mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase


Gene Symbol: mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase
Description: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 family (mitochondrial)
Alias: aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial, ALDH class 2, ALDH-E2, ALDH1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial, mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase
Species: rat

Top Publications

  1. Diwan J, Paliwal R, Kaftan E, Bawa R. A mitochondrial protein fraction catalyzing transport of the K+ analog T1+. FEBS Lett. 1990;273:215-8 pubmed
    ..These and other findings suggest that the affinity purified fraction includes a cation transport catalyst. ..
  2. Sapag A, Tampier L, Valle Prieto A, Quintanilla M, Moncada C, Israel Y. Mutations in mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) change cofactor affinity and segregate with voluntary alcohol consumption in rats. Pharmacogenetics. 2003;13:509-15 pubmed
    ..UChA (low drinkers) and UChB (high drinkers) display differences in the relative K(m) for NAD+ of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) but no V(max) differences...
  3. Zhang P, Xu D, Wang S, Fu H, Wang K, Zou Y, et al. Inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activity enhances antimycin-induced rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis through activation of MAPK signaling pathway. Biomed Pharmacother. 2011;65:590-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicated that modifying mitochondrial ALDH2 activity/expression might be a potential therapeutic option on reducing oxidative insults induced cardiomyocytes apoptosis. ..
  4. Chen C, Budas G, Churchill E, Disatnik M, Hurley T, Mochly Rosen D. Activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 reduces ischemic damage to the heart. Science. 2008;321:1493-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, using an unbiased proteomic search, we identified mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) as an enzyme whose activation correlates with reduced ischemic heart damage in rodent ..
  5. Liao J, Sun A, Xie Y, Isse T, Kawamoto T, Zou Y, et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 deficiency aggravates cardiac dysfunction elicited by endoplasmic reticulum stress induction. Mol Med. 2012;18:785-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) has been characterized as an important mediator of endogenous cytoprotection in the heart...
  6. Miyasaka K, Kawanami T, Shimokata H, Ohta S, Funakoshi A. Inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 increased the risk of pancreatic cancer among smokers in a Japanese male population. Pancreas. 2005;30:95-8 pubmed
    ..a recognized animal carcinogen, generated during alcohol metabolism is eliminated by liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)...
  7. Murata C, Taniyama M, Kuriyama S, Muramatsu T, Atsumi Y, Matsuoka K, et al. Meta-analysis of three diabetes population studies: association of inactive ALDH2 genotype with maternal inheritance of diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004;66 Suppl 1:S145-7 pubmed
    To date, there have been three population studies that examined the association of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) genotype with inheritance of diabetes. Here, we summarize the results by meta-analysis...
  8. Takagi S, Iwai N, Yamauchi R, Kojima S, Yasuno S, Baba T, et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene is a risk factor for myocardial infarction in Japanese men. Hypertens Res. 2002;25:677-81 pubmed
    ..This may indicate that the ALDH2 genotype affects MI via its effects on HDL-C. In conclusion, the ALDH2 Lys/Lys genotype is a risk factor for myocardial infarction in Japanese men due to its influence on HDL cholesterol level. ..
  9. Sonoda K, Ohtake K, Kubo Y, Uchida H, Uchida M, Natsume H, et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 partly mediates hypotensive effect of nitrite on L-NAME-induced hypertension in normoxic rat. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2014;36:410-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ALDH2 may be at least in part involved in nitrite-mediated hypotensive effects and nitrite catalysis in many organs of normoxic rats. ..

More Information


  1. Karahanian E, Rivera Meza M, Tampier L, Quintanilla M, Herrera Marschitz M, Israel Y. Long-term inhibition of ethanol intake by the administration of an aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2)-coding lentiviral vector into the ventral tegmental area of rats. Addict Biol. 2015;20:336-44 pubmed publisher
  2. Takagi S, Baba S, Iwai N, Fukuda M, Katsuya T, Higaki J, et al. The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene is a risk factor for hypertension in Japanese but does not alter the sensitivity to pressor effects of alcohol: the Suita study. Hypertens Res. 2001;24:365-70 pubmed
  3. Farres J, Guan K, Weiner H. Sequence of the signal peptide for rat liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988;150:1083-7 pubmed
    The cDNA coding for the signal peptide of rat liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase was sequenced. The deduced amino acid sequence of the signal peptide was MLRAALSTARRGPRLSRLL...
