Gene Symbol: Kitlg
Description: KIT ligand
Alias: Kitl, Mgf, SCF, kit ligand, C-kit ligand, hematopoietic growth factor KL, mast cell growth factor, steel factor/kit ligand, stem cell factor KL-1
Species: rat
Products:     Kitlg

Top Publications

  1. Barreiro M, Gaytan F, Castellano J, Suominen J, Roa J, Gaytan M, et al. Ghrelin inhibits the proliferative activity of immature Leydig cells in vivo and regulates stem cell factor messenger ribonucleic acid expression in rat testis. Endocrinology. 2004;145:4825-34 pubmed ethylene dimethane sulfonate-treated animals, with a decrease in the mRNA levels of stem cell factor (SCF), i.e. a key signal in spermatogenesis and a putative regulator of Leydig cell development...
  2. Kuang D, Zhao X, Xiao G, Ni J, Feng Y, Wu R, et al. Stem cell factor/c-kit signaling mediated cardiac stem cell migration via activation of p38 MAPK. Basic Res Cardiol. 2008;103:265-73 pubmed
    ..Both immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting analysis was performed to detect the expression of SCF protein, and RT-PCR was conducted for the expression of SCF mRNA...
  3. Guan Y, Zheng X, Yang Z, Li S. Change and significance of the expression of c-kit and SCF following recovery from unilateral testicular torsion in rats. Clin Invest Med. 2008;31:E98-E105 pubmed
    To investigate the change in expression levels of c-kit and SCF, and the protective effects of FSH on ischemia-reperfusion injury due to testicular torsion-detorsion...
  4. Ingram D, Yang F, Travers J, Wenning M, Hiatt K, New S, et al. Genetic and biochemical evidence that haploinsufficiency of the Nf1 tumor suppressor gene modulates melanocyte and mast cell fates in vivo. J Exp Med. 2000;191:181-8 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data support the emerging concept that heterozygous inactivation of tumor suppressor genes may have profound biological effects in multiple cell types. ..
  5. Suzuki S, Suzuki H, Horiguchi K, Tsugawa H, Matsuzaki J, Takagi T, et al. Delayed gastric emptying and disruption of the interstitial cells of Cajal network after gastric ischaemia and reperfusion. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2010;22:585-93, e126 pubmed publisher
    ..Gastric I/R evokes transient gastroparesis with delayed gastric emptying, associated with disruption of the ICC network and nNOS-positive neurons. ..
  6. Konuma T, Nakamura S, Miyagi S, Negishi M, Chiba T, Oguro H, et al. Forced expression of the histone demethylase Fbxl10 maintains self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells. Exp Hematol. 2011;39:697-709.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings implicate Fbxl10 in the maintenance of self-renewal capacity of HSCs, thus highlight a role of histone demethylation for the first time in the epigenetic regulation of HSCs. ..
  7. Zsebo K, Wypych J, McNiece I, Lu H, Smith K, Karkare S, et al. Identification, purification, and biological characterization of hematopoietic stem cell factor from buffalo rat liver--conditioned medium. Cell. 1990;63:195-201 pubmed
    ..It is also a growth factor for mast cells. In two companion papers, we present the sequences of partial SCF cDNAs, identify SCF as a c-kit ligand, and map the SCF gene to the Sl locus of the mouse.
  8. Hirokawa Y, Watanabe M, Shiraishi T. The 3'UTR of stem cell factor suppresses protein expression from a cotransfected vector. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;309:469-74 pubmed
    One of the isoforms of stem cell factor (SCF) was isolated from an embryonic kidney library with the ability to suppress the expression of cotransfected gene. The responsible region resides in the SCF 3' untranslated region (UTR)...
  9. Meng F, Francis H, Glaser S, Han Y, Demorrow S, Stokes A, et al. Role of stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in remodeling during liver regeneration. Hepatology. 2012;55:209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a significant, stable increase in SCF and GM-CSF levels until 7 days after PH...

More Information


  1. Ang X, Seeburg D, Sheng M, Harper J. Regulation of postsynaptic RapGAP SPAR by Polo-like kinase 2 and the SCFbeta-TRCP ubiquitin ligase in hippocampal neurons. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29424-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that the SCF(beta-TRCP) complex, a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase, targets the postsynaptic spine-associated Rap GTPase ..
  2. Xiao W, Chen P, Wang R, Dong J. Overload training inhibits phagocytosis and ROS generation of peritoneal macrophages: role of IGF-1 and MGF. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113:117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..generation of peritoneal macrophages (M?s), and that insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) and mechano-growth factor (MGF) produced by macrophages may contribute to this process...
  3. Xu Q, Wang S, Jiang X, Zhao Y, Gao M, Zhang Y, et al. Hypoxia-induced astrocytes promote the migration of neural progenitor cells via vascular endothelial factor, stem cell factor, stromal-derived factor-1alpha and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 upregulation in vitro. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;34:624-31 pubmed
    ..the expression patterns of some chemokines, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), stem cell factor (SCF), stromal-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha), fractalkine and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in hypoxia-..
