Gene Symbol: Mmp2
Description: matrix metallopeptidase 2
Alias: 72 kDa type IV collagenase, 72 kDa gelatinase, MMP-2, gelatinase A, matrix metalloproteinase-2
Species: rat
Products:     Mmp2

Top Publications

  1. Graesslin O, Cortez A, Uzan C, Birembaut P, Quereux C, Darai E. Endometrial tumor invasiveness is related to metalloproteinase 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 expressions. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:1911-7 pubmed
    ..These results support the involvement of MMPs and TIMPs in endometrial tumor growth and progression. High MMP-2 and low TIMP-2 expression were the most potent markers of endometrial tumors with a high risk of local and distant spread. ..
  2. Bergman M, Cheng S, Honbo N, Piacentini L, Karliner J, Lovett D. A functional activating protein 1 (AP-1) site regulates matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) transcription by cardiac cells through interactions with JunB-Fra1 and JunB-FosB heterodimers. Biochem J. 2003;369:485-96 pubmed
    ..This report is the first demonstration that defined members of the Fos and Jun transcription-factor families specifically regulate this gene under conditions relevant to critical pathophysiological processes. ..
  3. Sotnikova N, Antsiferova Y, Posiseeva L, Shishkov D, Posiseev D, Filippova E. Mechanisms regulating invasiveness and growth of endometriosis lesions in rat experimental model and in humans. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:2701-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Supposedly MMP-TIMP balance is important in promoting endometriotic tissue invasion and TGFbeta2 in regulating ectopic endometrium growth. ..
  4. Petignat P, Laurini R, Goffin F, Bruchim I, Bischof P. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and mutant p53 is increased in hydatidiform mole as compared with normal placenta. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:1679-84 pubmed
    ..MMP-2 and mutp53 are overexpressed in HM as compared with normal trophoblast and might participate in the invasive behavior of the HM...
  5. Ehrlichman L, Ford J, Roelofs K, Tedeschi Filho W, Futchko J, Ramacciotti E, et al. Gender-dependent differential phosphorylation in the ERK signaling pathway is associated with increased MMP2 activity in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. J Surg Res. 2010;160:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..0001). Pro-MMP2 levels were significantly higher (P = 0.0035) in males than females at each time point following elastase exposure...
  6. Mertens P, Steinmann K, Alfonso Jaume M, En Nia A, Sun Y, Lovett D. Combinatorial interactions of p53, activating protein-2, and YB-1 with a single enhancer element regulate gelatinase A expression in neoplastic cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:24875-82 pubmed
    Gelatinase A, also denoted matrix metalloproteinase 2, plays multiple critical roles in the neoplastic process, including facilitation of neoangiogenesis and formation of distal metastases...
  7. Risinger G, Hunt T, Updike D, Bullen E, Howard E. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression by vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by both stimulatory and inhibitory signals in response to growth factors. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:25915-25 pubmed
  8. Yang Y, Candelario Jalil E, Thompson J, Cuadrado E, Estrada E, Rosell A, et al. Increased intranuclear matrix metalloproteinase activity in neurons interferes with oxidative DNA repair in focal cerebral ischemia. J Neurochem. 2010;112:134-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that intranuclear MMP activity cleaves PARP-1 and XRCC1, interfering with oxidative DNA repair. This novel role for MMPs could contribute to neuronal apoptosis in ischemic injuries...
  9. Ali M, Cho W, Hudson B, Kassiri Z, Granzier H, Schulz R. Titin is a target of matrix metalloproteinase-2: implications in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Circulation. 2010;122:2039-47 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-2 localizes to titin at the Z-disk region of the cardiac sarcomere and contributes to titin degradation in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. ..

More Information


  1. Wang W, Schulze C, Suarez Pinzon W, Dyck J, Sawicki G, Schulz R. Intracellular action of matrix metalloproteinase-2 accounts for acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. Circulation. 2002;106:1543-9 pubmed
  2. Szklarczyk A, Lapinska J, Rylski M, McKay R, Kaczmarek L. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 undergoes expression and activation during dendritic remodeling in adult hippocampus. J Neurosci. 2002;22:920-30 pubmed
    ..This unique spatiotemporal pattern of MMP-9 expression suggests its involvement in activity-dependent remodeling of dendritic architecture with possible effects on synaptic physiology. ..