  4. Mali V, Pan G, Deshpande M, Thandavarayan R, Xu J, Yang X, et al. Cardiac Mitochondrial Respiratory Dysfunction and Tissue Damage in Chronic Hyperglycemia Correlate with Reduced Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 Activity. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0163158 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that chronic hyperglycemia reduces ALDH2 activity, leading to mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and consequently cardiac damage and dysfunction. ..
  5. Choi J, Kim J, Cho S, Ha M, Song K, Youn H, et al. Malondialdehyde inhibits an AMPK-mediated nuclear translocation and repression activity of ALDH2 in transcription. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:400-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus suggest that increasing amount of MDA during aging process may interrupt the nuclear function of ALDH2, modulated by AMPK. ..
  6. Wang H, Kang P, Ye H, Wang X, Yu Y, Zhang Y, et al. [Effect of ALDH2 activation against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic rat]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2012;28:133-7 pubmed
    ..In diabetic rat, the expression of ALDH2 was decreased when heart was subjected to I/R. Enhanced mitochondrial ALDH2 expression in diabetic rat could play cardiac protective role. ..
  7. Quintanilla M, Tampier L, Sapag A, Israel Y. Polymorphisms in the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (Aldh2) determine peak blood acetaldehyde levels and voluntary ethanol consumption in rats. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2005;15:427-31 pubmed
    ..rats selectively bred as low-alcohol consumers for many generations present an allele (Aldh2(2)) of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase that does not exist in high-alcohol consumers, which mostly carry the Aldh2(1) allele...
  8. Stachowicz A, Głombik K, Olszanecki R, Basta Kaim A, Suski M, Lasoń W, et al. The impact of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) activation by Alda-1 on the behavioral and biochemical disturbances in animal model of depression. Brain Behav Immun. 2016;51:144-53 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), an enzyme responsible for the detoxification of reactive aldehydes, is considered to exert ..
  9. Wong L, Fan S, Man K, Sit W, Jiang P, Jor I, et al. Identification of liver proteins and their roles associated with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011;30:1369-81 pubmed publisher
    ..with significant up-regulation, namely calcium-binding protein 1, protein disulfide isomerase, mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase precursor, and, glutathione-S-transferase mu1 and six proteins with significant down-regulation, ..
  10. Badejo A, Hodnette C, Dhaliwal J, Casey D, Pankey E, Murthy S, et al. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase mediates vasodilator responses of glyceryl trinitrate and sodium nitrite in the pulmonary vascular bed of the rat. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H819-26 pubmed publisher
    It has been reported that mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) catalyzes the formation of glyceryl dinitrate and inorganic nitrite from glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), leading to an increase in cGMP and vasodilation in the coronary and ..
  11. Hu Y, Yan J, Zheng M, Song X, Wang L, Shen Y, et al. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase activity protects against lipopolysaccharide‑induced cardiac dysfunction in rats. Mol Med Rep. 2015;11:1509-15 pubmed publisher
    Myocardial dysfunction in sepsis is associated with an increased risk of mortality. The mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) enzyme is crucial for protecting the heart from ischemic injury...
  12. Pang Y, Cai Z, Rhodes P. Analysis of genes differentially expressed in astrocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide using cDNA arrays. Brain Res. 2001;914:15-22 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that both up-regulation of inflammatory cytokine expression and down-regulation of growth factor expression are probably involved in the response of astrocytes upon exposure to LPS. ..
