Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Lhb
Description: luteinizing hormone beta polypeptide
Alias: lutropin subunit beta, LH-B, LSH-B, LSH-beta, Luteinizing hormone (lutropin) subunit beta, luteinizing hormone beta subunit, luteinizing hormone subunit beta, lutropin beta chain
- Jablonka Shariff A, Pearl C, Comstock A, Boime I. A carboxyl-terminal sequence in the lutropin beta subunit contributes to the sorting of lutropin to the regulated pathway. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11485-92 pubmed publisher..These data are the first to identify a novel structural determinant responsible for the sorting of a member of the glycoprotein hormone family into the regulated secretory pathway. ..
- Szabo E, Nemeskeri A, Heinzlmann A, Suzuki N, Arimura A, Koves K. Cell immunoblot assay study demonstrating the release of PACAP from individual anterior pituitary cells of rats and the effect of PACAP on LH release. Regul Pept. 2002;109:75-81 pubmed..The effect of PACAP on LH release was different in female and male pituitary cultures. ..
- Yonehara T, Yamada Y, Kanasaki H, Yamamoto H, Fukunaga K, Miyazaki K, et al. Characterization of alphaT3-1 cells stably transfected with luteininzing hormone beta-subunit complementary deoxyribonucleic acid. Endocr J. 2003;50:341-54 pubmed..These results suggest that GnRH directly regulates LH secretion as well as LHbeta-subunit synthesis, and that LH2 cells are a useful model for the study of LH secretion induced by several secretagogues. ..
- Burger L, Haisenleder D, Aylor K, Dalkin A, Prendergast K, Marshall J. Regulation of luteinizing hormone-beta and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-beta gene transcription by androgens: testosterone directly stimulates FSH-beta transcription independent from its role on follistatin gene expression. Endocrinology. 2004;145:71-8 pubmed..The increase in FSH-beta PT in response to T was androgen specific and occurs in the presence of excess FS, suggesting that T stimulates FSH-beta transcription independently of modulation of FS. ..
- Litichever N, Gershon E, Dekel N, Koch Y. Hormonal regulation of GnRH and LHbeta mRNA expression in cultured rat granulosa cells. J Mol Neurosci. 2009;39:78-85 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that the expression of LHbeta in the ovary is regulated by locally produced GnRH and by FSH from either the ovary or the pituitary. ..
- Kaiser U, Sabbagh E, Chen M, Chin W, Saunders B. Sp1 binds to the rat luteinizing hormone beta (LHbeta) gene promoter and mediates gonadotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated expression of the LHbeta subunit gene. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:12943-51 pubmed..These data define GnRH-responsive elements in the LHbeta 5'-flanking sequence and suggest that Sp1 plays an important role in conferring GnRH responsiveness to the LHbeta subunit gene. ..
- Chin W, Godine J, Klein D, Chang A, Tan L, Habener J. Nucleotide sequence of the cDNA encoding the precursor of the beta subunit of rat lutropin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:4649-53 pubmed..The availability of cDNAs for both the alpha and beta subunits of lutropin will facilitate studies of the regulation of lutropin expression. ..
- Zhang F, Rannikko A, Huhtaniemi I. Isolation and characterization of testis-specific cDNAs for luteinizing hormone beta-subunit in the rat. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;210:858-65 pubmed..The present findings provide further evidence in the rat for expression of testis-specific mRNA variants of the LH beta gene. Their translation products may form a novel class of testicular para/autocrine factors. ..
- Dalkin A, Burger L, Aylor K, Haisenleder D, Workman L, Cho S, et al. Regulation of gonadotropin subunit gene transcription by gonadotropin-releasing hormone: measurement of primary transcript ribonucleic acids by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays. Endocrinology. 2001;142:139-46 pubmed..Additionally, concentrations are elevated in long term castrates, and following an exogenous GnRH pulse the transcriptional burst is rapid and brief. ..
- Gajewska A, Herman A, Wolinska Witort E, Kochman K, Zwierzchowski L. In vivo oestrogenic modulation of Egr1 and Pitx1 gene expression in female rat pituitary gland. J Mol Endocrinol. 2014;53:355-66 pubmed publisherEGR1 and PITX1 are transcription factors required for gonadotroph cell Lhb promoter activation. To determine changes in Egr1 and Pitx1 mRNA levels in central and peripheral pituitary stimulations, an in vivo model based on i.c.v...
- Jameson L, Chin W, Hollenberg A, Chang A, Habener J. The gene encoding the beta-subunit of rat luteinizing hormone. Analysis of gene structure and evolution of nucleotide sequence. J Biol Chem. 1984;259:15474-80 pubmed..Isolation and characterization of the rat LH beta gene further defines the evolution of glycoprotein hormone genes and will facilitate the study of cellular and molecular mechanisms which regulate LH beta gene expression. ..
- Pals K, Roudbaraki M, Denef C. Growth hormone-releasing hormone and glucocorticoids determine the balance between luteinising hormone (LH) beta- and LH beta/follicle-stimulating hormone beta-positive gonadotrophs and somatotrophs in the 14-day-old rat pituitary tissue in aggregate. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:535-48 pubmed publisher..GHRH may not expand the somatotroph population unless glucocorticoid hormone is present to maintain terminal differentiation. ..
