with carvedilol is associated with a limitation of increased myostatin expression in the failing ventricular myocardium. ..
  63. Matsakas A, Bozzo C, Cacciani N, Caliaro F, Reggiani C, Mascarello F, et al. Effect of swimming on myostatin expression in white and red gastrocnemius muscle and in cardiac muscle of rats. Exp Physiol. 2006;91:983-94 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the results obtained showed that intense training caused a decreased expression of myostatin mRNA in white and red skeletal muscles but an increase in cardiac muscle. ..
  64. Hosoyama T, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. Role of serum myostatin during the lactation period. J Reprod Dev. 2006;52:469-78 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that myostatin in serum acts on skeletal muscle and negatively regulates early postnatal muscle growth. ..
  65. Abo T, Iida R, Kaneko S, Suga T, Yamada H, Hamada Y, et al. IGF and myostatin pathways are respectively induced during the earlier and the later stages of skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by clenbuterol, a ??-adrenergic agonist. Cell Biochem Funct. 2012;30:671-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that myostatin functions as a negative regulator in the later stages in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol, whereas IGF works as a positive regulator in the earlier stages. ..
  66. Damatto R, Martinez P, Lima A, Cezar M, Campos D, Oliveira Junior S, et al. Heart failure-induced skeletal myopathy in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Int J Cardiol. 2013;167:698-703 pubmed publisher
  67. Hayot M, Rodriguez J, Vernus B, Carnac G, Jean E, Allen D, et al. Myostatin up-regulation is associated with the skeletal muscle response to hypoxic stimuli. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;332:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that myostatin can play an essential role in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to hypoxic environment. ..
  68. Dasarathy S, Dodig M, Muc S, Kalhan S, McCullough A. Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with an increased expression of myostatin and impaired satellite cell function in the portacaval anastamosis rat. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2004;287:G1124-30 pubmed
    ..05). These data suggest that skeletal muscle atrophy seen in the portacaval shunted rats is a consequence of impaired satellite cell proliferation and differentiation mediated, in part, by higher myostatin and lower IGF1 expression. ..