Gene Symbol: Mapk3
Description: mitogen activated protein kinase 3
Alias: ERK1, ERT2, Erk-1, Esrk1, MAPK1, MNK1, Prkm3, p44, p44erk1, p44mapk, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3, MAP kinase 1, MAP kinase 3, MAP kinase isoform p44, MAPK 1, MAPK 3, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1, insulin-stimulated MAP2 kinase, microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase, mitogen-activated 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase 1
Species: rat
Products:     Mapk3

Top Publications

  1. Santos S, Verveer P, Bastiaens P. Growth factor-induced MAPK network topology shapes Erk response determining PC-12 cell fate. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:324-30 pubmed
    ..These results show that growth factor context determines the topology of the MAPK signalling network and that the resulting dynamics govern cell fate. ..
  2. Carrillo Sepúlveda M, Barreto Chaves M. Phenotypic modulation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells: a functional analysis focusing on MLC and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;341:279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking in account that Myosin light chain (MLC) and ERK1/2 directly participate in the process of vascular contraction, the aim of the current study was to analyze the ..
  3. Gu Z, Kordowska J, Williams G, Wang C, Hai C. Erk1/2 MAPK and caldesmon differentially regulate podosome dynamics in A7r5 vascular smooth muscle cells. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:849-66 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Erk1/2 and caldesmon differentially modulate PKC-mediated formation and/or dynamics of podosomes in A7r5 vascular smooth ..
  4. Xiao J, Ferner A, Wong A, Denham M, Kilpatrick T, Murray S. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling promotes oligodendrocyte myelination in vitro. J Neurochem. 2012;122:1167-80 pubmed publisher
    ..By selectively manipulating Erk1/2 activation in oligodendrocytes in vitro, we found that constitutive activation of Erk1/2 significantly increased ..
  5. Pinzar E, Wang T, Garrido M, Xu W, Levy P, Bottari S. Angiotensin II induces tyrosine nitration and activation of ERK1/2 in vascular smooth muscle cells. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:5100-4 pubmed
    Angiotensin II (Ang II) induces a prominent and sustained nitration and activation of ERK1/2 in rat vascular smooth muscle cells, both mediated via AT1 receptor...
  6. Wei F, Zhuo M. Activation of Erk in the anterior cingulate cortex during the induction and expression of chronic pain. Mol Pain. 2008;4:28 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a synaptic model for explaining the roles of Erk activity during different phases of chronic pain. Our findings suggest that cortical activation of Erk may contribute to both induction and expression of chronic pain. ..
  7. Shi Z, Abraham G, Tarbell J. Shear stress modulation of smooth muscle cell marker genes in 2-D and 3-D depends on mechanotransduction by heparan sulfate proteoglycans and ERK1/2. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12196 pubmed publisher
    ..PD98059 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) and heparinase III (an enzyme to cleave heparan sulfate) significantly blocked the effects of laminar ..
  8. Huang Y, Noble N, Zhang J, Xu C, Border W. Renin-stimulated TGF-beta1 expression is regulated by a mitogen-activated protein kinase in mesangial cells. Kidney Int. 2007;72:45-52 pubmed
    ..hypothesis that renin receptor activation, in turn, activates the extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) of the mitogen-activated protein kinase system in mesangial cells...
  9. Svensson C, Tran T, Fitzsimmons B, Yaksh T, Hua X. Descending serotonergic facilitation of spinal ERK activation and pain behavior. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6629-34 pubmed
    ..Here we report that formalin injection in the paw produced pain behavior (flinching) and phosphorylation of spinal ERK1/2 (P-ERK1/2, indicating activation) in rats...

More Information


  1. Espinosa A, Leiva A, Peña M, Müller M, Debandi A, Hidalgo C, et al. Myotube depolarization generates reactive oxygen species through NAD(P)H oxidase; ROS-elicited Ca2+ stimulates ERK, CREB, early genes. J Cell Physiol. 2006;209:379-88 pubmed
    ..Minutes after Ca2+ signal initiation, an increase in ERK1/2 and CREB phosphorylation and of mRNA for the early genes c-fos and c-jun was detected...