  13. Crabb D, Stewart M, Xiao Q. Hormonal and chemical influences on the expression of class 2 aldehyde dehydrogenases in rat H4IIEC3 and human HuH7 hepatoma cells. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1995;19:1414-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that low Km ALDH2 can be regulated by hormones and may not be constitutive as previously thought, and that the HuH7 ALDH is regulated differently. ..
  14. Yuan Q, Hong S, Han S, Zeng L, Liu F, Ding G, et al. Preconditioning with physiological levels of ethanol protect kidney against ischemia/reperfusion injury by modulating oxidative stress. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25811 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, ethanol precondition and ectopic ALDH2 activation could be potential therapeutic approaches to prevent renal IR injury relevant to various clinical conditions. ..
  15. Bai J, Mei Y. Overexpression of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 attenuates neurotoxicity induced by 4-hydroxynonenal in cultured primary hippocampal neurons. Neurotox Res. 2011;19:412-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, ALDH2 gene can be a potential therapeutic target for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD. ..
  16. Kanda J, Matsuo K, Suzuki T, Kawase T, Hiraki A, Watanabe M, et al. Impact of alcohol consumption with polymorphisms in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes on pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:296-302 pubmed publisher
    ..09 (1.30–12.85)]. These results indicate that alcohol has an impact on PC risk when the effects of alcohol consumption and metabolism are combined. Acetaldehyde may be involved in the mechanisms underlying PC development. ..
  17. Suzuki Y, Taniyama M, Muramatsu T, Higuchi S, Ohta S, Atsumi Y, et al. ALDH2/ADH2 polymorphism associated with vasculopathy and neuropathy in type 2 diabetes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2004;28:111S-116S pubmed
  18. Farres J, Guan K, Weiner H. Primary structures of rat and bovine liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases deduced from cDNA sequences. Eur J Biochem. 1989;180:67-74 pubmed
    The cDNA coding for rat liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase was cloned and sequenced. It contained an open reading frame of 1557 bp...
  19. Nagasawa H, Wada M, Arawaka S, Kawanami T, Kurita K, Daimon M, et al. A polymorphism of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene is a risk factor for multiple lacunar infarcts in Japanese men: the Takahata Study. Eur J Neurol. 2007;14:428-34 pubmed
    ..The present study revealed that the ALDH2 *1/*1 genotype was significantly associated with the prevalence of multiple lacunar infarcts in Japanese men. ..
  20. Moon K, Hood B, Kim B, Hardwick J, Conrads T, Veenstra T, et al. Inactivation of oxidized and S-nitrosylated mitochondrial proteins in alcoholic fatty liver of rats. Hepatology. 2006;44:1218-30 pubmed
    ..These include mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ATP synthase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, and many proteins ..
  21. Peng G, Wang M, Chen C, Luu S, Chou H, Li T, et al. Involvement of acetaldehyde for full protection against alcoholism by homozygosity of the variant allele of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in Asians. Pharmacogenetics. 1999;9:463-76 pubmed
    There is a functional polymorphism of the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) gene with the variant allele (ALDH2*2) encoding a protein subunit that confers low activity to the tetrameric enzyme...
  22. GONNELLA T, Leedahl T, Karlstad J, Picklo M. NADH fluorescence lifetime analysis of the effect of magnesium ions on ALDH2. Chem Biol Interact. 2011;191:147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we observed distinct fluorescence signatures from multiple ALDH2-NADH complexes corresponding to free NADH, enzyme-bound NADH, and, potentially, an abortive NADH-enzyme-propanal complex (?=11.2 ns). ..
  23. Wang W, Lin L, Guo J, Cheng Y, Qian J, Mehta J, et al. Heavy ethanol consumption aggravates the ischemic cerebral injury by inhibiting ALDH2. Int J Stroke. 2015;10:1261-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also used mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 knockdown/overexpression or inhibitor/activator to investigate mechanism of the adverse effects ..
