Gene Symbol: Mfn1
Description: mitofusin 1
Alias: Fzo1b, mitofusin-1, mitochondrial transmembrane GTPase FZO1B, transmembrane GTPase MFN1
Species: rat
Products:     Mfn1

Top Publications

  1. Santel A, Frank S, Gaume B, Herrler M, Youle R, Fuller M. Mitofusin-1 protein is a generally expressed mediator of mitochondrial fusion in mammalian cells. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:2763-74 pubmed
    ..The nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins Mfn1 and Mfn2 are human homologues of the only known protein mediators of mitochondrial fusion, the Drosophila Fzo ..
  2. Chen H, Detmer S, Ewald A, Griffin E, Fraser S, Chan D. Mitofusins Mfn1 and Mfn2 coordinately regulate mitochondrial fusion and are essential for embryonic development. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:189-200 pubmed
    ..The mitofusins, Mfn1 and Mfn2, have been shown to affect mitochondrial morphology when overexpressed...
  3. Chen Y, Liu Y, Dorn G. Mitochondrial fusion is essential for organelle function and cardiac homeostasis. Circ Res. 2011;109:1327-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The murine mfn1 and mfn2 genes, encoding mitofusins (Mfn) 1 and 2 that mediate mitochondrial tethering and outer mitochondrial ..
  4. Palmer C, Elgass K, Parton R, Osellame L, Stojanovski D, Ryan M. Adaptor proteins MiD49 and MiD51 can act independently of Mff and Fis1 in Drp1 recruitment and are specific for mitochondrial fission. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:27584-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that MiD49 and MiD51 can act independently of Mff and Fis1 in Drp1 recruitment and suggest that they provide specificity to the division of mitochondria. ..
  5. Li R, Kou X, Geng H, Xie J, Tian J, Cai Z, et al. Mitochondrial damage: an important mechanism of ambient PM2.5 exposure-induced acute heart injury in rats. J Hazard Mater. 2015;287:392-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, PM2.5 exposure significantly increased specific mitochondrial fission/fusion gene (Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1 and OPA1) expression in rat hearts...
  6. Meng G, Liu J, Liu S, Song Q, Liu L, Xie L, et al. Hydrogen sulfide pretreatment improves mitochondrial function in myocardial hypertrophy via a SIRT3-dependent manner. Br J Pharmacol. 2018;175:1126-1145 pubmed publisher
    ..mitochondrial ultrastructure, suppressed mitochondrial volume but increased mitochondrial numbers, enhanced OPA1, MFN1 and MFN2 expression but suppressed DRP1 and FIS1 expression in WT mice but not in SIRT3 KO mice CONCLUSION AND ..
  7. Kitaoka Y, Ogasawara R, Tamura Y, Fujita S, Hatta H. Effect of electrical stimulation-induced resistance exercise on mitochondrial fission and fusion proteins in rat skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2015;40:1137-42 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed no change in levels of proteins that regulate mitochondrial fission (Fis1 and Drp1) or fusion (Opa1, Mfn1, and Mfn2) over the 24-h period following acute resistance exercise...
  8. Yu J, Wang Y, Li Z, Dong S, Wang D, Gong L, et al. Effect of Heme Oxygenase-1 on Mitofusin-1 protein in LPS-induced ALI/ARDS in rats. Sci Rep. 2016;6:36530 pubmed publisher
    ..and function of cells and is finely regulated by mitochondrial fusion proteins, such as mitofusin-1 protein (Mfn1), mitofusin-2 protein (Mfn2) and optical atrophy 1 (OPA1)...
  9. Borengasser S, Faske J, Kang P, Blackburn M, Badger T, Shankar K. In utero exposure to prepregnancy maternal obesity and postweaning high-fat diet impair regulators of mitochondrial dynamics in rat placenta and offspring. Physiol Genomics. 2014;46:841-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, maternal obesity detrimentally alters mitochondrial targets that may contribute to impaired mitochondrial health and increased obesity susceptibility in later life. ..