  3. Saygili E, Rana O, Meyer C, Gemein C, Andrzejewski M, Ludwig A, et al. The angiotensin-calcineurin-NFAT pathway mediates stretch-induced up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases-2/-9 in atrial myocytes. Basic Res Cardiol. 2009;104:435-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results present new insights in molecular mechanisms of ECM remodeling activity of atrial myocytes exposed to static stretch. The AT1-Cn-NFAT pathway is a potential mediator of MMP activation. ..
  4. Skittone L, Liu X, Tseng A, Kim H. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and promoter/enhancer activity in skeletal muscle atrophy. J Orthop Res. 2008;26:357-63 pubmed
    ..These findings show that increased MMP-2 activity in disused atrophic muscle and supporting tissues is regulated, at least in part, by increased MMP-2 promoter/enhancer activity. ..
  5. Sung M, Schulz C, Wang W, Sawicki G, Bautista López N, Schulz R. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 degrades the cytoskeletal protein alpha-actinin in peroxynitrite mediated myocardial injury. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007;43:429-36 pubmed
    ..Cardiac dysfunction induced by peroxynitrite involves degradation of alpha-actinin that may be mediated by the proteolytic action of MMP-2. ..
  6. Cheng S, Alfonso Jaume M, Mertens P, Lovett D. Tumour metastasis suppressor, nm23-beta, inhibits gelatinase A transcription by interference with transactivator Y-box protein-1 (YB-1). Biochem J. 2002;366:807-16 pubmed
    b>Gelatinase A transcriptional regulation is the consequence of combinatorial interactions with key promoter and enhancer elements identified within this gene...
  7. Demestre M, Wells G, Miller K, Smith K, Hughes R, Gearing A, et al. Characterisation of matrix metalloproteinases and the effects of a broad-spectrum inhibitor (BB-1101) in peripheral nerve regeneration. Neuroscience. 2004;124:767-79 pubmed
  8. Bergman M, Teerlink J, Mahimkar R, Li L, Zhu B, Nguyen A, et al. Cardiac matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression independently induces marked ventricular remodeling and systolic dysfunction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H1847-60 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 1.5 vs. MMP 4.7 +/- 2.0; P = 0.016). Expression of active MMP-2 is sufficient to induce severe ventricular remodeling and systolic dysfunction in the absence of superimposed injury. ..
  9. Mendes O, Kim H, Lungu G, Stoica G. MMP2 role in breast cancer brain metastasis development and its regulation by TIMP2 and ERK1/2. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2007;24:341-51 pubmed
    b>Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) is important in breast cancer (BC) invasion and metastasis. We previously reported that BC brain metastases, in a rat syngeneic model developed in our laboratory, have high expression and activity of MMP2...
  10. Peterson J, Li H, Dillon L, Bryant J. Evolution of matrix metalloprotease and tissue inhibitor expression during heart failure progression in the infarcted rat. Cardiovasc Res. 2000;46:307-15 pubmed
    ..The dissociation between LV MMP/TIMP mRNA and protein levels shows that post-translation processing occurs in the rat heart. ..
  11. Dab H, Hachani R, Dhaouadi N, Hodroj W, Sakly M, Randon J, et al. Physiological regulation of MMPs and tPA/PAI in the arterial wall of rats by noradrenergic tone and angiotensin II. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2012;13:36-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, there is a synergic inhibition of both systems on the level of MMP-2 in AA. ..
  12. Dab H, Hachani R, Hodroj W, Sakly M, Bricca G, Kacem K. Interaction between sympathetic nervous system and renin angiotensin system on MMPs expression in juvenile rat aorta. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2011;30:271-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined inhibition of SNS and ANG II were more efficient than a single inhibition in reducing MMP amounts in rat vessels. ..
  13. Bogusiewicz M, Stryjecka Zimmer M, Postawski K, Jakimiuk A, Rechberger T. Activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and contents of their tissue inhibitors in uterine leiomyoma and corresponding myometrium. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007;23:541-6 pubmed
    ..MMP-2 may be implicated in pathogenesis of leiomyoma. ..
  14. Kawasaki Y, Xu Z, Wang X, Park J, Zhuang Z, Tan P, et al. Distinct roles of matrix metalloproteases in the early- and late-phase development of neuropathic pain. Nat Med. 2008;14:331-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of MMP may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of neuropathic pain at different phases. ..