  2. Chong Y, Shin Y, Lee E, Kayed R, Glabe C, Tenner A. ERK1/2 activation mediates Abeta oligomer-induced neurotoxicity via caspase-3 activation and tau cleavage in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:20315-25 pubmed
    ..This was accompanied by activation of the ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway in rat organotypic hippocampal slices...
  3. Vetterkind S, Saphirstein R, Morgan K. Stimulus-specific activation and actin dependency of distinct, spatially separated ERK1/2 fractions in A7r5 smooth muscle cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30409 pubmed publisher
    A proliferative response of smooth muscle cells to activation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) has been linked to cardiovascular disease...
  4. Fu Y, Han J, Ishola T, Scerbo M, Adwanikar H, Ramsey C, et al. PKA and ERK, but not PKC, in the amygdala contribute to pain-related synaptic plasticity and behavior. Mol Pain. 2008;4:26 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that in the amygdala PKA and ERK, but not PKC, contribute to pain-related synaptic facilitation and behavior by increasing NMDA receptor function through independent signaling pathways. ..
  5. Peng H, Chen G, Tung K, Chien Y, Lai C, Hsieh M, et al. Estrogen-dependent facilitation on spinal reflex potentiation involves the Cdk5/ERK1/2/NR2B cascade in anesthetized rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E416-26 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase, may alter pain-related neuronal plasticity by regulating extracellular signal-related kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) activation...
  6. Nemoto S, Taguchi K, Matsumoto T, Kamata K, Kobayashi T. Pravastatin normalizes ET-1-induced contraction in the aorta of type 2 diabetic OLETF rats by suppressing the KSR1/ERK complex. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;303:H893-902 pubmed publisher
    ..those from age-matched LETO rats), we found the following: 1) ET-1-induced contraction was enhanced, 2) ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased, 3) phosphorylations of KSR1 and PP2A were reduced (i.e...
  7. Luo D, Cheng J, Xiong Y, Li J, Xia C, Xu C, et al. Static pressure drives proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells via caveolin-1/ERK1/2 pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;391:1693-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation showed a peak at the pressure of 120 mm Hg at 4-h time point...
  8. Imbe H, Kimura A, Okamoto K, Donishi T, Aikawa F, Senba E, et al. Activation of ERK in the rostral ventromedial medulla is involved in hyperalgesia during peripheral inflammation. Brain Res. 2008;1187:103-10 pubmed
    ..3% vs. baseline, n=7) was significantly longer than that in the control group (52.0%+/-3.6% vs. baseline, n=8). These findings suggest that activation of ERK in the RVM contributes to thermal hyperalgesia during peripheral inflammation. ..
  9. Calloni G, Penno C, Cordova F, Trentin A, Neto V, Leal R. Congenital hypothyroidism alters the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK in the hippocampus of neonatal rats. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2005;154:141-5 pubmed
    ..Congenital hypothyroidism promotes an increase in extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2) phosphorylation (+50%) and a decrease in p38(MAPK) phosphorylation (-50%) without changing in Jun N-terminal ..
  10. Karim F, Wang C, Gereau R. Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes 1 and 5 are activators of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling required for inflammatory pain in mice. J Neurosci. 2001;21:3771-9 pubmed
    ..We show that activation of mGluR1 and mGluR5 leads to activation of ERK1 and ERK2 in the spinal cord...
  11. Li Y, Je H, Malek S, Morgan K. Role of ERK1/2 in uterine contractility and preterm labor in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;287:R328-35 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the ERK pathway could possibly be used to identify targets for the development of a novel class of tocolytic agents. ..
  12. Ishihara K, Tsutsumi K, Kawane S, Nakajima M, Kasaoka T. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) directly binds to ERK by a D-domain-like docking site. FEBS Lett. 2003;550:107-13 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that ERK may play a role in RAGE signaling through direct interaction with RAGE. ..
  13. Li Y, Je H, Malek S, Morgan K. ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation of myometrial caldesmon during pregnancy and labor. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284:R192-9 pubmed
    ..A 40-fold increase in the signal from a phospho-CaD antibody specific for phosphorylation at an ERK1/2 site occurred during labor. ERK1/2 activation increased significantly at the onset of labor...