  24. Zambelli V, Gross E, Chen C, Gutierrez V, Cury Y, Mochly Rosen D. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 regulates nociception in rodent models of acute inflammatory pain. Sci Transl Med. 2014;6:251ra118 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our results suggest a possible genetic basis for East Asians' apparent lower pain tolerance. ..
  25. Hopkinson D, Santisteban I, Povey S, Smith M. Biochemical genetic analysis of human and rodent aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Alcohol. 1985;2:73-8 pubmed
    ..The human "cytosolic" ALDH1 and "mitochondrial" ALDH2 isozymes did not appear to be expressed in any of the somatic cell hybrids ..
  26. Amamoto K, Okamura T, Tamaki S, Kita Y, Tsujita Y, Kadowaki T, et al. Epidemiologic study of the association of low-Km mitochondrial acetaldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes with blood pressure level and the prevalence of hypertension in a general population. Hypertens Res. 2002;25:857-64 pubmed
    In Japanese and other Asians, the prevalence of genetically decreased mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) activity is higher than in Caucasians...
  27. Szocs K, LASSEGUE B, Wenzel P, Wendt M, Daiber A, Oelze M, et al. Increased superoxide production in nitrate tolerance is associated with NAD(P)H oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 downregulation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007;42:1111-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, reduced ALDH-2 activity and expression leads to decreased NTG bioconversion. Therefore, both mechanisms reduce NO availability and impair vasorelaxation. ..
  28. Robador P, Seyedi N, Chan N, Koda K, Levi R. Aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 activation by adenosine and histamine inhibits ischemic norepinephrine release in cardiac sympathetic neurons: mediation by protein kinase C?. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;343:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (ALDH2) alleviates ischemic heart damage and reperfusion arrhythmias via aldehyde ..
  29. Wang H, Kang P, Ye H, Yu Y, Wang X, Gao Q. [Anti-apoptotic role of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic rats]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2012;32:345-8 pubmed
    ..In diabetic rats, enhanced ALDH2 expression can offer mycardial protection possibly in relation to suppress cell apoptosis. ..
  30. Hu D, Cao K, Peterson Wakeman R, Wang R. Altered profile of gene expression in rat hearts induced by chronic nicotine consumption. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;297:729-36 pubmed
    ..subunit, mitochondrial H(+) transporting ATP synthase F1 complex alpha subunit isoform 1, liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, glutathione-S-transferase mu type 2, corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2, metabotropic ..
  31. Abe Y, Shodai T, Muto T, Mihara K, Torii H, Nishikawa S, et al. Structural basis of presequence recognition by the mitochondrial protein import receptor Tom20. Cell. 2000;100:551-60 pubmed
    ..Although the positive charges of the presequence are essential for import ability, presequence binding to Tom20 is mediated mainly by hydrophobic rather than ionic interactions. ..
  32. Li Z, Jiang C, Xia M, Ye H, Guan S, Gao Q. [Activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore involved in cardioprotection of ethanol postconditioning]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2010;39:566-71 pubmed
    To investigate whether activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) and inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mitoPTP) were involved in the cardioprotection of ethanol postconditioning in isolated rat ..
  33. Gao Q, Wang H, Wang X, Kang P, Yu Y, Ye H, et al. Activation of ALDH2 with ethanol attenuates diabetes induced myocardial injury in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;56:419-24 pubmed publisher
    ..However, activation of ALDH2 can decrease diabetes induced myocardial injury. ALDH2 may be one key endogenous cardiac protective factor in diabetic individuals. ..
  34. Yao L, Fan P, Arolfo M, Jiang Z, Olive M, Zablocki J, et al. Inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 suppresses cocaine seeking by generating THP, a cocaine use-dependent inhibitor of dopamine synthesis. Nat Med. 2010;16:1024-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective inhibition of ALDH-2 may have therapeutic potential for treating human cocaine addiction and preventing relapse. ..
