Gene Symbol: Msh2
Description: mutS homolog 2
Alias: DNA mismatch repair protein Msh2, mismatch repair protein, mutS protein homolog 2
Species: rat
Products:     Msh2

Top Publications

  1. Cranston A, Bocker T, Reitmair A, Palazzo J, Wilson T, Mak T, et al. Female embryonic lethality in mice nullizygous for both Msh2 and p53. Nat Genet. 1997;17:114-8 pubmed
    ..p53 is mutated frequently in a wide range of human cancers, including colonic tumours. Both Msh2- and p53-targeted knockout mice are viable and susceptible to cancer...
  2. Rada C, Di Noia J, Neuberger M. Mismatch recognition and uracil excision provide complementary paths to both Ig switching and the A/T-focused phase of somatic mutation. Mol Cell. 2004;16:163-71 pubmed, thus, recognized by proteins from both base excision (uracil-DNA glycosylase, UNG) and mismatch recognition (MSH2/MSH6) pathways...
  3. Min I, Schrader C, Vardo J, Luby T, D Avirro N, Stavnezer J, et al. The Smu tandem repeat region is critical for Ig isotype switching in the absence of Msh2. Immunity. 2003;19:515-24 pubmed
    Deficiencies of the Msh2 protein or the Smu tandem repeat (SmuTR) sequences each reduce isotype switching in mice by about 2- to 3-fold. We find that switching in mice deficient for both Msh2 and SmuTR is nearly ablated...
  4. Wheeler V, Lebel L, Vrbanac V, Teed A, te Riele H, MacDonald M. Mismatch repair gene Msh2 modifies the timing of early disease in Hdh(Q111) striatum. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:273-81 pubmed
    ..Here in Hdh(Q111) mice, we have tested whether a genetic background deficient in Msh2, expected to eliminate the unstable behavior of the 109 CAG array inserted into the murine HD gene, would alter the ..
  5. Rasmussen L, Rasmussen M, Lee B, Rasmussen A, Wilson D, Nielsen F, et al. Identification of factors interacting with hMSH2 in the fetal liver utilizing the yeast two-hybrid system. In vivo interaction through the C-terminal domains of hEXO1 and hMSH2 and comparative expression analysis. Mutat Res. 2000;460:41-52 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis also revealed that hEXO1/HEX1 is highly expressed in several liver cancer cell lines as well as in colon and pancreas adenocarcinomas, but not in the corresponding non-neoplastic tissue. ..
  6. Schrader C, Edelmann W, Kucherlapati R, Stavnezer J. Reduced isotype switching in splenic B cells from mice deficient in mismatch repair enzymes. J Exp Med. 1999;190:323-30 pubmed
    ..Splenic B cells from mice deficient in Msh2, Mlh1, Pms2, or Mlh1 and Pms2 were stimulated in culture with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce immunoglobulin (Ig)..
  7. Rada C, Ehrenstein M, Neuberger M, Milstein C. Hot spot focusing of somatic hypermutation in MSH2-deficient mice suggests two stages of mutational targeting. Immunity. 1998;9:135-41 pubmed
    ..Analysis of unselected mutations in the 3' flank of VH rearrangements in germinal center B cells revealed that MSH2 deficiency caused a 5-fold reduced mutation accumulation...
  8. de Wind N, Dekker M, Berns A, Radman M, te Riele H. Inactivation of the mouse Msh2 gene results in mismatch repair deficiency, methylation tolerance, hyperrecombination, and predisposition to cancer. Cell. 1995;82:321-30 pubmed
    To investigate the role of the presumed DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene Msh2 in genome stability and tumorigenesis, we have generated cells and mice that are deficient for the gene...
  9. Lin D, Wang Y, Scherer S, Clark A, Yang K, Avdievich E, et al. An Msh2 point mutation uncouples DNA mismatch repair and apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2004;64:517-22 pubmed
    Mutations in the human DNA mismatch repair gene MSH2 are associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer as well as a significant proportion of sporadic colorectal cancer...

More Information


  1. Smits R, Hofland N, Edelmann W, Geugien M, Jagmohan Changur S, Albuquerque C, et al. Somatic Apc mutations are selected upon their capacity to inactivate the beta-catenin downregulating activity. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000;29:229-39 pubmed
    ..Here, a Msh2-deficient mouse model (Msh2(delta 7N) ) was generated and bred with Apc(1638N) and Apc(Min) that allowed the ..
