Gene Symbol: Mmp9
Description: matrix metallopeptidase 9
Alias: matrix metalloproteinase-9, 92 kDa gelatinase, 92-kDa type IV collagenase, GELB, MMP-9, gelatinase B, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (gelatinase B, 92-kDa type IV collagenase)
Species: rat
Products:     Mmp9

Top Publications

  1. Di Carlo A, Mariano A, Terracciano D, Mazzarella C, Galzerano S, Cicalese M, et al. Gelatinolytic activities (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9) and soluble extracellular domain of Her-2/neu in pleural effusions. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:425-31 pubmed
    ..The levels of HER-2/neu ECD were above the cut-off value in breast cancer patients. No correlation between gelatinolytic activities and high HER-2/neu ECD values was found. ..
  2. Wang X, Bozdagi O, Nikitczuk J, Zhai Z, Zhou Q, Huntley G. Extracellular proteolysis by matrix metalloproteinase-9 drives dendritic spine enlargement and long-term potentiation coordinately. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19520-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, MMP-mediated extracellular remodeling during LTP has an instructive role in establishing persistent modifications in both synapse structure and function of the kind critical for learning and memory. ..
  3. Michaluk P, Wawrzyniak M, Alot P, Szczot M, Wyrembek P, Mercik K, et al. Influence of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9 on dendritic spine morphology. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3369-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results, considered together with several recent studies, strongly imply that MMP-9 is functionally involved in synaptic remodelling. ..
  4. Wang I, Chiang T, Shih Y, Lu S, Lin L, Shieh J, et al. The association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the MMP-9 genes with susceptibility to acute primary angle closure glaucoma in Taiwanese patients. Mol Vis. 2006;12:1223-32 pubmed
  5. Takács E, Nyilas R, Szepesi Z, Baracskay P, Karlsen B, Røsvold T, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity increased by two different types of epileptic seizures that do not induce neuronal death: a possible role in homeostatic synaptic plasticity. Neurochem Int. 2010;56:799-809 pubmed publisher
    ..In these epilepsy models MMP-9 induction may therefore be associated with functions such as homeostatic synaptic plasticity rather than neuronal death. ..
  6. Kamada H, Yu F, Nito C, Chan P. Influence of hyperglycemia on oxidative stress and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation after focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats: relation to blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Stroke. 2007;38:1044-9 pubmed
    ..Hyperglycemia increases oxidative stress and MMP-9 activity, exacerbating BBB dysfunction after ischemia/reperfusion injury. Superoxide overproduction may be a causal link among hyperglycemia, MMP-9 activation, and BBB dysfunction. ..
  7. Jonas J, Tao Y, Neumaier M, Findeisen P. Cytokine concentration in aqueous humour of eyes with exudative age-related macular degeneration. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90:e381-8 pubmed publisher
    ..048), monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG) (p = 0.016), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) (p = 0.004) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) (p = 0.006)...
  8. Bozdagi O, Nagy V, Kwei K, Huntley G. In vivo roles for matrix metalloproteinase-9 in mature hippocampal synaptic physiology and plasticity. J Neurophysiol. 2007;98:334-44 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data reveal novel roles for MMP-mediated proteolysis in regulating nonpathological synaptic function and plasticity in mature hippocampus. ..
  9. Awadalla M, Burdon K, Kuot A, Hewitt A, Craig J. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 genetic variation and primary angle closure glaucoma in a Caucasian population. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1420-4 pubmed
    To investigate the association between genetic variation at the matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) locus and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) in an Australian Caucasian population...

More Information


  1. Leonardo C, Hall A, Collier L, Gottschall P, Pennypacker K. Inhibition of gelatinase activity reduces neural injury in an ex vivo model of hypoxia-ischemia. Neuroscience. 2009;160:755-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data, coupled with the effectiveness of these compounds previously shown in vivo, support the selective targeting of gelatin-degrading MMPs and activated microglia as potential therapeutic approaches to combat neonatal H-I injury. ..