More Information


  1. Cao Y, Meng S, Chen Y, Feng J, Gu D, Yu B, et al. MFN1 structures reveal nucleotide-triggered dimerization critical for mitochondrial fusion. Nature. 2017;542:372-376 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present crystal structures of engineered human MFN1 containing the GTPase domain and a helical domain during different stages of GTP hydrolysis...
  2. Ding H, Jiang N, Liu H, Liu X, Liu D, Zhao F, et al. Response of mitochondrial fusion and fission protein gene expression to exercise in rat skeletal muscle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:250-6 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Mfn1/2 and Fis1 mRNA and protein contents, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, state 3 and state 4 respiration ..
  3. Liu Q, Krishnasamy Y, Rehman H, Lemasters J, Schnellmann R, Zhong Z. Disrupted Renal Mitochondrial Homeostasis after Liver Transplantation in Rats. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0140906 pubmed publisher
  4. Zhang Z, Fan Z, Cao Y, Jia Z, Li G, Zhi X, et al. Acetyl-L-carnitineameliorates mitochondrial damage and apoptosis following spinal cord injury in rats. Neurosci Lett. 2015;604:18-23 pubmed publisher
    ..05 compared with SCI group). ALC administration reversed the downregulation of mitofusin 1 (Mfn1), Mfn2, Bcl-2, and the upregulation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), mitochondrial fission 1 (Fis1), ..
  5. Dong X, Guan X, Chen K, Jin S, Wang C, Yan L, et al. Abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and impaired mitochondrial biogenesis in trigeminal ganglion neurons in a rat model of migraine. Neurosci Lett. 2017;636:127-133 pubmed publisher
    ..fission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) was increased while mitochondrial fusion protein Mitofusin1 (Mfn1) was reduced in TG neurons...
  6. Ishihara N, Jofuku A, Eura Y, Mihara K. Regulation of mitochondrial morphology by membrane potential, and DRP1-dependent division and FZO1-dependent fusion reaction in mammalian cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;301:891-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, a HVJ-dependent cell fusion assay combined with RNA interference (RNAi) demonstrated that both FZO1 isoforms are essential and must be acting in cis for the mitochondrial fusion reaction to occur. ..
  7. FIELDS J, Serger E, Campos S, Divakaruni A, Kim C, SMITH K, et al. HIV alters neuronal mitochondrial fission/fusion in the brain during HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neurobiol Dis. 2016;86:154-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Promoting mitochondrial fission during HIV infection of the CNS may restore mitochondrial biogenesis and prevent neurodegeneration. ..
  8. Pyakurel A, Savoia C, Hess D, Scorrano L. Extracellular regulated kinase phosphorylates mitofusin 1 to control mitochondrial morphology and apoptosis. Mol Cell. 2015;58:244-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphoproteomic and biochemical analyses revealed that MFN1 is phosphorylated at an atypical ERK site in its heptad repeat (HR) 1 domain...
  9. Jia Z, Li G, Zhang Z, Li H, Wang J, Fan Z, et al. Time representation of mitochondrial morphology and function after acute spinal cord injury. Neural Regen Res. 2016;11:137-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Fusion protein mitofusin 1 expression gradually increased, peaked at 8 hours after injury, and then decreased to its lowest level at 24 ..
  10. Wang Y, Gao P, Wei C, Li H, Zhang L, Zhao Y, et al. Calcium sensing receptor protects high glucose-induced energy metabolism disorder via blocking gp78-ubiquitin proteasome pathway. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2799 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrated that HG decreased the expression of CaSR, mitochondrial fusion proteins (Mfn1, Mfn2), cell gap junction related proteins (Cx43, β-catenin, N-cadherin), and intracellular ATP concentration...
  11. Xue R, Sun L, Yu X, Li D, Zang W. Vagal nerve stimulation improves mitochondrial dynamics via an M3 receptor/CaMKK?/AMPK pathway in isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischaemia. J Cell Mol Med. 2017;21:58-71 pubmed publisher
    ..protein1 (Fis-1)) and decreased the expression of fusion proteins (optic atrophy-1 (OPA1) and mitofusins1/2 (Mfn1/2)], thereby disrupting mitochondrial dynamics and leading to increase in mitochondrial fragments...