  2. de Wind N, Dekker M, Claij N, Jansen L, van Klink Y, Radman M, et al. HNPCC-like cancer predisposition in mice through simultaneous loss of Msh3 and Msh6 mismatch-repair protein functions. Nat Genet. 1999;23:359-62 pubmed attributed to two heterodimeric protein complexes: MutSalpha (refs 2, 3, 4, 5), a dimer of MutS homologues MSH2 and MSH6; and MutSbeta (refs 2,7), a dimer of MSH2 and MSH3...
  3. Jacobs H, Fukita Y, van der Horst G, de Boer J, Weeda G, Essers J, et al. Hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes in memory B cells of DNA repair-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1735-43 pubmed
    ..pigmentosum complementation group (XP)A and XPD, Cockayne syndrome complementation group B (CSB), mutS homologue 2 (MSH2), radiation sensitivity 54 (RAD54), poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and 3-alkyladenine DNA-glycosylase (AAG)...
  4. Reitmair A, Redston M, Cai J, Chuang T, Bjerknes M, Cheng H, et al. Spontaneous intestinal carcinomas and skin neoplasms in Msh2-deficient mice. Cancer Res. 1996;56:3842-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we characterize tumor susceptibility of the recently described Msh2-deficient mouse model...
  5. Phung Q, Winter D, Cranston A, Tarone R, Bohr V, Fishel R, et al. Increased hypermutation at G and C nucleotides in immunoglobulin variable genes from mice deficient in the MSH2 mismatch repair protein. J Exp Med. 1998;187:1745-51 pubmed
    ..To examine the role of the MSH2 mismatch repair protein in hypermutation, Msh2-/- mice were immunized with oxazolone, and B cells were analyzed for mutation in ..
  6. Frey S, Bertocci B, Delbos F, Quint L, Weill J, Reynaud C. Mismatch repair deficiency interferes with the accumulation of mutations in chronically stimulated B cells and not with the hypermutation process. Immunity. 1998;9:127-34 pubmed
    ..Paradoxically, whereas primary responses were found normal in MSH2- and only slightly diminished in PMS2-deficient mice, mutations in Peyer's patch B cells from both k.o...
  7. Reitmair A, Schmits R, Ewel A, Bapat B, Redston M, Mitri A, et al. MSH2 deficient mice are viable and susceptible to lymphoid tumours. Nat Genet. 1995;11:64-70 pubmed
    Alterations of the human MSH2 gene, a homologue of the bacterial MutS mismatch repair gene, co-segregate with the majority of hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) cases. We have generated homozygous MSH2-/- mice...
  8. Manley K, Shirley T, Flaherty L, Messer A. Msh2 deficiency prevents in vivo somatic instability of the CAG repeat in Huntington disease transgenic mice. Nat Genet. 1999;23:471-3 pubmed
    ..Because dinucleotide repeat instability is known to increase when the mismatch repair enzyme MSH2 is missing, we examined instability of the HD CAG repeat by crossing transgenic mice carrying exon 1 of human HD (..
  9. Schrader C, Vardo J, Stavnezer J. Mlh1 can function in antibody class switch recombination independently of Msh2. J Exp Med. 2003;197:1377-83 pubmed
    ..Previous nucleotide sequence analyses of switch recombination junctions indicated that the roles of Msh2 and the MutL homologues, Mlh1 and Pms2, differ...
  10. Schrader C, Vardo J, Stavnezer J. Role for mismatch repair proteins Msh2, Mlh1, and Pms2 in immunoglobulin class switching shown by sequence analysis of recombination junctions. J Exp Med. 2002;195:367-73 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate clear differences in the sequences of switch junctions in wild-type B cells in comparison with Msh2-, Mlh1-, and Pms2-deficient B cells...
  11. Acharya S, Wilson T, Gradia S, Kane M, Guerrette S, Marsischky G, et al. hMSH2 forms specific mispair-binding complexes with hMSH3 and hMSH6. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:13629-34 pubmed
    ..both hMSH3 and hMSH6 proteins, similar to protein complexes demonstrated by studies of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH2, MSH3, and MSH6...