  2. Mossbock G, Weger M, Faschinger C, Zimmermann C, Schmut O, Renner W, et al. Role of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMP1, MMP2, and MMP9 in open angle glaucomas. Mol Vis. 2010;16:1764-70 pubmed
    ..MMP1, MMP2, and MMP9 have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and open angle glaucoma ..
  3. Nishikaku A, Ribeiro L, Molina R, Albe B, Cunha C, Burger E. Matrix metalloproteinases with gelatinolytic activity induced by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Int J Exp Pathol. 2009;90:527-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate the induction of MMPs, particularly MMP-9, in experimental paracoccidioidomycosis, suggesting a possible influence in the pattern of granulomas and in fungal dissemination. ..
  4. Pinto L, Depner M, Klopp N, Illig T, Vogelberg C, von Mutius E, et al. MMP-9 gene variants increase the risk for non-atopic asthma in children. Respir Res. 2010;11:23 pubmed publisher
    ..Both neutrophils as well as eosinophils may secrete matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)...
  5. Rodriguez Pla A, Beaty T, Savino P, Eagle R, Seo P, Soloski M. Association of a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinase 9 with giant cell arteritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:1849-53 pubmed publisher
    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common type of primary vasculitis. Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is present in arterial lesions of GCA and may be involved in its pathogenesis...
  6. Kim J, Choeng H, Ahn C, Cho S. Early and late changes of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Yonsei Med J. 2009;50:68-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, MMP-2 and MMP-9 may play important roles, especially in the early phase. In the late stage, the MMP-2 and MMP-9 may play a role in the process of repair. ..
  7. Higashida T, Kreipke C, Rafols J, Peng C, Schafer S, Schafer P, et al. The role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, aquaporin-4, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in blood-brain barrier disruption and brain edema after traumatic brain injury. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:92-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Pharmacological blockade of this pathway in patients with TBI may provide a novel therapeutic strategy. ..
  8. Kowluru R, Mohammad G, Dos Santos J, Zhong Q. Abrogation of MMP-9 gene protects against the development of retinopathy in diabetic mice by preventing mitochondrial damage. Diabetes. 2011;60:3023-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, MMP-9 inhibitors could have potential therapeutic value in preventing the development of diabetic retinopathy by preventing the continuation of the vicious cycle of mitochondrial damage. ..
  9. Maddahi A, Chen Q, Edvinsson L. Enhanced cerebrovascular expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 via the MEK/ERK pathway during cerebral ischemia in the rat. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:56 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are the first to show that the elevated vascular expression of MMP-9 and TIMP-1, associated with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier following focal ischemia, are transcriptionally regulated via the MEK/ERK pathway. ..
  10. Hsieh H, Wang H, Wu W, Chu P, Yang C. Transforming growth factor-?1 induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cell migration in astrocytes: roles of ROS-dependent ERK- and JNK-NF-?B pathways. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:88 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate a new regulatory pathway of TGF-?1 in regulating expression of MMP-9 in brain astrocytes, which is involved in physiological and pathological tissue remodeling of central nervous system. ..
  11. Duran Vilaregut J, Del Valle J, Manich G, Camins A, Pallas M, Vilaplana J, et al. Role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in striatal blood-brain barrier disruption in a 3-nitropropionic acid model of Huntington's disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2011;37:525-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the prominent role of MMP-9 in BBB disruption in the striatal injured areas of this experimental model of Huntington's disease. ..
  12. Oliveira Silva P, Jurgilas P, Trindade P, Campello Costa P, Perales J, Savino W, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is involved in the development and plasticity of retinotectal projections in rats. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2007;14:144-9 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that MMPs are crucial in retinotectal development concurring to the fine tuning of topographical order and synaptic specificity of these connections. ..
  13. Hilliard T, Regamey N, Shute J, Nicholson A, Alton E, Bush A, et al. Airway remodelling in children with cystic fibrosis. Thorax. 2007;62:1074-80 pubmed
  14. Waldow T, Witt W, Buzin A, Ulmer A, Matschke K. Prevention of ischemia/reperfusion-induced accumulation of matrix metalloproteinases in rat lung by preconditioning with nitric oxide. J Surg Res. 2009;152:198-208 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of NO inhalation on lavagable MMPs was secondary to the sealing of the permeability barrier. ..