- Purwana I, Kanasaki H, Mijiddorj T, Oride A, Miyazaki K. Induction of dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) by pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation: role for gonadotropin subunit expression in mouse pituitary LbetaT2 cells. Biol Reprod. 2011;84:996-1004 pubmed publisher..Overexpression of MAP3K1, a kinase upstream of MAPK3/1, increased both the Lhb and the Fshb subunit promoter activities, which could be completely inhibited by cotransfection with DUSP1-..
- Fortin J, Boehm U, Deng C, Treier M, Bernard D. Follicle-stimulating hormone synthesis and fertility depend on SMAD4 and FOXL2. FASEB J. 2014;28:3396-410 pubmed publisher..Not only do these results establish SMAD4 and FOXL2 as essential master regulators of Fshb transcription in vivo, they also suggest that activins, or related ligands, could play more important roles in FSH synthesis than GnRH. ..
- Schirman Hildesheim T, Gershon E, Litichever N, Galiani D, Ben Aroya N, Dekel N, et al. Local production of the gonadotropic hormones in the rat ovary. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;282:32-8 pubmed publisher..Thus, these findings may imply the existence of a local GnRH-gonadotropin axis in the mammalian ovary that may be involved in the management of processes that lead to ovulation. ..
- Jiang Q, Jeong K, Horton C, Halvorson L. Pituitary homeobox 1 (Pitx1) stimulates rat LHbeta gene expression via two functional DNA-regulatory regions. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005;35:145-58 pubmed..These results further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate expression of this critical reproductive gene promoter. ..
- Valdes Socin H, Salvi R, Daly A, Gaillard R, Quatresooz P, Tebeu P, et al. Hypogonadism in a patient with a mutation in the luteinizing hormone beta-subunit gene. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:2619-25 pubmed..This case illustrates the important physiological role that luteinizing hormone plays in male sexual maturation and fertility. ..
- Andrade J, Quinn J, Becker R, Shupnik M. AMP-activated protein kinase is a key intermediary in GnRH-stimulated LH? gene transcription. Mol Endocrinol. 2013;27:828-39 pubmed publisher..These studies indicate a novel role for AMPK in GnRH-stimulated transcription in pituitary gonadotropes and a potential common mechanism for GnRH and metabolic modulation of fertility. ..
- Jablonka Shariff A, Boime I. A novel carboxyl-terminal heptapeptide initiates the regulated secretion of LH from unique sub-domains of the ER. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65002 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that, at least for LH, the molecular decision to enter the regulated secretory pathway is a pre-Golgi event controlled by the novel C-terminal heptapeptide. ..
- Burger L, Haisenleder D, Aylor K, Marshall J. Regulation of Lhb and Egr1 gene expression by GNRH pulses in rat pituitaries is both c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent. Biol Reprod. 2009;81:1206-15 pubmed publisherPulsatile GNRH regulates the gonadotropin subunit genes in a differential manner, with faster frequencies favoring Lhb gene expression and slower frequencies favoring Fshb...
- Haisenleder D, Burger L, Walsh H, Stevens J, Aylor K, Shupnik M, et al. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation of gonadotropin subunit transcription in rat pituitaries: evidence for the involvement of Jun N-terminal kinase but not p38. Endocrinology. 2008;149:139-45 pubmed..For LHbeta, JNK is essential in mediating responses to pulsatile GnRH. JNK also regulates FSHbeta transcription (i.e. maintaining basal expression) but does not play a role in responses to GnRH. ..
- Zheng W, Horton C, Kim J, Halvorson L. The orphan nuclear receptors COUP-TFI and COUP-TFII regulate expression of the gonadotropin LH? gene. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;330:59-71 pubmed publisher..To our knowledge, these data are the first to demonstrate COUP-TF expression and function in pituitary gonadotropes. ..
- Abtahi H, Shabani M, Jameie S, Zarnani A, Talebi S, Lakpour N, et al. Regulation of luteinizing hormone receptor in hippocampal neurons following different long-lasting treatments of castrated adult rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2013;51:218-27 pubmed..This implies that LH decreases the efficiency of translation through either producing non-functional LHR molecules or preventing their translation. ..
- Walsh H, Shupnik M. Proteasome regulation of dynamic transcription factor occupancy on the GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone beta-subunit promoter. Mol Endocrinol. 2009;23:237-50 pubmed publisher..Together, these results demonstrate that degradation via the proteasome is vital to GnRH-stimulated LHbeta expression, and this occurs in part by allowing proper transcription factor associations with the LHbeta promoter. ..
- Cao J, Patisaul H, Petersen S. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation in lactotropes and gonadotropes interferes with estradiol-dependent and -independent preprolactin, glycoprotein alpha and luteinizing hormone beta gene expression. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;333:151-9 pubmed publisher..Prl) expression in vivo and in vitro; conversely, E(2) blocked TCDD upregulation of luteinizing hormone beta (Lhb) and glycoprotein hormone alpha polypeptide (Cga) expression...
- Kourides I, Gurr J, Wolf O. The regulation and organization of thyroid stimulating hormone genes. Recent Prog Horm Res. 1984;40:79-120 pubmed