  4. Correia S, Alves M, Cavaco J, Oliveira P, Socorro S. Estrogenic regulation of testicular expression of stem cell factor and c-kit: implications in germ cell survival and male fertility. Fertil Steril. 2014;102:299-306 pubmed publisher
    To study the effect of estrogens regulating the testicular expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and c-kit. Experimental study. University research center. Male Wistar rats...
  5. Martin F, Suggs S, Langley K, Lu H, Ting J, Okino K, et al. Primary structure and functional expression of rat and human stem cell factor DNAs. Cell. 1990;63:203-11 pubmed
    Partial cDNA and genomic clones of rat stem cell factor (SCF) have been isolated. Using probes based on the rat sequence, partial and full-length cDNA and genomic clones of human SCF have been isolated...
  6. Runyan C, Schaible K, Molyneaux K, Wang Z, Levin L, Wylie C. Steel factor controls midline cell death of primordial germ cells and is essential for their normal proliferation and migration. Development. 2006;133:4861-9 pubmed
    ..We then show that germ cell apoptosis in the midline is activated by down-regulation of Steel factor (kit ligand) expression in the midline between E9.5 and E10.5...
  7. El Kossi M, Haylor J, Johnson T, El Nahas A. Stem cell factor in a rat model of serum nephrotoxic nephritis. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2008;108:e1-e10 pubmed
    Stem cell factor (SCF) has been implicated in many disease processes characterized by tissue remodelling and fibrosis...
  8. Klimchenko O, Di Stefano A, Geoerger B, Hamidi S, Opolon P, Robert T, et al. Monocytic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells and fetal liver share common differentiation pathways and homeostatic functions. Blood. 2011;117:3065-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Trophic and immunosuppressive functions of M2-polarized macrophages link fetus and tumor development, and hESCs offer a valuable experimental model for in vitro studies of mechanisms sustaining these processes. ..
  9. Ploemacher R, van Soest P, Boudewijn A, Neben S. Interleukin-12 enhances interleukin-3 dependent multilineage hematopoietic colony formation stimulated by interleukin-11 or steel factor. Leukemia. 1993;7:1374-80 pubmed
    ..The observed activity of IL-12, however, required the presence of a least two factors, i.e. either IL-3 + IL-11, or IL-3 + SF. ..
  10. Fernandez S, Keating A, Christian P, Sen N, Hoying J, Brooks H, et al. Involvement of the KIT/KITL signaling pathway in 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide-induced ovarian follicle loss in rats. Biol Reprod. 2008;79:318-27 pubmed publisher
    ..added to ovarian cultures during VCD exposure, GDF9 and BMP4 had no effect on VCD-induced ovotoxicity; however, KITL attenuated this follicle loss...
  11. Nilsson E, Skinner M. Kit ligand and basic fibroblast growth factor interactions in the induction of ovarian primordial to primary follicle transition. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;214:19-25 pubmed
    ..The objective of the current study is to investigate interactions between kit ligand (KL) (i.e...
  12. Lu T, Luo Y, Sun H, Qin W, Li Y. Electroacupuncture improves behavioral recovery and increases SCF/c-kit expression in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Neurol Sci. 2013;34:487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Neurobehavioral evaluation, the expression of stem cell factor (SCF), its receptor c-kit and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein and mRNA in the cortical ischemic region were ..
  13. Wang Y, Xu X, Tang Y, Yang W, Yuan Y, Ning Y, et al. Effect of endogenous insulin-like growth factor and stem cell factor on diabetic colonic dysmotility. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:3324-31 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether the reduction of stem cell factor (SCF) is mediated by decreased endogenous insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 in diabetic rat colon smooth muscle...
  14. Zazo Seco C, Serrão de Castro L, van Nierop J, Morín M, Jhangiani S, Verver E, et al. Allelic Mutations of KITLG, Encoding KIT Ligand, Cause Asymmetric and Unilateral Hearing Loss and Waardenburg Syndrome Type 2. Am J Hum Genet. 2015;97:647-60 pubmed publisher
    ..286_303delinsT (p.Ser96Ter), in KITLG. This mutation co-segregated with NS-UHL/AHL as a dominant trait with reduced penetrance...
  15. Miyoshi T, Otsuka F, Nakamura E, Inagaki K, Ogura Ochi K, Tsukamoto N, et al. Regulatory role of kit ligand-c-kit interaction and oocyte factors in steroidogenesis by rat granulosa cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;358:18-26 pubmed publisher
    Although kit ligand (KL)-c-kit interaction is known to be critical for oogenesis and folliculogenesis, its role in ovarian steroidogenesis has yet to be elucidated...
  16. Zhang B, Luo Q, Chen Z, Shi Y, Ju Y, Yang L, et al. Increased nuclear stiffness via FAK-ERK1/2 signaling is necessary for synthetic mechano-growth factor E peptide-induced tenocyte migration. Sci Rep. 2016;6:18809 pubmed publisher
    We have previously reported that a synthetic mechano-growth factor (MGF) C-terminal E-domain with 25 amino acids (MGF-C25E) promotes rat tenocyte migration through the FAK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway...