  15. Choi M, Kim Y, Lee W, Choi J, Park G, Kim S, et al. Activation of protease-activated receptor1 mediates induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 by thrombin in rat primary astrocytes. Brain Res Bull. 2008;76:368-75 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-9 promoter reporter assay confirmed the positive effect of ERK1/2 on MMP-9 expression. These results suggest that the activation of PAR1 mediates thrombin-induced MMP-9 expression through the regulation of Erk1/2. ..
  16. Lorenzl S, Buerger K, Hampel H, Beal M. Profiles of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in plasma of patients with dementia. Int Psychogeriatr. 2008;20:67-76 pubmed
    ..There were no significant changes of MMP-1 and MMP-2 levels in the samples. These findings suggest that circulating levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 and changes in the MMP/TIMP balance in plasma differ in various types of dementia. ..
  17. Tung W, Tsai H, Lee I, Hsieh H, Chen W, Chen Y, et al. Japanese encephalitis virus induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 in rat brain astrocytes via NF-?B signalling dependent on MAPKs and reactive oxygen species. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;161:1566-83 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-9 expression induced by JEV infection of RBA-1 cells was mediated through the generation of ROS and activation of p42/p44 MAPK, p38 MAPK and JNK1/2, leading to NF-?B activation. ..
  18. Pryczynicz A, Guzinska Ustymowicz K, Dymicka Piekarska V, Czyzewska J, Kemona A. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in pancreatic ductal carcinoma is associated with tumor metastasis formation. Folia Histochem Cytobiol. 2007;45:37-40 pubmed
    The objective of the current study was to assess the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in pancreatic ductal carcinoma and to examine its correlation with chosen clinico-anatomical parameters...
  19. Beranek M, Kolar P, Tschoplova S, Kankova K, Vasku A. Genetic variations and plasma levels of gelatinase A (matrix metalloproteinase-2) and gelatinase B (matrix metalloproteinase-9) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1114-21 pubmed
    ..009) or CGCG haplotype (p=0.043). These findings indicate that genotype- and haplotype-specific effects on MMP-2 expression corresponding with its plasma levels may contribute to the susceptibility to PDR. ..
  20. Wang H, Hsieh H, Yang C. Calmodulin kinase II-dependent transactivation of PDGF receptors mediates astrocytic MMP-9 expression and cell motility induced by lipoteichoic acid. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:84 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the regulatory mechanisms underlying LTA-induced MMP-9 expression and functional changes in astrocytes may provide a new therapeutic strategy for Gram-positive bacterial infections in brain disorders. ..
  21. Dahiya S, Givvimani S, Bhatnagar S, Qipshidze N, Tyagi S, Kumar A. Osteopontin-stimulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 causes cardiomyopathy in the mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. J Immunol. 2011;187:2723-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Echocardiography measurements showed improved heart function in Mmp9-deficient mdx mice...
  22. Konopka A, Grajkowska W, Ziemiańska K, Roszkowski M, Daszkiewicz P, Rysz A, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in human intractable epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia. Epilepsy Res. 2013;104:45-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings support the hypothesis of the pathogenic role of MMP-9 in human epilepsy and may stimulate discussions about whether MMPs could be novel therapeutic targets for intractable epilepsy. ..
  23. Coussens L, Tinkle C, Hanahan D, Werb Z. MMP-9 supplied by bone marrow-derived cells contributes to skin carcinogenesis. Cell. 2000;103:481-90 pubmed
    The matrix metalloproteinase MMP-9/gelatinase B is upregulated in angiogenic dysplasias and invasive cancers of the epidermis in a mouse model of multi-stage tumorigenesis elicited by HPV16 oncogenes...