  14. Izawa Y, Yoshizumi M, Fujita Y, Ali N, Kanematsu Y, Ishizawa K, et al. ERK1/2 activation by angiotensin II inhibits insulin-induced glucose uptake in vascular smooth muscle cells. Exp Cell Res. 2005;308:291-9 pubmed
    ..It is shown that Ang II-induced ERK1/2 activation inhibits insulin-dependent glucose uptake through serine phophorylation of IRS-1 in RASMC.
  15. Ishibe S, Joly D, Zhu X, Cantley L. Phosphorylation-dependent paxillin-ERK association mediates hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated epithelial morphogenesis. Mol Cell. 2003;12:1275-85 pubmed
    ..These experiments reveal that paxillin-dependent ERK activation at sites of cell-matrix interaction is critical for HGF-stimulated epithelial morphogenesis. ..
  16. Boulton T, Yancopoulos G, Gregory J, Slaughter C, Moomaw C, Hsu J, et al. An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control. Science. 1990;249:64-7 pubmed
    ..serine-threonine kinase has been cloned, and the protein designated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1). ERK1 has striking similarity to two protein kinases, KSS1 and FUS3, from yeast...
  17. Kwak D, Moussavou G, Lee J, Heo S, Ko K, Hwang K, et al. Growth suppression of colorectal cancer by plant-derived multiple mAb CO17-1A × BR55 via inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15:21105-19 pubmed publisher
    ..addition, the mAb(P) CO17-1A × BR55 significantly inhibited the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation in cancer cells and tumors...
  18. Gallagher P, Ferrario C, Tallant E. MAP kinase/phosphatase pathway mediates the regulation of ACE2 by angiotensin peptides. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C1169-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of VSMCs with ANG II increased ERK1/ERK2 activity, which was significantly reduced by pretreatment with ANG-(1-7)...
  19. Cohen Matsliah S, Brosh I, Rosenblum K, Barkai E. A novel role for extracellular signal-regulated kinase in maintaining long-term memory-relevant excitability changes. J Neurosci. 2007;27:12584-9 pubmed
    ..Our data show that ERK has a key role in maintaining long-lasting learning-induced enhancement of neuronal excitability. ..
  20. Schallenberg M, Charalambous P, Thanos S. GM-CSF regulates the ERK1/2 pathways and protects injured retinal ganglion cells from induced death. Exp Eye Res. 2009;89:665-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2-pathway-proteins after incubation with GM-CSF and after inhibiting MEK1/2 with U0126 was analyzed...
  21. Lee H, Lee C, Yang C, Su S, Salter D. Candida albicans induces cyclo-oxygenase 2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production in synovial fibroblasts through an extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 dependent pathway. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:R48 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) following infection in the absence or presence of U0126 was assessed by western blotting whilst prostaglandin E2 ..
  22. Singru P, Sanchez E, Acharya R, Fekete C, Lechan R. Mitogen-activated protein kinase contributes to lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of corticotropin-releasing hormone synthesizing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2283-92 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether the p44/p42 MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling pathway is involved in the activation of CRH-containing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, Sprague ..
  23. Matsumoto T, Nakayama N, Ishida K, Kobayashi T, Kamata K. Eicosapentaenoic acid improves imbalance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor actions of endothelium-derived factors in mesenteric arteries from rats at chronic stage of type 2 diabetes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;329:324-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that EPA ameliorates endothelial dysfunction in OLETF rats by correcting the imbalance between endothelium-derived factors, at least partly, by inhibiting ERK, decreasing NF-kappaB activation, and reducing COX-2 expression. ..
  24. Kim J, Ryoo Z, Chun J. Cytokine-like 1 (Cytl1) regulates the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29359-67 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results collectively suggest that chondrocyte-specific Cytl1 regulates chondrogenesis as a novel autocrine factor, but not hypertrophic maturation of chondrocytes during cartilage development. ..