  12. Kolas N, Svetlanov A, Lenzi M, Macaluso F, Lipkin S, Liskay R, et al. Localization of MMR proteins on meiotic chromosomes in mice indicates distinct functions during prophase I. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:447-58 pubmed
    ..Both functions are initiated by a heterodimer of MutS homologues specific to either MMR (MSH2-MSH3 or MSH2-MSH6) or crossing over (MSH4-MSH5)...
  13. Vora K, Tumas Brundage K, Lentz V, Cranston A, Fishel R, Manser T. Severe attenuation of the B cell immune response in Msh2-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1999;189:471-82 pubmed
    ..Here we show that mice that do not express the MMR factor Msh2 have wide-ranging defects in antigen-driven B cell responses...
  14. Lan L, Hayashi T, Rabeya R, Nakajima S, Kanno S, Takao M, et al. Functional and physical interactions between ERCC1 and MSH2 complexes for resistance to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) in mammalian cells. DNA Repair (Amst). 2004;3:135-43 pubmed mouse cells defective in Xpa as well but not in cells defective both in Xpa and the mismatch repair gene Msh2. These data suggest that ERCC1 and MSH2 are involved co-operatively in CDDP resistance in mammalian cells...
  15. Kwasniewska A, Postawski K, Gozdzicka Jozefiak A, Zdunek M, Korobowicz E, Miturski R. Immunohistochemical detection of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins in vulvar carcinoma. Int J Mol Med. 2005;15:955-61 pubmed
    ..The results of many studies demonstrate the usefulness of IHC tests with monoclonal antibodies MSH2 and MLH1 in screening the microsatellite sequence instability within both spontaneous and hereditary malignant ..
  16. Mongiat Artus P, Miquel C, van der Aa M, Buhard O, Hamelin R, Soliman H, et al. Microsatellite instability and mutation analysis of candidate genes in urothelial cell carcinomas of upper urinary tract. Oncogene. 2006;25:2113-8 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemistry (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6) showed that loss of mismatch repair protein expression occurred in all MSI UUC defining the gene defect and that MRE11 and RAD50 mutations were ..
  17. Ciavattini A, Piccioni M, Tranquilli A, Filosa A, Pieramici T, Goteri G. Immunohistochemical expression of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system proteins (hMLH1, hMSH2) in cervical preinvasive and invasive lesions. Pathol Res Pract. 2005;201:21-5 pubmed
    ..0001). Preinvasive lesions showed increased expression of both proteins if compared with normal esocervical epithelium. Neoplastic stromal invasiveness is associated with a significant loss of hMLH1 function. ..
  18. Uberti D, Grilli M, Memo M. Induction of p53 in the glutamate-induced cell death program. Amino Acids. 2000;19:253-61 pubmed
    ..We also found that two other proteins, the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and DNA mismatches repair MSH2, whose encoding genes are well known target of p53, were upregulated by glutamate...
  19. Poplawski T, Zadrozny M, Kolacinska A, Rykala J, Morawiec Z, Blasiak J. Polymorphisms of the DNA mismatch repair gene HMSH2 in breast cancer occurence and progression. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2005;94:199-204 pubmed
    ..39; 95% confidence interval 1.44-48.8) was found. Therefore, MMR may play a role in the breast carcinogenesis and the Gly322Asp polymorphism of the hMSH2 gene may be considered as a potential marker in breast cancer. ..
  20. Velasco A, Riquelme E, Schultz M, Wistuba I, Villarroel L, Koh M, et al. Microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity have distinct prognostic value for testicular germ cell tumor recurrence. Cancer Biol Ther. 2004;3:1152-8; discussion 1159-61 pubmed
    ..molecular markers, we evaluated 118 GCT for microsatellite instability (MSI), loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and MSH2 immunostaining to identify tumors associated with relapse and/or poor outcome following initial surgical, medical ..
  21. Chen H, Ye D, Xie X, Lu W, Zhu C, Chen X. Mismatch repair gene promoter methylation and expression in hydatidiform moles. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2005;272:35-9 pubmed
    ..The protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry...
  22. Sun X, Zheng L, Shen B. Functional alterations of human exonuclease 1 mutants identified in atypical hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. Cancer Res. 2002;62:6026-30 pubmed
    ..The combination of these three point mutations leads to the binding capacity with hMsh2 to nearly zero. Evidence made available in this study sheds light on the pathogenesis of HNPCC, perhaps initiated by an additional MMR gene, hEXO1. ..