  24. Kosano H, Okano T, Katsura Y, Noritake M, Kado S, Matsuoka T, et al. ProMMP-9 (92 kDa gelatinase) in vitreous fluid of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Life Sci. 1999;64:2307-15 pubmed
    ..16-7.61), declining in patients with 'quiescent' PDR (1.04 ng/ml, 0.16-3.77). These results suggest that MMP-9 is one of the noteworthy factors in relation to the progress of PDR, as well as angiogenic cytokines such as VEGF. ..
  25. Lee W, Shin C, Yoo B, Ryu J, Choi E, Cheong J, et al. Induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated primary astrocytes is mediated by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2). Glia. 2003;41:15-24 pubmed
    ..The Erk1/2-mediated MMP-9 induction may provide insights into the regulation of MMP-9 production in CNS, which may occur in vivo in pathological situations such as CNS inflammation. ..
  26. Lambert V, Munaut C, Jost M, Noel A, Werb Z, Foidart J, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 contributes to choroidal neovascularization. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:1247-53 pubmed
    ..We report here that MMP-9 (gelatinase B) expression is induced and temporally regulated in the course of experimental choroidal neovascularization...
  27. Wilhelm S, Collier I, Marmer B, Eisen A, Grant G, Goldberg G. SV40-transformed human lung fibroblasts secrete a 92-kDa type IV collagenase which is identical to that secreted by normal human macrophages. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:17213-21 pubmed
  28. Hsieh H, Yen M, Jou M, Yang C. Intracellular signalings underlying bradykinin-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in rat brain astrocyte-1. Cell Signal. 2004;16:1163-76 pubmed
    ..This study may provide insights into the regulation of MMP-9 production in CNS, which may occur in vivo in pathological situations such as CNS inflammation and brain astrocytoma. ..
  29. Rivera S, Ogier C, Jourquin J, Timsit S, Szklarczyk A, Miller K, et al. Gelatinase B and TIMP-1 are regulated in a cell- and time-dependent manner in association with neuronal death and glial reactivity after global forebrain ischemia. Eur J Neurosci. 2002;15:19-32 pubmed
    ..vulnerable and resistant areas of the ischemic rat hippocampus, the kinetics and cellular distribution of gelatinase B and its principal inhibitor TIMP-1 and we assessed by in situ zymography, the net gelatinolytic activity at the ..
  30. Rosell A, Ortega Aznar A, Alvarez Sabin J, Fernandez Cadenas I, Ribo M, Molina C, et al. Increased brain expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 after ischemic and hemorrhagic human stroke. Stroke. 2006;37:1399-406 pubmed
    ..We aimed to investigate MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B) in brain parenchyma in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes...
  31. Nagy V, Bozdagi O, Matynia A, Balcerzyk M, Okulski P, Dzwonek J, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 is required for hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation and memory. J Neurosci. 2006;26:1923-34 pubmed
    ..Together, these data reveal new functions for MMPs in synaptic and behavioral plasticity. ..
  32. Rosario H, Waldo S, Becker S, Schmid Schonbein G. Pancreatic trypsin increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 accumulation and activation during acute intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in the rat. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:1707-16 pubmed
    ..This process represents a powerful in vivo pathophysiological mechanism for trypsin-induced MMP-9 activation and is likely to play a central role in the development of acute intestinal inflammation and shock. ..
  33. Gu Z, Kaul M, Yan B, Kridel S, Cui J, Strongin A, et al. S-nitrosylation of matrix metalloproteinases: signaling pathway to neuronal cell death. Science. 2002;297:1186-90 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a potential extracellular proteolysis pathway to neuronal cell death in which S-nitrosylation activates MMPs, and further oxidation results in a stable posttranslational modification with pathological activity. ..
  34. Xie Z, Singh M, Singh K. Differential regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 expression and activity in adult rat cardiac fibroblasts in response to interleukin-1beta. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:39513-9 pubmed the heart following myocardial infarction, increases expression and activity of MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and -9 (gelatinase B) in cardiac fibroblasts...