  25. Kim J, Jeong I, Lim Y, Lee Y, Shin S. Estrogen receptor beta stimulates Egr-1 transcription via MEK1/Erk/Elk-1 cascade in C6 glioma cells. BMB Rep. 2011;44:452-7 pubmed
    ..Our results show that ER? promoted up-regulation of Egr-1 expression via a non-genomic mechanism involving the Raf/MEK1/Erk/Elk-1 signaling cascade. ..
  26. Zhang F, Wu Y, Jia J, Hu Y. Pre-ischemic treadmill training induces tolerance to brain ischemia: involvement of glutamate and ERK1/2. Molecules. 2010;15:5246-57 pubmed publisher
    ..induce brain ischemic tolerance (BIT) by inhibiting the excessive glutamate release and event-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) activation observed in rats exposed to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
  27. Ravassard P, Pachoud B, Comte J, Mejia Perez C, Scoté Blachon C, Gay N, et al. Paradoxical (REM) sleep deprivation causes a large and rapidly reversible decrease in long-term potentiation, synaptic transmission, glutamate receptor protein levels, and ERK/MAPK activation in the dorsal hippocampus. Sleep. 2009;32:227-40 pubmed
    ..and expression of glutamate receptor subtypes and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK1/2). PS deprivation (PSD) was carried out with the multiple platforms method on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats...
  28. Li M, Chiu J, Gagne J, Fukagawa N. Age-related differences in insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor signaling regulates Akt/FOXO3a and ERK/Fos pathways in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Cell Physiol. 2008;217:377-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously found age-related differences in the activation of Akt/FOXO3a and ERK1/2 pathways in VSMC, but the upstream signaling remains unclear...
  29. Yang X, Meng X, Su X, Mauchley D, Ao L, Cleveland J, et al. Bone morphogenic protein 2 induces Runx2 and osteopontin expression in human aortic valve interstitial cells: role of Smad1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;138:1008-15 pubmed publisher
  30. Jiang X, Yang C, Yuan L, Diao J, Zhang X, Huang Y, et al. [Expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases in the subcutaneous fascia of rats and their changes after acupuncture]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:623-6 pubmed
    To observe the effect of acupuncture on the expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the subcutaneous fascia of SD rats...
  31. Ballard Croft C, Locklar A, Keith B, Mentzer R, Lasley R. Oxidative stress and adenosine A1 receptor activation differentially modulate subcellular cardiomyocyte MAPKs. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H263-71 pubmed
    ..CCPA and H(2)O(2) activated p38 MAPK and p44/p42 ERKs in cytosolic fractions...
  32. Dupont E, Cieniewski Bernard C, Bastide B, Stevens L. Electrostimulation during hindlimb unloading modulates PI3K-AKT downstream targets without preventing soleus atrophy and restores slow phenotype through ERK. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;300:R408-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, electrostimulation maintained initial contractile and metabolism properties in parallel to ERK activation, reinforcing the idea of a predominant role of ERK in the regulation of muscle slow phenotype...
  33. Sinphitukkul K, Eiam Ong S, Manotham K, Eiam Ong S. Nongenomic effects of aldosterone on renal protein expressions of pEGFR and pERK1/2 in rat kidney. Am J Nephrol. 2011;33:111-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that aldosterone induces phosphorylation of EGFR upstream of ERK1/2.
  34. Wang Y, Liu L, Xia Z. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor stimulates the transcriptional and neuroprotective activity of myocyte-enhancer factor 2C through an ERK1/2-RSK2 signaling cascade. J Neurochem. 2007;102:957-66 pubmed
    ..Because MEF2C is not directly phosphorylated by ERK1/2 in vitro, it is generally assumed that the ERK1/2 signaling cascade does not regulate MEF2C...
  35. Kwon H, Jeong K, Hwang E, Park J, Pak Y. A novel domain of caveolin-2 that controls nuclear targeting: regulation of insulin-specific ERK activation and nuclear translocation by caveolin-2. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15:888-908 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data demonstrate that translocation of phospho-ERK to the nuclear envelope is mediated by Ser¹?? -Val¹?? -Ser¹?? domain of cav-2 and this event is an insulin-specific action. ..