  15. Kim J, Choeng H, Ahn C, Cho S. Early and late changes of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Yonsei Med J. 2009;50:68-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, MMP-2 and MMP-9 may play important roles, especially in the early phase. In the late stage, the MMP-2 and MMP-9 may play a role in the process of repair. ..
  16. Fredrich M, Illing R. MMP-2 is involved in synaptic remodeling after cochlear lesion. Neuroreport. 2010;21:324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate a major role of MMP-2 in lesion-induced remodeling of central auditory networks and suggest a cooperativity with GAP-43-directed axonal outgrowth and synaptogenesis. ..
  17. Misra S, Shergill U, Yang B, Janardhanan R, Misra K. Increased expression of HIF-1alpha, VEGF-A and its receptors, MMP-2, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-1 at the venous stenosis of arteriovenous fistula in a mouse model with renal insufficiency. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2010;21:1255-61 pubmed publisher
  18. Al Mubarak R, Da Silveira A, Mao J. Expression and mechanical modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -2 genes in facial and cranial sutures. Cell Tissue Res. 2005;321:465-71 pubmed
  19. Beranek M, Kolar P, Tschoplova S, Kankova K, Vasku A. Genetic variations and plasma levels of gelatinase A (matrix metalloproteinase-2) and gelatinase B (matrix metalloproteinase-9) in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Mol Vis. 2008;14:1114-21 pubmed
    ..009) or CGCG haplotype (p=0.043). These findings indicate that genotype- and haplotype-specific effects on MMP-2 expression corresponding with its plasma levels may contribute to the susceptibility to PDR. ..
  20. Fracalossi A, Miranda S, Oshima C, Franco M, Ribeiro D. The role of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 during rat tongue carcinogenesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. J Mol Histol. 2010;41:19-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results support the belief that MMP-2 and MMP-9 play important role during malignant transformation and conversion of oral mucosa as assessed by immunohistochemistry. ..
  21. Rivilis I, Milkiewicz M, Boyd P, Goldstein J, Brown M, Egginton S, et al. Differential involvement of MMP-2 and VEGF during muscle stretch- versus shear stress-induced angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002;283:H1430-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the involvement of MMPs in capillary growth is dependent on the nature of the angiogenic stimulus. ..
  22. Song C, Li G. CXCR4 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 are involved in mesenchymal stromal cell homing and engraftment to tumors. Cytotherapy. 2011;13:549-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the CXCR4 and MMP-2 are involved in the multistep migration processes of BMSC tropism to tumors. ..
  23. Sheng L, Ye P, Liu Y. [Atorvastatin upregulates the expression of PPAR alpha/gamma and inhibits the hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes in vitro]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2005;33:1080-4 pubmed
    ..expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9, MMP2, interleukin1beta (IL-1beta) and PPARalpha, gamma was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (..
  24. Sanders J, Huitema M, Hanemaaijer R, van Goor H, Kallenberg C, Stegeman C. Urinary matrix metalloproteinases reflect renal damage in anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibody-associated vasculitis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F1927-34 pubmed
    ..However, urinary MMP-2 activity and TIMP-1 levels reflect tubulointerstitial damage and correlate negatively with creatinine clearance at biopsy. ..
  25. Zhao W, Goswami P, Robbins M. Radiation-induced up-regulation of Mmp2 involves increased mRNA stability, redox modulation, and MAPK activation. Radiat Res. 2004;161:418-29 pubmed
    We have previously observed time- and dose-dependent increases in matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2) protein levels in rat tubule epithelial cells (NRK52E) after irradiation. However, the mechanism(s) involved remains unclear...
  26. Collins J, Ramamoorthy K, Da Silveira A, Patston P, Mao J. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase genes in the rat intramembranous bone during postnatal growth and upon mechanical stresses. J Biomech. 2005;38:485-92 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest potentially important roles of MMP genes in the postnatal development of cranial sutures, and their susceptibility to mechanical stresses. ..
  27. Wang L, Zhang Z, Zhang R, Gregg S, Hozeska Solgot A, LeTourneau Y, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9 secreted by erythropoietin-activated endothelial cells promote neural progenitor cell migration. J Neurosci. 2006;26:5996-6003 pubmed
    ..Treatment of MBECs with recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) significantly increased secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9...