  35. Chintala S, Wang N, Diskin S, Mattox C, Kagemann L, Fini M, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase gelatinase B (MMP-9) is associated with leaking glaucoma filtering blebs. Exp Eye Res. 2005;81:429-36 pubmed
    ..of a high molecular weight caseinase and a 92-kDa gelatinase of a size appropriate for the proenzyme form of gelatinase B (gelB; MMP-9), in extracts from leaking bleb tissue, but not in bleb leak fluid or aqueous humour samples...
  36. Nelissen I, Vandenbroeck K, Fiten P, Hillert J, Olsson T, Marrosu M, et al. Polymorphism analysis suggests that the gelatinase B gene is not a susceptibility factor for multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2000;105:58-63 pubmed
    The human gelatinase B (MMP-9) gene promoter region contains a CA microsatellite repeat and a single nucleotide polymorphism which are known to influence transcriptional activity...
  37. Szklarczyk A, Lapinska J, Rylski M, McKay R, Kaczmarek L. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 undergoes expression and activation during dendritic remodeling in adult hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2002;22:920-30 pubmed
    ..This unique spatiotemporal pattern of MMP-9 expression suggests its involvement in activity-dependent remodeling of dendritic architecture with possible effects on synaptic physiology. ..
  38. Xue M, Hollenberg M, Yong V. Combination of thrombin and matrix metalloproteinase-9 exacerbates neurotoxicity in cell culture and intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. J Neurosci. 2006;26:10281-91 pubmed
    ..To improve the prognosis of ICH, the neurotoxic actions of thrombin and MMP-9 must be inhibited early and simultaneously after injury. ..
  39. Nikkola J, Vihinen P, Vuoristo M, Kellokumpu Lehtinen P, Kahari V, Pyrhonen S. High serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 are associated with rapid progression in patients with metastatic melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:5158-66 pubmed
    ..In the present work, we have studied the prognostic significance of serum levels of gelatinase B (MMP-9), collagenase-1 (MMP-1), and collagenase-3 (MMP-13) in patients with advanced melanoma...
  40. Manikandan P, Murugan R, Priyadarsini R, Vinothini G, Nagini S. Eugenol induces apoptosis and inhibits invasion and angiogenesis in a rat model of gastric carcinogenesis induced by MNNG. Life Sci. 2010;86:936-41 pubmed publisher
  41. Lu T, Luo Y, Sun H, Qin W, Li Y. Electroacupuncture improves behavioral recovery and increases SCF/c-kit expression in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Neurol Sci. 2013;34:487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..EA may promote neurobehavioral recovery by increasing the protein and mRNA expression of SCF, c-kit and MMP-9 after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. ..
  42. Souza Costa D, Figueiredo Lopes L, Alves Filho J, Semprini M, Gerlach R, Cunha F, et al. Protective effects of atorvastatin in rat models of acute pulmonary embolism: involvement of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Crit Care Med. 2007;35:239-45 pubmed
    ..05). These results suggest that pretreatment with atorvastatin attenuates APE-induced pulmonary hypertension and increases 24-hr survival rate by mechanisms that result in attenuated increases in lung activated MMP-9 after APE. ..
  43. Dinh T, Tecilazich F, Kafanas A, Doupis J, Gnardellis C, Leal E, et al. Mechanisms involved in the development and healing of diabetic foot ulceration. Diabetes. 2012;61:2937-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that increased inflammation, expression of MMP-9, PTP1B, and aberrant growth factor levels are the main factors associated with failure to heal DFUs. Targeting these factors may prove helpful in the management of DFUs. ..
  44. Wang H, Hsieh H, Yang C. Nitric oxide production by endothelin-1 enhances astrocytic migration via the tyrosine nitration of matrix metalloproteinase-9. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:2244-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggested that in astrocytes, activation of NF-?B by ET(B)-dependent c-Src, PI3K/Akt, and p42/p44 MAPK signalings is necessary for ET-1-induced iNOS gene up-regulation. ..
  45. Kim S, Chung Y, Chung T, Kim J, Moon S, Kim C, et al. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression between gingival fibroblast cells from old and young rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:152-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that cell cycle dysregulation and down-regulation of MMP-9 expression in rGF may play a role in gingival remodeling during in vitro aging. ..