  36. Leiber D, Burlina F, Byrne C, Robin P, Piesse C, Gonzalez L, et al. The sequence Pro295-Thr311 of the hinge region of oestrogen receptor α is involved in ERK1/2 activation via GPR30 in leiomyoma cells. Biochem J. 2015;472:97-109 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that it activates ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2), the Gαi protein, the trans-activation of EGFR (epidermal growth ..
  37. Ponnusamy M, Liu N, Gong R, Yan H, Zhuang S. ERK pathway mediates P2X7 expression and cell death in renal interstitial fibroblasts exposed to necrotic renal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F650-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and dose-dependent phosphorylation of several signaling pathways including extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), and AKT in NRK-49F...
  38. Emerson L, Holt M, Wheeler M, Wehnert M, Parsons M, Ellis J. Defects in cell spreading and ERK1/2 activation in fibroblasts with lamin A/C mutations. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1792:810-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Phosphotyrosine measurements during cell spreading indicated an initial temporal lag in ERK1/2 activation in our mutant cells, followed by hyper-activation of ERK1/2 at 2 h post cell attachment...
  39. Wang H, Han F, Gao J, Shi Y. Increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the medial prefrontal cortex of the single-prolonged stress rats. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:437-44 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the change of phosphorylated p44/42 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK1/2) and c-fos expression induced by single-prolonged stress (SPS) in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and to ..
  40. Ikari A, Okude C, Sawada H, Yamazaki Y, Sugatani J, Miwa M. TRPM6 expression and cell proliferation are up-regulated by phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in renal epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;369:1129-33 pubmed publisher
    ..EGF increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and TRPM6 expression that were inhibited by U0126 in renal epithelial NRK-52E cells...
  41. Jin H, Lanning N, Carter Su C. JAK2, but not Src family kinases, is required for STAT, ERK, and Akt signaling in response to growth hormone in preadipocytes and hepatoma cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:1825-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that JAK2, but not Src family kinases, is critical for transducing these GH signals in 3T3-F442A and H4IIE cells. ..
  42. Dong L, Wen J, Liu G, McNutt M, Miao S, Gao R, et al. Blockade of the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway is involved in smooth muscle 22 alpha-mediated suppression of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointima hyperplasia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:683-91 pubmed publisher
  43. Gu W, Song L, Li X, Wang D, Guo X, Xu W. Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate airway inflammation and emphysema in COPD through down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 via p38 and ERK MAPK pathways. Sci Rep. 2015;5:8733 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a compelling mechanism for MSC treatment in COPD, in addition to its paracrine mechanism. ..
  44. Marampon F, Casimiro M, Fu M, Powell M, Popov V, Lindsay J, et al. Nerve Growth factor regulation of cyclin D1 in PC12 cells through a p21RAS extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway requires cooperative interactions between Sp1 and nuclear factor-kappaB. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2566-78 pubmed publisher
    ..NGF induction via Sp1 involved the formation of a Sp1/p50/p107 complex. Cyclin D1 induction by NGF governs differentiation and neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. ..
  45. Donnerer J, Liebmann I. pERK1/2 immunofluorescence in rat dorsal horn and paraventricular nucleus neurons as a marker for sensitization and inhibition in the pain pathway. Tissue Cell. 2015;47:55-60 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in the rat lumbar dorsal horn and in the parvocellularis part of the paraventricular nucleus can be used to visualize neuronal activity...
  46. Liu Z, Cai H, Zhang P, Li H, Liu H, Li Z. Activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt by IGF-1 on GAP-43 expression in DRG neurons with excitotoxicity induced by glutamate in vitro. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2012;32:191-200 pubmed publisher
    ..growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) expression and activates the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways in DRG neurons with excitotoxicity induced ..
  47. Chen Y, Wang J, Yao Y, Yuan W, Kong M, Lin Y, et al. CRP regulates the expression and activity of tissue factor as well as tissue factor pathway inhibitor via NF-kappaB and ERK 1/2 MAPK pathway. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:2811-8 pubmed publisher
    ..CRP could also increase protein expression of phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), IkappaB-alpha and ERK1/2 in dose- and time-dependent manner...