  28. Hori Y, Kashimoto T, Yonezawa T, Sano N, Saitoh R, Igarashi S, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 stimulates collagen-I expression through phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;303:C947-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the extracellular activation of MMP-2 accelerated collagen-I synthesis in rat cardiac fibroblasts and that FAK phosphorylation (Tyr397) plays a pivotal role in MMP-2-stimulated collagen-I synthesis. ..
  29. Woodrum D, Ford J, Cho B, Hannawa K, Stanley J, Henke P, et al. Differential effect of 17-beta-estradiol on smooth muscle cell and aortic explant MMP2. J Surg Res. 2009;155:48-53 pubmed publisher
    ..tested the hypothesis that intrinsic gender-related differences exist in rat aortic smooth muscle cell matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). This investigation comprised 3 sets of experiments...
  30. Pannu H, Kim D, Guo D, King T, Van Ginhoven G, Chin T, et al. The role of MMP-2 and MMP-9 polymorphisms in sporadic intracranial aneurysms. J Neurosurg. 2006;105:418-23 pubmed
    ..On the basis of accumulating evidence that implicates increased MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B) amounts and activity in the pathogenesis of aneurysms, the authors investigated the ..
  31. Hlawaty H, Suffee N, Sutton A, Oudar O, Haddad O, Ollivier V, et al. Low molecular weight fucoidan prevents intimal hyperplasia in rat injured thoracic aorta through the modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;81:233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, this natural compound reduced the intimal hyperplasia in the rat aortic wall after balloon injury. Therefore, LMWF could be of interest for the prevention of intimal hyperplasia. ..
  32. Li W, Mata K, Mazzuca M, Khalil R. Altered matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 expression/activity links placental ischemia and anti-angiogenic sFlt-1 to uteroplacental and vascular remodeling and collagen deposition in hypertensive pregnancy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2014;89:370-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiogenic factors and MMP activators may reverse the decrease in MMPs and enhance growth-permissive remodeling in preeclampsia...
  33. McGuane J, Danielson L, Debrah J, Rubin J, Novak J, Conrad K. Angiogenic growth factors are new and essential players in the sustained relaxin vasodilatory pathway in rodents and humans. Hypertension. 2011;57:1151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Small renal arteries isolated from these rats demonstrated increased matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity in the relaxin-infused group, which was not prevented by SU5416...
  34. Fredrich M, Illing R. Deafferentation-induced redistribution of MMP-2, but not of MMP-9, depends on the emergence of GAP-43 positive axons in the adult rat cochlear nucleus. Neural Plast. 2011;2011:859359 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, GAP-43-containing axons emerging in AVCN after cochlear ablation seem to be causal for the maintenance of MMP-2-mediated ECM remodeling. ..
  35. Brower G, Levick S, Janicki J. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase activity by ACE inhibitors prevents left ventricular remodeling in a rat model of heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H3057-64 pubmed
  36. Schwab W, Harada H, Goetz W, Nowicki M, Witt M, Kasper M, et al. Immunocytochemical and biochemical detection of EMMPRIN in the rat tooth germ: differentiation-dependent co-expression with MMPs and co-localization with caveolin-1 in membrane rafts of dental epithelial cells. Histochem Cell Biol. 2007;128:195-203 pubmed
    ..The localization of EMMPRIN in membrane rafts provides a basis for further investigations on the role of caveolin-1 in EMMPRIN-mediated signal transduction cascades in ameloblasts. ..
  37. Castro M, Cena J, Cho W, Walsh M, Schulz R. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 proteolysis of calponin-1 contributes to vascular hypocontractility in endotoxemic rats. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:662-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro incubation of calponin-1 with MMP-2 led to calponin-1 degradation and appearance of its cleavage product. Calponin-1 is a target of MMP-2, which contributes to endotoxemia-induced vascular hypocontractility. ..
  38. Furtado K, Pires P, Justulin L, Rodrigues M, Felisbino S, Barbisan L. Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 activity during promotion and progression stages of rat liver carcinogenesis. J Mol Histol. 2009;40:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that MMP-2 may be associated with proliferative events induced by 2-AAF rather than with selective growth of PNL and that MMP-9 could be associated with progression of PNL and neoplastic mixed lesions...
  39. Planas A, Sole S, Justicia C. Expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in rat brain after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Neurobiol Dis. 2001;8:834-46 pubmed
    ..By means of zymography, Western blot and immunohistochemistry, we studied MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B) in rat brain after focal cerebral ischemia...