  46. Xie X, Yang C, Ren M, Hao S, Zhu P, Yan L. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression in rat dermal fibroblasts using small interfering RNA. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2012;102:299-308 pubmed
    ..05). These findings may provide new treatments for diabetic skin wounds. ..
  47. Zhang S, Chen D, Huang C, Bao J, Wang Z. Expression of HGF, MMP-9 and TGF-?1 in the CSF and cerebral tissue of adult rats with hydrocephalus. Int J Neurosci. 2013;123:392-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This results indicated that HGF, MMP-9 and TGF-?1 may participate in the formation and prognosis of hydrocephalus after kaolin induction. ..
  48. Li X, Lu Y, Sun Y, Zhang Q. Effect of curcumin on permeability of coronary artery and expression of related proteins in rat coronary atherosclerosis heart disease model. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;8:7247-53 pubmed
    ..Application of curcumin can inhibit expression of MMP-9, CD40L, TNF-α and CRP to improve the permeability of coronary artery. ..
  49. Han L, Li T, Zhang Y, Yang T, Ding Y, Zhao X, et al. [Effects of matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitor in Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune myocarditis]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2011;39:118-23 pubmed
    ..05). MMP-9 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune myocarditis. Inhibition of MMP-9 in early and middle stage could significantly attenuate inflammatory responses and myocardial fibrosis in this experimental EAM model. ..
  50. Xu S, Wang C, Zhao W, Chu J, Liu W, Li M. [Correlation between matrix metalloproteinases activities and myocardial injury in neonatal rats after asphyxia]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2007;45:134-7 pubmed
    ..The injuries of myocardium may be closely associated with myocardial tissue MMPs. MMPs may be used to evaluate the severity of myocardial interstitial damage. ..
  51. Lukkarinen H, Hogmalm A, Lappalainen U, Bry K. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 deficiency worsens lung injury in a model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009;41:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that MMP-9 activity in the inflamed neonatal lung protects the lung against injury. ..
  52. Yang C, Hsieh H, Lin C, Shih R, Chi P, Cheng S, et al. Multiple factors from bradykinin-challenged astrocytes contribute to the neuronal apoptosis: involvement of astroglial ROS, MMP-9, and HO-1/CO system. Mol Neurobiol. 2013;47:1020-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, we demonstrate that BK-induced several neurotoxic factors, including ROS, MMP-9, and CO released from astrocytes, may induce neuronal death through a caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway. ..
  53. Chen D, Zhang D, Xu L, Han Y, Wang H. The alterations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in mouse brainstem during herpes simplex virus type 1-induced facial palsy. J Mol Neurosci. 2013;51:703-9 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study is to explore the changes of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) in the mouse brainstem during the development of facial paralysis induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the inhibitory effect of ..
  54. Matsumoto Y, Park I, Kohyama K. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, but not MMP-2, is involved in the development and progression of C protein-induced myocarditis and subsequent dilated cardiomyopathy. J Immunol. 2009;183:4773-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that MMP-9, but not MMP-2, is involved in the pathogenesis of the acute phase of EAC, and further suggest that MMP-9 inhibitors, minocycline and its derivatives, may be useful therapies for EAC and DCM. ..
  55. Micheal S, Yousaf S, Khan M, Akhtar F, Islam F, Khan W, et al. Polymorphisms in matrix metalloproteinases MMP1 and MMP9 are associated with primary open-angle and angle closure glaucoma in a Pakistani population. Mol Vis. 2013;19:441-7 pubmed
    ..47). In addition, a significant difference was observed in genotype frequencies of MMP9 rs17576 (c.836A>G) in patients with PACG compared to the control subjects (p < 0...
  56. Matsui F, Babitz S, Rhee A, Hile K, Zhang H, Meldrum K. Mesenchymal stem cells protect against obstruction-induced renal fibrosis by decreasing STAT3 activation and STAT3-dependent MMP-9 production. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;312:F25-F32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that MSCs protect against obstruction-induced renal fibrosis, in part, by decreasing STAT3 activation and STAT3-dependent MMP-9 production. ..