  23. Sansom O, Toft N, Winton D, Clarke A. Msh-2 suppresses in vivo mutation in a gene dose and lesion dependent manner. Oncogene. 2001;20:3580-4 pubmed
    Mice deficient for the mismatch repair (MMR) gene Msh2 show accelerated tumourigenesis and a reduced apoptotic response to DNA damage of methylation type...
  24. Ellison A, Lofing J, Bitter G. Functional analysis of human MLH1 and MSH2 missense variants and hybrid human-yeast MLH1 proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hum Mol Genet. 2001;10:1889-900 pubmed
    ..Missense codons previously observed in human genes were introduced at the homologous residue in the yeast MLH1 or MSH2 genes...
  25. Wang Y, Qin J. MSH2 and ATR form a signaling module and regulate two branches of the damage response to DNA methylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15387-92 pubmed
    ..We report that MSH2 (MutS homolog 2) protein interacts with the ATR (ATM- and Rad3-related) kinase to form a signaling module and ..
  26. van Oosten M, Stout G, Backendorf C, Rebel H, de Wind N, Darroudi F, et al. Mismatch repair protein Msh2 contributes to UVB-induced cell cycle arrest in epidermal and cultured mouse keratinocytes. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005;4:81-9 pubmed
    ..The present experiments with Xpc(-/-)Msh2(-/-) mice and derived keratinocytes show that the MMR protein Msh2 indeed plays a role in the generation of the UVB-..
  27. Ghodgaonkar M, Lazzaro F, Olivera Pimentel M, Artola Borán M, Cejka P, Reijns M, et al. Ribonucleotides misincorporated into DNA act as strand-discrimination signals in eukaryotic mismatch repair. Mol Cell. 2013;50:323-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that ribonucleotides misincoporated during DNA replication serve as physiological markers of the nascent DNA strand. ..
  28. Plotz G, Piiper A, Wormek M, Zeuzem S, Raedle J. Analysis of the human MutLalpha.MutSalpha complex. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:852-9 pubmed
    ..The described conditions likely capture an intermediate of the repair reaction which has bound ATP and ADP in the two nucleotide-binding sites of MutSalpha. ..
  29. Min I, Rothlein L, Schrader C, Stavnezer J, Selsing E. Shifts in targeting of class switch recombination sites in mice that lack mu switch region tandem repeats or Msh2. J Exp Med. 2005;201:1885-90 pubmed
    ..Within the 4-5-kb CSR domain, the targeting of S site locations also depends on the Msh2 mismatch repair protein because Msh2-deficient mice show an increased focus of sites to the Smu tandem repeat region...
  30. Belloni M, Uberti D, Rizzini C, Ferrari Toninelli G, Rizzonelli P, Jiricny J, et al. Distribution and kainate-mediated induction of the DNA mismatch repair protein MSH2 in rat brain. Neuroscience. 1999;94:1323-31 pubmed
    ..b>MSH2 is one of the proteins which are involved in the recognition and repair of a specific type of DNA damage that is ..
  31. Nielsen F, Jäger A, Lützen A, Bundgaard J, Rasmussen L. Characterization of human exonuclease 1 in complex with mismatch repair proteins, subcellular localization and association with PCNA. Oncogene. 2004;23:1457-68 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results support a model in which hEXO1 plays a role in events at the replication sites as well as a functional role in the MMR and/or recombination processes. ..
  32. Koster F, Schröer A, Fischer D, Horn A, Diedrich K, Friedrich M. Immunohistochemistry of proteins for DNA mismatch repair in correlation to prognostic factors of mammarian cancer. Oncol Rep. 2007;17:1223-7 pubmed
    ..No correlation was detected between hMLH1 or PMS2 and any of the investigated factors. The expression of hMSH2 seems to be related with predictors of an unfavorable course of disease in breast cancer. ..
  33. Paul C, Povey J, Lawrence N, Selfridge J, Melton D, Saunders P. Deletion of genes implicated in protecting the integrity of male germ cells has differential effects on the incidence of DNA breaks and germ cell loss. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e989 pubmed
    ..We have investigated mice with deletions of ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementing gene 1), MSH2 (MutS homolog 2, involved in mismatch repair pathway), and p53 (tumour suppressor gene implicated in elimination of ..
  34. Jacob S, Praz F. DNA mismatch repair defects: role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Biochimie. 2002;84:27-47 pubmed
    ..This review gives an overview of various aspects of the biochemistry and genetics of the DNA mismah repair system, with particular emphasis in its role in colorectal carcinogenesis. ..