  40. Tominaga M, Migita K, Nakamura H, Ichinose Y, Furuya T, Origuchi T, et al. Expression of metalloproteinase-2 (gelatinase A) in labial salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome with HTLV-I infection. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1999;17:463-6 pubmed
    To determine whether gelatinase A (MMP-2) plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) with or without HTLV-I infection. We examined 24 patients with SS (14 HTLV-I-seropositive and 8 HTLV-I-seronegative)...
  41. Kowluru R, Kanwar M. Oxidative stress and the development of diabetic retinopathy: contributory role of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Free Radic Biol Med. 2009;46:1677-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a possible use of MMP-2-targeted therapy to inhibit the development of diabetic retinopathy. ..
  42. Magendiramani V, Umesalma S, Kalayarasan S, Nagendraprabhu P, Arunkumar J, Sudhandiran G. S-allylcysteine attenuates renal injury by altering the expressions of iNOS and matrix metallo proteinase-2 during cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity in Wistar rats. J Appl Toxicol. 2009;29:522-30 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparative study of the antioxidant vitamin C and SAC is more valuable to assess the efficacy of the drug that can be used for the treatment of nephrotoxicity. ..
  43. Parente J, Pereira C, Oliveira Paula G, Tanus Santos J, Tostes R, Castro M. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity is Associated with Divergent Regulation of Calponin-1 in Conductance and Resistance Arteries in Hypertension-induced Early Vascular Dysfunction and Remodelling. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017;121:246-256 pubmed publisher
    ..Divergent regulation of calponin-1 by MMP-2 may be an important mechanism that leads to maladaptive vascular effects in hypertension. ..
  44. Liu T, Lin J, Ju T, Chu L, Zhang L. Vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation to an osteogenic phenotype involves matrix metalloproteinase-2 modulation by homocysteine. Mol Cell Biochem. 2015;406:139-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, MMP-2 inhibition may be a protective strategy against VSMC calcification. ..
  45. Drapisz S, Goralczyk T, Jamka Miszalski T, Olszowska M, Undas A. Nonstenotic bicuspid aortic valve is associated with elevated plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2013;14:446-52 pubmed publisher
    ..It might be speculated that plasma ADMA could be helpful in identifying BAV patients at a higher risk of aortic aneurysm. ..
  46. Wang Y, Huang G, Mo B, Wang C. Artesunate modulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors as well as collagen-IV to attenuate pulmonary fibrosis in rats. Genet Mol Res. 2016;15: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that artesunate attenuates alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis by regulating expression of collagen-IV, TIMP-1 and 2, as well as MMP-2 and -9, to reduce ECM accumulation. ..
  47. Feng W, Li W. The study of ISO induced heart failure rat model. Exp Mol Pathol. 2010;88:299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..85/340 mg/kg ISO induced HF rat model was superior to the other two dose ISO induced HF rat models. Pro-inflammatory cytokines might contribute to HF and myocardial fibrosis through promotion of MMPs expression in cardiac fibroblasts. ..
  48. Shen J, O Brien D, Xu Y. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 contributes to tumor necrosis factor alpha induced apoptosis in cultured rat cardiac myocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;347:1011-20 pubmed
    ..MMP-2 inhibition was associated with decreased cardiac MMP-2 activity and decreased myocardial apoptosis induced by TNFalpha. These results suggest that MMP-2 contributes to TNFalpha-induced apoptosis in cultured rat cardiac myocytes. ..
  49. Guimaraes D, Rizzi E, Ceron C, Oliveira A, Oliveira D, Castro M, et al. Doxycycline dose-dependently inhibits MMP-2-mediated vascular changes in 2K1C hypertension. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011;108:318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the idea that the effects of doxycycline on MMP-2 and vascular structure are pressure independent. ..
  50. Yang J, Wang G, Gao C, Shao G, Kang N. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen on MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and spinal cord edema after spinal cord injury. Life Sci. 2013;93:1033-8 pubmed
    ..HBO reduced SCI-induced spinal cord edema, stabilized the blood-spinal cord barrier, and promoted recovery of neuronal function by down regulating the expression of IL-6, MMP-2, and MMP-9 and up regulating the expression of VEGF. ..
  51. Lalu M, Csonka C, Giricz Z, Csont T, Schulz R, Ferdinandy P. Preconditioning decreases ischemia/reperfusion-induced release and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:937-41 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that preconditioning may exert part of its cardioprotective effects through the reduction of MMP-2 release. ..