  12. da Silva A, Mariotti F, Máximo V, Campello S. Mitochondria dynamism: of shape, transport and cell migration. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014;71:2313-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In depth analysis of this role of mitochondrial dynamics should help in identifying potential targeted therapy against cancer or in improving the immune system's efficiency. ..
  13. Golic I, Velickovic K, Markelic M, Stancic A, Jankovic A, Vucetic M, et al. Calcium-induced alteration of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum contacts in rat brown adipocytes. Eur J Histochem. 2014;58:2377 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ca2+ diet affected mitochondrial fusion as mitofusin 1 (MFN1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) were increased, and mitochondrial fission as dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1) was ..
  14. Qi Y, Yan L, Yu C, Guo X, Zhou X, Hu X, et al. Structures of human mitofusin 1 provide insight into mitochondrial tethering. J Cell Biol. 2016;215:621-629 pubmed
    ..Here, we determined crystal structures of a minimal GTPase domain (MGD) of human MFN1, including the predicted GTPase and the distal part of the C-terminal tail (CT)...
  15. Eura Y, Ishihara N, Yokota S, Mihara K. Two mitofusin proteins, mammalian homologues of FZO, with distinct functions are both required for mitochondrial fusion. J Biochem. 2003;134:333-44 pubmed
    ..We characterized two rat mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, Mfn1 and Mfn2, with distinct tissue expressions, that are homologous to Drosophila Fzo, a GTPase involved in ..
  16. Liu W, Zhou C. Corticosterone reduces brain mitochondrial function and expression of mitofusin, BDNF in depression-like rodents regardless of exercise preconditioning. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:1057-70 pubmed publisher
    ..changes in mitochondrial activity in brain and reduced expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD1, SOD2), mitofusin (Mfn1, Mfn2) as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) suggest that both CORT and CUMS may impair mitochondrial ..
  17. Park K, Wiederkehr A, Kirkpatrick C, Mattenberger Y, Martinou J, Marchetti P, et al. Selective actions of mitochondrial fission/fusion genes on metabolism-secretion coupling in insulin-releasing cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33347-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of hFis1 caused dramatic mitochondrial fragmentation, whereas Mfn1 evoked hyperfusion and the aggregation of mitochondria...
  18. Sun W, Wang X, Hou C, Yang L, Li H, Guo J, et al. Oleuropein improves mitochondrial function to attenuate oxidative stress by activating the Nrf2 pathway in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Neuropharmacology. 2017;113:556-566 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that OL administration can protect the PVN of the hypothalamus from oxidative stress by improving mitochondrial function through the activation of the Nrf2-mediated signaling pathway. ..
  19. Joshi S, Dhagia V, Gairhe S, Edwards J, McMurtry I, Gupte S. MicroRNA-140 is elevated and mitofusin-1 is downregulated in the right ventricle of the Sugen5416/hypoxia/normoxia model of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;311:H689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, compared with control rats, expression of mitofusin-1 (MFN1), a mitochondrial fusion protein that regulates apoptosis, and which is a direct target of miR-140, was reduced in ..
  20. Li R, Kou X, Geng H, Xie J, Yang Z, Zhang Y, et al. Effect of ambient PM(2.5) on lung mitochondrial damage and fusion/fission gene expression in rats. Chem Res Toxicol. 2015;28:408-18 pubmed publisher
    ..5; (2) PM2.5 significantly affected the expression of specific mitochondrial fission/fusion markers (OPA1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Fis1, and Drp1) in rat lung; (3) PM2...
  21. Koltai E, Hart N, Taylor A, Goto S, Ngo J, Davies K, et al. Age-associated declines in mitochondrial biogenesis and protein quality control factors are minimized by exercise training. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2012;303:R127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that exercise training can help minimize detrimental skeletal muscle aging deficits by improving mitochondrial protein quality control and biogenesis. ..