  35. Gomes K, Campos J, Bechara L, Queliconi B, Lima V, Disatnik M, et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 activation in heart failure restores mitochondrial function and improves ventricular function and remodelling. Cardiovasc Res. 2014;103:498-508 pubmed publisher
    We previously demonstrated that pharmacological activation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) protects the heart against acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury...
  36. Blake C, Brown L, Duncan M, Hunsucker S, Helmke S. Estrogen regulation of the rat anterior pituitary gland proteome. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2005;230:800-7 pubmed
    ..PTB-associated splicing factor, and Pigpen protein), but isovaleryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase, mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, stathmin 1, vinculin, radixin, and secretogranin III were also reduced...
  37. Ohta S, Ohsawa I, Kamino K, Ando F, Shimokata H. Mitochondrial ALDH2 deficiency as an oxidative stress. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004;1011:36-44 pubmed
    b>Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) plays a major role in ethanol metabolism. It is involved in acetaldehyde detoxification. A polymorphism of the ALDH2 gene is specific to North-East Asians...
  38. Lytovchenko O, Melin J, Schulz C, Kilisch M, Hutu D, Rehling P. Signal recognition initiates reorganization of the presequence translocase during protein import. EMBO J. 2013;32:886-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The signal-driven release of Tim21 from Tim50 promotes recruitment of Pam17 and thus triggers formation of the motor-associated form of the TIM23 complex required for matrix transport. ..
  39. Lang X, Wang X, Zhang K, Lv J, Jin J, Li Q. Isoflurane preconditioning confers cardioprotection by activation of ALDH2. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e52469 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of ALDH2 and cardioprotection by isoflurane were substantially blocked by the PKC? inhibitor. Activation of ALDH2 by mitochondrial PKC? plays an important role in the cardioprotection of isoflurane in myocardium I/R injury. ..
  40. Ishikawa N, Murata C, Mikurube H, Ito S, Higashiyama R, Komaki Y, et al. Change of components of the metabolic syndrome in a workers' health checkup after five years--relation with elevated liver enzymes, gene polymorphisms for ALDH 2, beta3-AR and lifestyle. Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi. 2005;52:979-86 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these findings indicate that ALDH2 genotyping as well as lifestyle habits may be important factors in causing metabolic syndrome with liver dysfunction. ..
  41. Galbis Estrada C, Pons Vazquez S, Gallego Pinazo R, Lleo Perez A, Garcia Medina J, Bou V, et al. Glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH3) and low km mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). New evidence for differential expression in the rat retina in response to oxidative stress. Free Radic Res. 2012;46:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..distribution and activity of glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH3) and low km mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), were studied and compared with induced LPO sites in the adult rat retina...
  42. Wang J, Wang H, Hao P, Xue L, Wei S, Zhang Y, et al. Inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 by oxidative stress is associated with cardiac dysfunction in diabetic rats. Mol Med. 2011;17:172-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ALDH2 inhibition may be associated with LV reduced contractility, and mitochondrial impairment aggravated by ALDH2 inhibition might reflect an underlying mechanism which causes cardiac dysfunction in diabetic rats. ..
  43. Suzuki Y, Matsuura N, Suzuki S, Muramatsu T, Taniyama M, Ohta S, et al. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 genotype in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003;60:139-41 pubmed
  44. Wang P, Shen C, Diao L, Yang Z, Fan F, Wang C, et al. Aberrant hypermethylation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 promoter upstream sequence in rats with experimental myocardial infarction. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:503692 pubmed publisher
    ..Aberrant hypermethylation of CpG sites in ALDH2 promoter upstream sequence is associated with myocardial ischemia injury and may partly result in ALDH2 downregulation after MI. ..
  45. Liu B, Wang J, Li M, Yuan Q, Xue M, Xu F, et al. Inhibition of ALDH2 by O-GlcNAcylation contributes to the hyperglycemic exacerbation of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Oncotarget. 2017;8:19413-19426 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that ALDH2 O-GlcNAc modification is a key mechanism for the hyperglycemic exacerbation of myocardial I/R injury and Alda-1 has therapeutic potential for inducing cardioprotection. ..