  52. Mookerjee I, Unemori E, Du X, Tregear G, Samuel C. Relaxin modulates fibroblast function, collagen production, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression by cardiac fibroblasts. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1041:190-3 pubmed
    ..05). These studies demonstrate that relaxin may have therapeutic potential in diseased states characterized by cardiac fibrosis. ..
  53. Ghosh A, Pechota A, Coleman D, Upchurch G, Eliason J. Cigarette smoke-induced MMP2 and MMP9 secretion from aortic vascular smooth cells is mediated via the Jak/Stat pathway. Hum Pathol. 2015;46:284-94 pubmed publisher
    It is hypothesized that cigarette smoke may increase MMP2 and MMP9 secretion through Jak/Stat pathway in the aorta, thereby facilitating abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation/progression in smokers...
  54. Rouzier C, Vanatka R, Bannwarth S, Philip N, Coussement A, Paquis Flucklinger V, et al. A novel homozygous MMP2 mutation in a family with Winchester syndrome. Clin Genet. 2006;69:271-6 pubmed
    ..In 2001, two mutations in the matrix metalloproteinase 2 gene (MMP2) have been identified in two families with a NAO phenotype...
  55. Zhang H, Lin Q, Qiao C. [Expression of trophoblast invasion related genes mRNA and protein in human placenta in preeclampsia]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2006;41:509-13 pubmed
    ..Abnormal expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, KiSS-1 and TIMP-1 can cause insufficiency invasion of trophoblast in preeclampsia and superficial placentation, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis and development of preeclampsia. ..
  56. Wu X, Shao S, Qu W. [Effects of ru'ai shuhou recipe on the matrix metalloproteinases and the inhibitive factors in the recurrence and metastasis of HER2 positive breast cancer]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2012;32:1526-30 pubmed
    ..It might achieve its anti-tumor effect through effecting the invasive and metastatic capabilities of breast tumor cells. ..
  57. Chen H, Liou S, Hsu J, Chen T, Cheng T, Chiu C, et al. Baicalein inhibits HMGB1 release and MMP-2/-9 expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Am J Chin Med. 2014;42:785-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These cardioprotective effects are possibly mediated through the inhibition of the HMGB1 and MMP-2/-9 signaling pathways. ..
  58. Hecht E, Freise C, Websky K, Nasser H, Kretzschmar N, Stawowy P, et al. The matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 initiate uraemic vascular calcifications. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2016;31:789-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Their inhibition seems a promising strategy in the prevention of vascular calcifications. ..
  59. Chang C, Kuan T, Hsieh Y, Ho Y, Sun Y, Lin C. Effects of diosgenin on myometrial matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activity and expression in ovariectomized rats. Int J Biol Sci. 2011;7:837-47 pubmed
    ..Diosgenin administration can partially reverse the effects of OVX upon MMP functions and hormone status. Adequate diosgenin supplement might modulate myometrial gelatinase expression and collagen metabolism in menopausal subjects. ..
  60. Simova J, Skvor J, Reissigova J, Dudra J, Lindner J, Capek P, et al. Serum levels of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and TGFBR2 gene screening in patients with ascending aortic dilatation. Folia Biol (Praha). 2013;59:154-61 pubmed
    ..Measurement of MMP levels is a simple and relatively rapid laboratory test that could be used as a biochemical indicator when evaluated in combination with imaging techniques. ..
  61. Eissa S, Ali Labib R, Swellam M, Bassiony M, Tash F, El Zayat T. Noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer by detection of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and their inhibitor (TIMP-2) in urine. Eur Urol. 2007;52:1388-96 pubmed
  62. Van Linthout S, Seeland U, Riad A, Eckhardt O, Hohl M, Dhayat N, et al. Reduced MMP-2 activity contributes to cardiac fibrosis in experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy. Basic Res Cardiol. 2008;103:319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This condition is featured by reduced MMP-2 activity, concomitant with increased Smad 7 and TIMP-2 and decreased MT1-MMP protein expression, which differs from mechanisms involved in dilated and ischemic heart disease. ..
  63. Yang D, Ma S, Tan Y, Chen Y, Li D, Tang B, et al. Imbalance of matrix metalloproteinases/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and loss of fibronectin expression in patients with congestive heart failure. Cardiology. 2010;116:133-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the fibronectin level in the patients with CHF was significantly lower than in the controls. These data suggest that human CHF is associated with an imbalance of MMPs/TIMP-1 and a concurrent loss of fibronectin. ..