  48. Hamada N, Fujita Y, Tanaka A, Naoi M, Nozawa Y, Ono Y, et al. Metabolites of sesamin, a major lignan in sesame seeds, induce neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells through activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2009;116:841-52 pubmed publisher
    ..SC-1 potentiated neuronal differentiation in cells co-treated with NGF, which was associated with enhanced ERK1/2 activation and increased expression of neuronal differentiation markers...
  49. Shu Q, Zhang J, Ma W, Lei Y, Zhou D. Orexin-A promotes Glu uptake by OX1R/PKC?/ERK1/2/GLT-1 pathway in astrocytes and protects co-cultured astrocytes and neurons against apoptosis in anoxia/hypoglycemic injury in vitro. Mol Cell Biochem. 2017;425:103-112 pubmed publisher
    ..Orexin-A significantly up-regulated the expressions of PKC? and ERK1/2 under anoxia/hypoglycemic conditions in astrocytes, whereas the OX1R antagonist markedly reversed the effect...
  50. Sun X, Zhou H, Luo X, Li S, Yu D, Hua J, et al. Neuroprotection of brain-derived neurotrophic factor against hypoxic injury in vitro requires activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2008;26:363-70 pubmed publisher
  51. Corrow K, Vizzard M. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in bladder afferent pathways with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. Neuroscience. 2009;163:1353-62 pubmed publisher
    Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) are phosphorylated in the nervous system after somatic or visceral stimulation or inflammation and play roles in central sensitization and pain hypersensitivity...
  52. Dang H, Elliott J, Lin A, Zhu B, Katz M, Yeh C. Mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulation and activation during rat parotid gland atrophy and regeneration: role of epidermal growth factor and beta2-adrenergic receptors. Differentiation. 2008;76:546-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, increases in activated, i.e., phosphorylated, ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and p38 (phospho-p38) were demonstrable in both ductal and recovering acinar cells, with pERKs ..
  53. Chen H, He M, Xu Y, Huang Q, Zeng G, Liu D, et al. Anoxic preconditioning up-regulates 14-3-3 protein expression in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes through extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2. Life Sci. 2007;81:372-9 pubmed
    ..was used to detect the 14-3-3 protein expression and activity of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in cardiomyocytes subjected to anoxia-reoxygenation injury with and without APC and control...
  54. Yoshizawa K, Narita M, Saeki M, Narita M, Isotani K, Horiuchi H, et al. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase is critical for the discriminative stimulus effects induced by U-50,488H. Synapse. 2011;65:1052-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the immunoreactivity of phosphorylated extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK 1/2) was specifically increased in the discrimination group...
  55. Anand P, Tait S, Lamkanfi M, Amer A, Nunez G, Pages G, et al. TLR2 and RIP2 pathways mediate autophagy of Listeria monocytogenes via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42981-91 pubmed publisher
  56. Funaki C, Hodges R, Dartt D. Role of cAMP inhibition of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase in potentiation of protein secretion in rat lacrimal gland. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C1551-60 pubmed
    ..In the present study we determined whether cAMP decreases p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity in the lacrimal gland...
  57. Korotkov A, Glazova M, Nikitina L, Dorofeeva N, Kirillova O, Chernigovskaya E. [MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF ERK1/2 KINASES REGULATION IN THE GLUTAMATE- AND GABA-ERGIC NEURONS DURING SEIZURE EXPRESSION IN KRUSHINSKY-MOLODKINA RATS]. Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova. 2015;101:1135-49 pubmed
    The aim of the present study was to analyze a role of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in the regulation of excitation and inhibitory neurons in the hippocampus and the temporal cortex of Krushinsky-Molodkina rats during seizure development ..
  58. Schuller A, Ahmed Z, Ladbury J. Extracellular point mutations in FGFR2 result in elevated ERK1/2 activation and perturbation of neuronal differentiation. Biochem J. 2008;410:205-11 pubmed
    ..Both mutations resulted in enhanced ERK1/2 (extracellular-signalregulated kinase1/2) activation...