  46. Greenfield N, Pietruszko R. Two aldehyde dehydrogenases from human liver. Isolation via affinity chromatography and characterization of the isozymes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1977;483:35-45 pubmed
    ..Mope, L., Takio, K. and Yonetani, T. (1976) J. Biol, Chem. 251, 236-240) in molecular weight, subunit composition, amino acid composition and extinction coefficient. Preliminary kinetic characterizations of the enzyme are presented. ..
  47. Rivera Meza M, Quintanilla M, Tampier L. Reduction of ethanol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats by dual expression gene transfer. Alcohol Alcohol. 2012;47:102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides evidence that the simultaneous increase of liver ADH and a reduction of ALDH activity by gene transfer could constitute a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of alcoholism. ..
  48. Wenzel P, Hink U, Oelze M, Schuppan S, Schaeuble K, Schildknecht S, et al. Role of reduced lipoic acid in the redox regulation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2) activity. Implications for mitochondrial oxidative stress and nitrate tolerance. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:792-9 pubmed
    ..are an important source of nitroglycerin-induced oxidants and that the nitroglycerin-bioactivating mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase is oxidatively inactivated in the setting of tolerance...
  49. Xu D, Guthrie J, Mabry S, Sack T, Truog W. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase attenuates hyperoxia-induced cell death through activation of ERK/MAPK and PI3K-Akt pathways in lung epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291:L966-75 pubmed
    ..Using proteomic analysis, we discovered that mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (mtALDH or ALDH2) was downregulated in neonatal rat lung after hyperoxic exposure...
  50. Hempel J, Kaiser R, Jornvall H. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase from human liver. Primary structure, differences in relation to the cytosolic enzyme, and functional correlations. Eur J Biochem. 1985;153:13-28 pubmed
    ..The presence of some internal repeat structures is also noted as well as apparently general features of differences between cytosolic and mitochondrial enzymes. ..
  51. Jeng J, Weiner H. Purification and characterization of catalytically active precursor of rat liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase expressed in Escherichia coli. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991;289:214-22 pubmed
    The cDNA coding for the precursor (p-ALDH) or mature (m-ALDH) rat liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase was cloned in an expression vector pT7-7 and expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3)/plysS. The p-ALDH expressed in E...
  52. D Souza Y, Dowlatshahi S, Bennett B. Changes in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 expression in rat blood vessels during glyceryl trinitrate tolerance development and reversal. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:632-43 pubmed publisher
  53. Yoon M, Madden M, Barton H. Developmental expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase in rat: a comparison of liver and lung development. Toxicol Sci. 2006;89:386-98 pubmed
    ..Hepatic ALDH2 was increased with age, while the pulmonary form did not. ALDH1 was at its maximum value at postnatal day 1 (PND1) and decreased thereafter both in liver and lung...
  54. Quintanilla M, Tampier L. Brain mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase: relation to acetaldehyde aversion in low-alcohol-drinking (UChA) and high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats. Addict Biol. 2003;8:387-97 pubmed
    ..indicate that the low-drinker (UChA) rats, when compared to high-drinker (UChB) rats, display lower mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) activity due to a mutation of the Aldh2 gene...
  55. Canuto R, Ferro M, Salvo R, Bassi A, Trombetta A, Maggiora M, et al. Increase in class 2 aldehyde dehydrogenase expression by arachidonic acid in rat hepatoma cells. Biochem J. 2001;357:811-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, arachidonic acid added to the culture medium of hepatoma cell lines is able to partially restore the normal phenotype of class 2 ALDH, in addition to a decrease in cell growth. ..
  56. Tottmar S, Pettersson H, Kiessling K. The subcellular distribution and properties of aldehyde dehydrogenases in rat liver. Biochem J. 1973;135:577-86 pubmed
    ..5. The results are compared with those of earlier investigations on the distribution of aldehyde dehydrogenase and with the results from purified enzymes from different sources. ..