  22. Córdova Dávalos L, Carrera Calvo D, Solís Navarrete J, Mercado Gómez O, Arriaga Ávila V, Agredano Moreno L, et al. Status epilepticus triggers early mitochondrial fusion in the rat hippocampus in a lithium-pilocarpine model. Epilepsy Res. 2016;123:11-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and mitochondrial fractions of the cells were used to analyze changes in the Drp1 and Fis1 fission proteins and the Mfn1 and Opa1 fusion proteins by western blot analysis...
  23. Wappler E, Institoris A, Dutta S, Katakam P, Busija D. Mitochondrial dynamics associated with oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat primary neuronal cultures. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63206 pubmed publisher
    ..of mitochondrial fission [dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), fission protein-1 (Fis1)] and fusion [mitofusin-1 (Mfn1), mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), and optic atrophy-1 protein (OPA1)] proteins on mitochondrial biogenesis and morphogenesis...
  24. Aparicio Trejo O, Tapia E, Molina Jijón E, Medina Campos O, Macías Ruvalcaba N, León Contreras J, et al. Curcumin prevents mitochondrial dynamics disturbances in early 5/6 nephrectomy: Relation to oxidative stress and mitochondrial bioenergetics. Biofactors. 2017;43:293-310 pubmed publisher
    ..found that 5/6NX shifted mitochondrial dynamics to fusion, which was evidenced by increased optic atrophy 1 and mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and decreased fission 1 and dynamin-related protein 1 expressions...
  25. Li J, Li Y, Jiao J, Wang J, Li Y, Qin D, et al. Mitofusin 1 is negatively regulated by microRNA 140 in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:1788-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Concomitantly, mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) was downregulated, whereas miRNA 140 (miR-140) was upregulated upon apoptotic stimulation...
  26. Li J, Zhou J, Li Y, Qin D, Li P. Mitochondrial fission controls DNA fragmentation by regulating endonuclease G. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:622-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitochondrial fission is triggered by dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1), whereas mitofusin 1 (Mfn 1) is able to induce mitochondrial fusion...
  27. Palmer C, Osellame L, Stojanovski D, Ryan M. The regulation of mitochondrial morphology: intricate mechanisms and dynamic machinery. Cell Signal. 2011;23:1534-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on our current understanding of the mitochondrial morphology machinery in cell homeostasis, apoptosis and neurodegeneration, and the post translational modifications that regulate these processes. ..
  28. Zou D, Chen K, Liu P, Chang H, Zhu J, Mi M. Dihydromyricetin improves physical performance under simulated high altitude. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46:2077-84 pubmed publisher
    ..DHM improves physical performance under simulated high-altitude conditions via protecting mitochondrial biogenesis and modulating mitochondrial dynamics in skeletal muscle cells...
  29. Gegg M, Cooper J, Chau K, Rojo M, Schapira A, Taanman J. Mitofusin 1 and mitofusin 2 are ubiquitinated in a PINK1/parkin-dependent manner upon induction of mitophagy. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:4861-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The ubiquitination of several mitochondrial proteins, including mitofusin 1 and mitofusin 2, were detected within 3 h of CCCP treatment...
  30. Eisner V, Lenaers G, Hajnoczky G. Mitochondrial fusion is frequent in skeletal muscle and supports excitation-contraction coupling. J Cell Biol. 2014;205:179-95 pubmed publisher
    ..An Mfn1-dependent pathway is revealed whereby fusion inhibition weakens the metabolic reserve of mitochondria to cause ..
  31. Chen X, Wu R, Zhu Y, Ren Z, Tong Y, Yang F, et al. Study on the inhibition of Mfn1 by plant-derived miR5338 mediating the treatment of BPH with rape bee pollen. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018;18:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the predicted target genes of miR5338, Mfn1 was significantly lower in posterior lobes of prostates of rats in the rape bee pollen group than control groups...