  35. Thiffault I, Hamel N, Pal T, McVety S, Marcus V, Farber D, et al. Germline truncating mutations in both MSH2 and BRCA2 in a single kindred. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:483-91 pubmed
    ..mutation analysis by protein truncation test, cDNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR revealed a deletion of MSH2 exon 8 in III: 25, confirming her as a double heterozygote for truncating mutations in both BRCA2 and MSH2...
  36. Marietta C, Palombo F, Gallinari P, Jiricny J, Brooks P. Expression of long-patch and short-patch DNA mismatch repair proteins in the embryonic and adult mammalian brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1998;53:317-20 pubmed
    ..Rat homologues of human GTBP and MSH2, which are essential components of the post-replicative DNA MMR system, were identified in nuclear extracts from ..
  37. Harrouk W, Codrington A, Vinson R, Robaire B, Hales B. Paternal exposure to cyclophosphamide induces DNA damage and alters the expression of DNA repair genes in the rat preimplantation embryo. Mutat Res. 2000;461:229-41 pubmed
    ..stage, transcripts for specific members of the nucleotide excision repair family (XPC) and mismatch repair family (MSH2, PMS2) were elevated greatly in control embryos compared to embryos sired by drug-treated males; in contrast, ..
  38. Gu Y, Parker A, Wilson T, Bai H, Chang D, Lu A. Human MutY homolog, a DNA glycosylase involved in base excision repair, physically and functionally interacts with mismatch repair proteins human MutS homolog 2/human MutS homolog 6. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:11135-42 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that protein-protein interactions may be a means by which hMYH repair and mismatch repair cooperate in reducing replicative errors caused by oxidized bases. ..
  39. Vani R, Rao M. Cloning of the cDNA encoding rat homologue of the mismatch repair gene MSH2 and its expression during spermatogenesis. Gene. 1997;185:19-26 pubmed
    A rat cDNA clone encoding the mismatch repair protein MSH2 has been isolated and characterized. The cDNA has an open reading frame of 2802 nucleotides in length coding for a protein of 933 amino acids (100 kDa)...
  40. Schmutte C, Sadoff M, Shim K, Acharya S, Fishel R. The interaction of DNA mismatch repair proteins with human exonuclease I. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:33011-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, hExoI forms an immunoprecipitable complex with hMLH1/hPMS2 in vivo. The study of interaction regions suggests a biochemical mechanism of the involvement of hExoI as a downstream effector in MMR and/or DNA recombination. ..
  41. Dihal A, van der Woude H, Hendriksen P, Charif H, Dekker L, Ijsselstijn L, et al. Transcriptome and proteome profiling of colon mucosa from quercetin fed F344 rats point to tumor preventive mechanisms, increased mitochondrial fatty acid degradation and decreased glycolysis. Proteomics. 2008;8:45-61 pubmed
    ..In addition, quercetin enhanced expression of tumor suppressor genes, including Pten, Tp53, and Msh2, and of cell cycle inhibitors, including Mutyh...
  42. Li F, Mao G, Tong D, Huang J, Gu L, Yang W, et al. The histone mark H3K36me3 regulates human DNA mismatch repair through its interaction with MutS?. Cell. 2013;153:590-600 pubmed publisher
    ..This work reveals that a histone mark regulates MMR in human cells and explains the long-standing puzzle of MSI-positive cancer cells that lack detectable mutations in known MMR genes. ..
  43. Fishel R, Ewel A, Lescoe M. Purified human MSH2 protein binds to DNA containing mismatched nucleotides. Cancer Res. 1994;54:5539-42 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that purified hMSH2 binds specifically to mismatched nucleotides, providing a target for the excision repair processes characteristic of postreplication mismatch repair. ..
  44. Chintamani -, Jha B, Bhandari V, Bansal A, Saxena S, Bhatnagar D. The expression of mismatched repair genes and their correlation with clinicopathological parameters and response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. Int Semin Surg Oncol. 2007;4:5 pubmed
    ..The immunohistochemical analysis for four MMR protein products--MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 was done in the pre NACT trucut biopsy specimen and after three cycles of NACT with C AF (..