  57. Alsaigh T, Pocock E, Bergan J, Schmid Schonbein G. Acute venous occlusion enhances matrix metalloprotease activity: Implications on endothelial dysfunction. Microvasc Res. 2011;81:108-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that venous pressure elevation increases enzymatic activity which may contribute to inflammation and endothelial dysfunction associated with this disease by influencing critical surface receptors. ..
  58. Rath T, Zwaschka L, Hage L, Kügler M, Menendez K, Naehrlich L, et al. Identification of neutrophil activation markers as novel surrogate markers of CF lung disease. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e115847 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-8, MMP-9, YKL-40, and TIMP-1 serum levels were unaffected by the presence or absence of CF liver disease or pancreatic insufficiency. MMP-8, MMP-9, and YKL-40 might serve as novel non-invasive biomarkers of CF lung disease and PEx. ..
  59. Joo S, Kwon K, Kim J, Kim J, Hasan M, Lee H, et al. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue plasminogen activator activity by alpha-synuclein in rat primary glial cells. Neurosci Lett. 2010;469:352-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest further functional role of alpha-synuclein via regulation of protease systems through modulation of ERK1/2 activity in brain. ..
  60. Konopacki F, Rylski M, Wilczek E, Amborska R, Detka D, Kaczmarek L, et al. Synaptic localization of seizure-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 mRNA. Neuroscience. 2007;150:31-9 pubmed
    ..b>Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (gelatinase B) (MMP-9) is a matrix metalloproteinase implicated in synaptic long-term potentiation and ..
  61. Zhang C, Yi F, Xia M, Boini K, Zhu Q, Laperle L, et al. NMDA receptor-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase and glomerulosclerosis in hyperhomocysteinemic rats. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;13:975-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the view that the NMDA receptor may mediate Nox activation in the kidney during hHcys and thereby play a critical role in the development of hHcys-induced glomerulosclerosis. ..
  62. Vaidya H, Giri S, Jain M, Goyal R. Decrease in serum matrix metalloproteinase-9 and matrix metalloproteinase-3 levels in Zucker fa/fa obese rats after treatment with swertiamarin. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2012;17:12-6 pubmed
    ..A swertiamarin-induced decrease in serum MMP-9 and MMP-3 levels is one of the possible mechanisms responsible for improvement of these complications. ..
  63. Zheng Y, Ding J, Wang C, Jiao S, Qu L, Bahargul -, et al. [Expression and significance of matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase in nasal cavity squamous cell carcinoma]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2011;46:299-302 pubmed
    ..Both MMP and TIMP, especially the unbalance of MMP and TIMP, have prognostic value in nasal cavity squamous cell carcinoma. ..
  64. Park K, Rosell A, Foerch C, Xing C, Kim W, Lee S, et al. Plasma and brain matrix metalloproteinase-9 after acute focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Stroke. 2009;40:2836-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated plasma levels of MMP-9 appear to be correlated with brain levels within 24 hours of acute cerebral ischemia in rats. Further investigation into clinical profiles of MMP-9 in acute stroke patients may be useful. ..
  65. Lv X, Zhou L, Liu D, Wang Y, Wang B, Fu B, et al. Traditional Chinese medicine Kang Xian Fu Fang I is effective for prophylaxis and treatment of alcoholic liver disease in rats. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2007;6:182-7 pubmed
    ..Immunoreactive MMP-9 occurred in the hepatic cells around the veins and sinusoidal cells. KXI can effectively inhibit or reverse the course of ALD. This may be attributable to its capacity to inhibit the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9. ..
  66. Chan C, Chen Y, Ma M, Chen C, Chen C. Remodeling of experimental arteriovenous fistula with increased matrix metalloproteinase expression in rats. J Vasc Surg. 2007;45:804-11 pubmed
    ..Remodeling is associated with degradation of collagen, with an increase in the collagen I/III ratio. ..
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