  32. Qin S, Deng J, Lou D, Yu W, Pei J, Guan Z. The decreased expression of mitofusin-1 and increased fission-1 together with alterations in mitochondrial morphology in the kidney of rats with chronic fluorosis may involve elevated oxidative stress. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2015;29:263-8 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to characterize changes in the expression of mitofusin-1 (Mfn1) and fission-1 (Fis1), as well as in mitochondrial morphology in the kidney of rats subjected to chronic fluorosis and to elucidate whether any ..
  33. Yu J, Wu J, Xie P, Maimaitili Y, Wang J, Xia Z, et al. Sevoflurane postconditioning attenuates cardiomyocyte hypoxia/reoxygenation injury via restoring mitochondrial morphology. Peerj. 2016;4:e2659 pubmed
    ..Mitochondrial fusion and fission regulating proteins (Drp1, Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1) were assessed by immunofluorescence staining and western blotting was performed to determine the ..
  34. Yue W, Chen Z, Liu H, Yan C, Chen M, Feng D, et al. A small natural molecule promotes mitochondrial fusion through inhibition of the deubiquitinase USP30. Cell Res. 2014;24:482-96 pubmed publisher
    ..fusion to restore the mitochondrial network and oxidative respiration in cells that are deficient in either Mfn1 or Mfn2. A mitochondria-localized deubiquitinase USP30 is a target of S3...
  35. Guo Z, Hong Z, Dong W, Deng C, Zhao R, Xu J, et al. PM2.5-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Damage in the Nasal Mucosa of Rats. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
    ..PM2.5 significantly affected the expression of specific mitochondrial fission/fusion genes (OPA1, Mfn1, Fis1, and Drp1) in nasal mucosa...
  36. Honda S, Hirose S. Stage-specific enhanced expression of mitochondrial fusion and fission factors during spermatogenesis in rat testis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;311:424-32 pubmed
    The mitochondrial fusion factors mitofusins 1 and 2 (Mfn1 and Mfn2) and the fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) were found to be highly expressed in the pubertal and adult rat testis by Northern blot analysis...
  37. Lou D, Guan Z, Liu Y, Liu Y, Zhang K, Pan J, et al. The influence of chronic fluorosis on mitochondrial dynamics morphology and distribution in cortical neurons of the rat brain. Arch Toxicol. 2013;87:449-57 pubmed publisher
    ..After 6 months of exposure, the expression of mitofusin-1 (Mfn1), fission-1 (Fis1), and dynamin-related protein-1 (Drp1) at both the protein and mRNA levels were detected by ..
  38. Landes T, Emorine L, Courilleau D, Rojo M, Belenguer P, Arnauné Pelloquin L. The BH3-only Bnip3 binds to the dynamin Opa1 to promote mitochondrial fragmentation and apoptosis by distinct mechanisms. EMBO Rep. 2010;11:459-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Fission is due to inhibition of Opa1-mediated fusion and is counteracted by Opa1 in an Mfn1-dependent manner...
  39. Wang X, Su B, Lee H, Li X, Perry G, Smith M, et al. Impaired balance of mitochondrial fission and fusion in Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9090-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoblot analysis revealed that levels of DLP1 (also referred to as Drp1), OPA1, Mfn1, and Mfn2 were significantly reduced whereas levels of Fis1 were significantly increased in AD...
  40. Zhang S, Fu J, Zhou Z. Changes in the brain mitochondrial proteome of male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with manganese chloride. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005;202:13-7 pubmed
    ..calcium-transporting ATPase type 2C (ATP-dependent Ca(2+) pump PMR1); 60-kDa heat shock protein; Mitochondrial transmembrane GTPase FZO1B; ATP-binding cassette, sub-family b; Long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase; ATP Synthase Beta Chain; ..
  41. Hernández Alvarez M, Paz J, Sebastian D, Munoz J, Liesa M, Segalés J, et al. Glucocorticoid modulation of mitochondrial function in hepatoma cells requires the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;19:366-78 pubmed publisher
    ..altered mitochondrial morphology, which was paralleled by a large increase in Drp1 expression, and reduced mitofusin 1 (Mfn1) and Mfn2. In vivo dexamethasone treatment also enhanced Drp1 expression in mouse liver...