  64. Pham Van T, Couchie D, Martin Garcia N, Laperche Y, Zafrani E, Mavier P. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in liver regeneration from oval cells in rat. Matrix Biol. 2008;27:674-81 pubmed publisher
  65. Yamada H, Le Q, Kousaka A, Higashi Y, Tsukane M, Kido H. Sendai virus infection up-regulates trypsin I and matrix metalloproteinase-9, triggering viral multiplication and matrix degradation in rat lungs and lung L2 cells. Arch Virol. 2006;151:2529-37 pubmed
    ..Up-regulation of proMMP-9 and its active convertase trypsin I seems to synergistically enhance virus multiplication and the destruction of lung matrix, resulting in the progression of pneumonia. ..
  66. Sinha A, Nosoudi N, Vyavahare N. Elasto-regenerative properties of polyphenols. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;444:205-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, polyphenol treatments leads to increased mature elastin fibers synthesis without increasing the production of intracellular tropoelastin. ..
  67. Sifringer M, Stefovska V, Zentner I, Hansen B, Stepulak A, Knaute C, et al. The role of matrix metalloproteinases in infant traumatic brain injury. Neurobiol Dis. 2007;25:526-35 pubmed
    ..MMPs might serve as useful targets for therapeutic approaches aimed at preserving neuronal function in the immature brain in the context of mechanical injury. ..
  68. Aoki T, Kataoka H, Moriwaki T, Nozaki K, Hashimoto N. Role of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in the progression of cerebral aneurysms. Stroke. 2007;38:2337-45 pubmed
    ..There is an imbalance between MMPs and TIMPs in the late stage of cerebral aneurysm formation, which may be responsible for ECM degradation leading to the progression and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. ..
  69. Yang R, Liu H, Williams I, Chaqour B. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and apoptogenic activity in retinal pericytes: implications in diabetic retinopathy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1103:196-201 pubmed
  70. Calabrò A, Grappone C, Pellegrini G, Evangelista S, Tramontana M, Schuppan D, et al. Spatial and temporal pattern of expression of interstitial collagenase, stromelysin/transin, gelatinase A, and TIMP-1 during experimental gastric ulcer healing. Digestion. 2004;70:127-38 pubmed
    ..We studied the temporal and spatial expression of three matrix metalloproteinases, gelatinase A (MMP-2), interstitial collagenase (MMP-13), stromelysin (MMP-3), and their major inhibitor, tissue inhibitor of ..
  71. Wojciechowski R, Bailey Wilson J, Stambolian D. Association of matrix metalloproteinase gene polymorphisms with refractive error in Amish and Ashkenazi families. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4989-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Statistically significant genetic associations of ocular refraction to polymorphisms near MMP1 and within MMP2 were identified in the AMISH but not among the ASHK families...
  72. Saygili E, Schauerte P, Pekassa M, Saygili E, Rackauskas G, Schwinger R, et al. Sympathetic neurons express and secrete MMP-2 and MT1-MMP to control nerve sprouting via pro-NGF conversion. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2011;31:17-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, specific MMP-2 blockade prevents sympathetic nerve sprouting (SNS) by inhibition of pro-NGF conversion while losartan abolishes HFES-induced SNS by reducing total NGF, MMP-2 and MT1-MMP expression. ..
  73. Cui Y, Sun Y, Lin H, Su W, Fang Y, Zhao Y, et al. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB induces matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and rat vascular smooth muscle cell migration via ROCK and ERK/p38 MAPK pathways. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;393:255-63 pubmed publisher
  74. Jovanova Nesic K, Shoenfeld Y. MMP-2, VCAM-1 and NCAM-1 expression in the brain of rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis as a trigger mechanism for synaptic plasticity and pathology. J Neuroimmunol. 2006;181:112-21 pubmed
  75. Caserman S, Lah T. Comparison of expression of cathepsins B and L and MMP2 in endothelial cells and in capillary sprouting in collagen gel. Int J Biol Markers. 2004;19:120-9 pubmed
    ..In support of this finding, we demonstrated a significant increase in endogenous endothelial mRNA of MMP2, but not of cathepsins B and L, in proliferating primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-d) in ..