  45. Jansen L, Claij N, Dekker M, van Klink Y, van der Valk M, van t Wout K, et al. Acceleration of lymphomagenesis in mismatch-repair deficient mice by exposure to genotoxic agents. Toxicol Lett. 2000;112-113:245-50 pubmed
    ..The combination of MMR deficiency and exposure to genotoxic agents strongly accelerated lymphomagenesis. ..
  46. Egashira A, Yamauchi K, Yoshiyama K, Kawate H, Katsuki M, Sekiguchi M, et al. Mutational specificity of mice defective in the MTH1 and/or the MSH2 genes. DNA Repair (Amst). 2002;1:881-93 pubmed
    ..Since the elevated incidence of single-base frameshifts at mononucleotide runs is a hallmark of the defect in MSH2-dependent mismatch repair system, this weak site-specific mutator effect of MTH1(-/-) mice could be attributed to a ..
  47. Zhang S, Lloyd R, Bowden G, Glickman B, de Boer J. Thymic lymphomas arising in Msh2 deficient mice display a large increase in mutation frequency and an altered mutational spectrum. Mutat Res. 2002;500:67-74 pubmed
    Mismatch repair (MMR) genes, such as Msh2, are classified as "mutator" genes, responsible for the microsatellite instability identified in many tumors...
  48. de Wind N, Dekker M, van Rossum A, van der Valk M, te Riele H. Mouse models for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Cancer Res. 1998;58:248-55 pubmed
    ..and tissue distribution of tumors in HNPCC, we have developed mouse models carrying a deficiency in the MMR gene Msh2. Most of the completely Msh2-deficient mice succumbed to lymphomas at an early age; lymphomagenesis was ..
  49. Plotz G, Raedle J, Brieger A, Trojan J, Zeuzem S. hMutSalpha forms an ATP-dependent complex with hMutLalpha and hMutLbeta on DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:711-8 pubmed
    ..Purified hMutLalpha showed an intrinsic affinity for DNA, with a preference for single-stranded over double-stranded DNA. ..
  50. Mylona E, Zarogiannos A, Nomikos A, Giannopoulou I, Nikolaou I, Zervas A, et al. Prognostic value of microsatellite instability determined by immunohistochemical staining of hMSH2 and hMSH6 in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. APMIS. 2008;116:59-65 pubmed publisher
  51. Karihtala P, Winqvist R, Syvaoja J, Kinnula V, Soini Y. Increasing oxidative damage and loss of mismatch repair enzymes during breast carcinogenesis. Eur J Cancer. 2006;42:2653-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, DNA topoisomerase II binding protein 1 (TopBP1) and mismatch repair proteins 2 and 6 (MSH2 and MSH6) were immunostained in a series of 80 stage I invasive breast tumours, 26 in situ breast carcinomas and 12 ..
  52. Yoshioka K, Yoshioka Y, Hsieh P. ATR kinase activation mediated by MutSalpha and MutLalpha in response to cytotoxic O6-methylguanine adducts. Mol Cell. 2006;22:501-10 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that MMR proteins can act as direct sensors of methylation damage and help recruit ATR-ATRIP to sites of cytotoxic O(6)-meG adducts to initiate ATR checkpoint signaling. ..
  53. Martin A, Li Z, Lin D, Bardwell P, Iglesias Ussel M, Edelmann W, et al. Msh2 ATPase activity is essential for somatic hypermutation at a-T basepairs and for efficient class switch recombination. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1171-8 pubmed
    ..MutS homologue (Msh) 2-/- mice have reduced A-T mutations and CSR. This suggests that Msh2 may play a role in repairing activation-induced cytidine deaminase-generated G-U mismatches...
  54. Toft N, Arends M, Wyllie A, Clarke A. No female embryonic lethality in mice nullizygous for Msh2 and p53. Nat Genet. 1998;18:17 pubmed
  55. Francisconi S, Codenotti M, Ferrari Toninelli G, Uberti D, Memo M. Mitochondrial dysfunction and increased sensitivity to excitotoxicity in mice deficient in DNA mismatch repair. J Neurochem. 2006;98:223-33 pubmed
    The expression profile in the hippocampus of mice lacking one allele of the MutS homologue (Msh2), gene, which is one of the most representative components of the DNA mismatch repair system, was analysed to understand whether defects in ..
  56. Jäger A, Rasmussen M, Bisgaard H, Singh K, Nielsen F, Rasmussen L. HNPCC mutations in the human DNA mismatch repair gene hMLH1 influence assembly of hMutLalpha and hMLH1-hEXO1 complexes. Oncogene. 2001;20:3590-5 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that mutations found in HNPCC gene carriers disrupt hMLH1-hEXO1 complex formation and hMutLalpha heterodimer assembly essential for MMR activity. ..