  59. Chandaka G, Wang L, Senogles S, Armstrong W. Late Pregnancy is a Critical Period for Changes in Phosphorylated Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase/Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 in Oxytocin Neurones. J Neuroendocrinol. 2016;28: pubmed publisher
    ..Based on immunoreactivity for phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2), the results suggest an enhanced activation of MAPK/ERK pathway in OT neurones specifically during late ..
  60. Lin W, Chen C, Chang Y, Chen S, Chiu I, Chen L. SH2B1beta enhances fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1)-induced neurite outgrowth through MEK-ERK1/2-STAT3-Egr1 pathway. Cell Signal. 2009;21:1060-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that SH2B1beta enhances and prolongs FGF1-induced MEK-ERK1/2 and PI3K-AKT pathways...
  61. Frias M, James R, Gerber Wicht C, Lang U. Native and reconstituted HDL activate Stat3 in ventricular cardiomyocytes via ERK1/2: role of sphingosine-1-phosphate. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;82:313-23 pubmed publisher
    ..They also enhance extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation...
  62. Li Y, Li F, Wang X, Wu P, Zhao M, Xu C, et al. Central amygdala extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway is critical to incubation of opiate craving. J Neurosci. 2008;28:13248-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, this "incubation of morphine craving" is mediated by acute activation of central amygdala ERK pathway. ..
  63. Tajti J, Kuris A, Vecsei L, Xu C, Edvinsson L. Organ culture of the trigeminal ganglion induces enhanced expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide via activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2. Cephalalgia. 2011;31:95-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in neuronal and glial cell expression of CGRP- immunoreactivity (-ir) in rat trigeminal ganglia was studied with ..
  64. Lu K, Wang Y, Wo Y, Yang Y. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-mediated IL-1-induced cortical neuron damage during traumatic brain injury. Neurosci Lett. 2005;386:40-5 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that TBI-induced cortical neuron death was mediated by the IL-1 receptor through ERK phosphorylation. ..
  65. Qiao L, Gulick M, Bowers J, Kuemmerle J, Grider J. Differential changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat primary afferent pathways with colitis. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2008;20:928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In parallel, TNBS colitis significantly induced phospho-ERK1/2 expression in L1 (four- to five-fold, P < 0.05) and S1 (two- to three-fold, P < 0...
  66. Katz S, Boland R, Santillan G. Modulation of ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways by ATP in osteoblasts: involvement of mechanical stress-activated calcium influx, PKC and Src activation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38:2082-91 pubmed
    ..In addition, ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK were activated by ATP in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
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    ..Thus, EGF- or menadione-induced loss of GJC is mediated by ERK-1/2 but not ERK-5 in rat liver epithelial cells. ..
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    ..aldosterone in cultured mesangial cells, the effects of aldosterone on the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MAPK1/2) pathway and the promoter activities of cyclin D1, cyclin A, and cyclin E were investigated...
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    ..The expression and activity of protein kinase C-?2 (PKC-?2), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK) were measured with ..
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    ..that the differentiation was mediated by the IGF-1 activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and its downstream pathway...
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    ..H-Ras was the major mediator of ERK-induced proliferation and survival, whereas H-Ras and K-Ras both mediated PI3K-induced survival. ..
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    ..The precise role of cardiac Ucn in vivo remains to be elucidated. ..
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    ..05). Taken together, our results indicate that Ras, ERK, and Akt are key effectors in the glucocorticoid-induced differentiation of growth hormone-secreting cells. ..
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    ..Taken together, these results suggest that the ERK1/2-RSK-nNOS signaling pathway may play a significant role in Ang II-mediated central blood pressure regulation.
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    ..Based on these results, applying an appropriate dose of Huangqi with biomedical materials would be a potential approach to enhancing neuron regeneration. ..
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    ..Therefore, dysregulation of MKP-3 expression and/or function in liver may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type II diabetes. ..
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    ..Furthermore, our results revealed that TrkA-mediated and Erk1/2-dependant pathways could be involved in 1 and 3-promoted NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 ..
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    ..Termination of these GnRH effects is apparently dependent upon a preexisting rapid turnover protein. ..