  76. Seo K, Lee S, Kim Y, Bae J, Park S, Bae S, et al. Mechanical stretch increases MMP-2 production in vascular smooth muscle cells via activation of PDGFR-?/Akt signaling pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70437 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data indicate that MS induces MMP-2 production in VSMC via activation of Akt pathway, that is mediated by activation of PDGFR-? signaling pathways. ..
  77. Abe D, Kubota T, Morozumi T, Shimizu T, Nakasone N, Itagaki M, et al. Altered gene expression in leukocyte transendothelial migration and cell communication pathways in periodontitis-affected gingival tissues. J Periodontal Res. 2011;46:345-53 pubmed publisher
  78. Raffetto J, Barros Y, Wells A, Khalil R. MMP-2 induced vein relaxation via inhibition of [Ca2+]e-dependent mechanisms of venous smooth muscle contraction. Role of RGD peptides. J Surg Res. 2010;159:755-64 pubmed publisher
    ..MMP-2 induced inhibition of the Ca(2+) entry mechanism of VSM contraction may play a role in the venous dilation associated with varicose vein formation. ..
  79. Accorsi Mendonça T, Zambuzzi W, da Silva Paiva K, Pereira Lauris J, Cestari T, Taga R, et al. Expression of metalloproteinase 2 in the cell response to porous demineralized bovine bone matrix. J Mol Histol. 2005;36:311-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, considering the experimental limitations of this study, we concluded that MMP-2 produced by macrophages participates in the resorption of demineralized bovine bone. ..
  80. Zhou T, Qin Y, Lei F, Su L, Zhao Y, Huang W. Less gelatinases is associated with apolipoprotein E accumulation in glomerulosclerosis rats. Histol Histopathol. 2012;27:249-56 pubmed publisher
    ..01). Lower expression of gelatinases is associated with the increased expression of apoE in the glomerulus, and increases the accumulation of ECM and takes part in the pathological change of GS. ..
  81. Deus A, Bassi D, Simões R, Oliveira C, Baldissera V, Marqueti R, et al. MMP(-2) expression in skeletal muscle after strength training. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33:137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..91). RTL in using low and high-intensity exercise can serve as a model to demonstrate different responses of MMP(-2) expression in an animal model. It appears active form expression of MMP(-2) is modulated by exercise intensity. ..
  82. Narantuya D, Nagai A, Sheikh A, Wakabayashi K, Shiota Y, Watanabe T, et al. Microglia transplantation attenuates white matter injury in rat chronic ischemia model via matrix metalloproteinase-2 inhibition. Brain Res. 2010;1316:145-52 pubmed publisher
  83. Jacob Ferreira A, Palei A, Cau S, Moreno H, Martinez M, Izidoro Toledo T, et al. Evidence for the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases in the cardiovascular effects produced by nicotine. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;627:216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These findings suggest that nicotine produces cardiovascular effects involving MMPs. It is possible that MMPs inhibition may counteract the effects produced by nicotine. ..
  84. Yui S, Fujita N, Chung C, Morita M, Nishimura R. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) degrade neurocan in injured spinal cord by secreting matrix metalloproteinase-2 in a rat contusion model. Jpn J Vet Res. 2014;62:151-62 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that OECs transplanted into injured spinal cord degraded neurocan by secreting MMP-2. ..
  85. Yang S, Lin C, Yang P, Chao S, Ye Y, Hu D. Increased expression of gelatinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in pterygia and pterygium fibroblasts with disease progression and activation of protein kinase C. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:4588-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of the PKC signaling pathway, aside from other previously reported signaling pathways, may play a role in the development and progression of pterygium. ..
  86. Johanns M, Lemoine P, Janssens V, Grieco G, Moestrup S, Nielsen R, et al. Cellular uptake of proMMP-2:TIMP-2 complexes by the endocytic receptor megalin/LRP-2. Sci Rep. 2017;7:4328 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore megalin/LRP-2 can be considered as a new actor in regulation of MMP-2 activity, an enzyme crucially involved in many pathological processes. ..
  87. Jing T, Wang H, Srivenugopal K, He G, Liu J, Miao L, et al. Conditional expression of type 2 angiotensin II receptor in rat vascular smooth muscle cells reveals the interplay of the angiotensin system in matrix metalloproteinase 2 expression and vascular remodeling. Int J Mol Med. 2009;24:103-10 pubmed
    ..VSMCs and stable transfectants with no AT2R induction, Ang II significantly increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), which is linked to neointimal growth...