  57. Lu K, Schorge J, Rodabaugh K, Daniels M, Sun C, Soliman P, et al. Prospective determination of prevalence of lynch syndrome in young women with endometrial cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25:5158-64 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 mutations in an unselected cohort of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer at age younger than 50 years...
  58. Young L, Thulien K, Campbell M, Tron V, Andrew S. DNA mismatch repair proteins promote apoptosis and suppress tumorigenesis in response to UVB irradiation: an in vivo study. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:1821-7 pubmed
    ..We have demonstrated previously that both Msh2- and Msh6-null primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts are significantly less sensitive to UVB (ultraviolet B)-induced ..
  59. Jenab Wolcott J, Rodriguez Correa D, Reitmair A, Mak T, Rosenberg N. The absence of Msh2 alters abelson virus pre-B-cell transformation by influencing p53 mutation. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:8373-81 pubmed
    ..The absence of Msh2 or Mlh1, two key molecules that mediate mismatch repair in eukaryotic cells, increases the frequency of mutation ..
  60. Prtilo A, Leach F, Markwalder R, Kappeler A, Burkhard F, Cecchini M, et al. Tissue microarray analysis of hMSH2 expression predicts outcome in men with prostate cancer. J Urol. 2005;174:1814-8; discussion 1818 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemistry was performed with anti-human MSH2 monoclonal antibody. Three independent observers evaluated hMSH2 expression on a scale of 0 to 4...
  61. Geeta Vani R, Varghese C, Rao M. Cloning of rat MLH1 and expression analysis of MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, and MLH1 during spermatogenesis. Genomics. 1999;62:460-7 pubmed
    ..We have also obtained partial cDNA clones for MSH3 and MSH6. Northern blot analysis of rat MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, and MSH6 in the testes of rats of different ages showed differential expression of these genes as a function ..
  62. Lin Y, Dion V, Wilson J. Transcription promotes contraction of CAG repeat tracts in human cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:179-80 pubmed
    ..Repeats are stabilized against contraction by siRNA knockdown of MSH2, MSH3 or XPA, but not by knockdown of MSH6, XPC or FEN1. These results define a pathway for CAG...
  63. Bourn R, De Biase I, Pinto R, Sandi C, Al Mahdawi S, Pook M, et al. Pms2 suppresses large expansions of the (GAA·TTC)n sequence in neuronal tissues. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47085 pubmed publisher
    ..carry an expanded (GAA·TTC)(n) sequence in the context of the human FXN locus and lack the individual MMR proteins Msh2, Msh6 or Pms2...
  64. Burr K, van Duyn Goedhart A, Hickenbotham P, Monger K, van Buul P, Dubrova Y. The effects of MSH2 deficiency on spontaneous and radiation-induced mutation rates in the mouse germline. Mutat Res. 2007;617:147-51 pubmed
    ..rates at two expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci were studied in the germline of mismatch repair deficient Msh2 knock-out mice...
  65. Martik D, Baitinger C, Modrich P. Differential specificities and simultaneous occupancy of human MutSalpha nucleotide binding sites. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:28402-10 pubmed
    We have examined the permissible nucleotide occupancy states of human MutSalpha. The MSH2.MSH6 heterodimer binds 1 mol of ADP and 1 mol of adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) (ATPgammaS), with a K(d) for each nucleotide of about 1 microm...
  66. Subramanian D, Griffith J. Interactions between p53, hMSH2-hMSH6 and HMG I(Y) on Holliday junctions and bulged bases. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:2427-34 pubmed
    ..Finally, the mismatch repair protein complex, hMSH2-hMSH6, enhanced p53 binding to both substrates by 3-4-fold...
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    ..Our results suggest that loss of mismatch repair genes is involved in the malignant transformation in some renal carcinomas, particularly those derived from the proximal tubules. ..
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    ..e., MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6). Here we describe six novel mutations in patients referred for genetic assessment...
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    ..b>MSH2-/- and MSH2+/+ embryonic stem cells were established as xenografts in athymic nude mice...
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    ..Together with the histological changes associated with acute colitis, APE1 and MSH2 levels increased significantly at 3 and 5 days after DSS treatment, respectively...