  17. Zhang W, Wu T, Zhang C, Luo L, Xie M, Huang H. Cadmium exposure in newborn rats ovary induces developmental disorders of primordial follicles and the differential expression of SCF/c-kit gene. Toxicol Lett. 2017;280:20-28 pubmed publisher
    ..rat ovaries with cadmium exposure in vitro, and different expression of ovarian cells development-related factors, SCF/c-kit and changes of their DNA methylation status...
  18. Tsuji K, Lyman S, Sudo T, Clark S, Ogawa M. Enhancement of murine hematopoiesis by synergistic interactions between steel factor (ligand for c-kit), interleukin-11, and other early acting factors in culture. Blood. 1992;79:2855-60 pubmed
    ..In contrast, SF is unique among the synergistic factors in that it interacts either with growth factors such as IL-3 or GM-CSF or with synergistic factors such as IL-6, IL-11, or G-CSF. ..
  19. Mak S, Moriyama M, Nishioka E, Osawa M, Nishikawa S. Indispensable role of Bcl2 in the development of the melanocyte stem cell. Dev Biol. 2006;291:144-53 pubmed
    ..More importantly, there is a complete absence of MSCs. SCF downregulation in the epidermis is concomitant with the dramatic reduction in Mb numbers observed in the Bcl2 null, ..
  20. Lin X, Tang X, Cai Z, Wang F, Li P, Sui H, et al. NPs/NPRs Signaling Pathways May Be Involved in Depression-Induced Loss of Gastric ICC by Decreasing the Production of mSCF. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149031 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed that the expression of c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) in smooth muscle layers of stomach were down-regulated in depressed rats at the mRNA and protein levels...
  21. Shahzad U, Li G, Zhang Y, Li R, Rao V, Yau T. Transmyocardial Revascularization Enhances Bone Marrow Stem Cell Engraftment in Infarcted Hearts Through SCF-C-kit and SDF-1-CXCR4 Signaling Axes. Stem Cell Rev. 2015;11:332-46 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the roles of stem cell factor (SCF)-c-kit and stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1)-CXCR4 signaling axes in transmyocardial revascularization (TMR)-enhanced engraftment of transplanted bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) in ..
  22. Yaniz Galende E, Chen J, Chemaly E, Liang L, Hulot J, McCollum L, et al. Stem cell factor gene transfer promotes cardiac repair after myocardial infarction via in situ recruitment and expansion of c-kit+ cells. Circ Res. 2012;111:1434-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Stem cell factor gene transfer induces c-kit(+) stem/progenitor cell expansion in situ and cardiomyocyte proliferation, which may represent a new therapeutic strategy to reverse adverse remodeling after myocardial infarction. ..
  23. Shelburne C, McCoy M, Piekorz R, Sexl V, Roh K, Jacobs Helber S, et al. Stat5 expression is critical for mast cell development and survival. Blood. 2003;102:1290-7 pubmed
    Interleukin-3 (IL-3) and stem cell factor (SCF) are important mast cell growth and differentiation factors...
  24. Hiatt K, Ingram D, Huddleston H, Spandau D, Kapur R, Clapp D. Loss of the nf1 tumor suppressor gene decreases fas antigen expression in myeloid cells. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:1471-9 pubmed
    ..of Nf1 increases mast cell numbers in Nf1 +/- mice, and enhances mast cell survival in response to c-kit ligand (kit-L)...
  25. Mansuroglu T, Ramadori P, Dudas J, Malik I, Hammerich K, Fuzesi L, et al. Expression of stem cell factor and its receptor c-Kit during the development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Lab Invest. 2009;89:562-74 pubmed publisher
    Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, c-Kit, constitute an important signal transduction system with proliferative and anti-apoptotic functions...
  26. Ingram D, Hiatt K, King A, Fisher L, Shivakumar R, Derstine C, et al. Hyperactivation of p21(ras) and the hematopoietic-specific Rho GTPase, Rac2, cooperate to alter the proliferation of neurofibromin-deficient mast cells in vivo and in vitro. J Exp Med. 2001;194:57-69 pubmed
  27. Ikeda K, Nakajima H, Suzuki K, Watanabe N, Kagami S, Iwamoto I. Stat5a is essential for the proliferation and survival of murine mast cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2005;137 Suppl 1:45-50 pubmed
    ..Second, IL-3-induced but not stem cell factor (SCF)-induced proliferation of BMMCs was significantly diminished in Stat5a(-/-) mice as compared with that in WT mice...
  28. Chen Y, Xu J, Liu S, Hou X. Electroacupuncture at ST36 increases contraction of the gastric antrum and improves the SCF/c-kit pathway in diabetic rats. Am J Chin Med. 2013;41:1233-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blotting was employed to determine c-kit and transmembrane stem cell factor (M-SCF) expression in the gastric antrum, and levels of soluble stem cell factor (S-SCF) in serum were determined by ..
  29. Piao C, Li B, Zhang L, Zhao L. Stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor promote neuronal lineage commitment of neural stem cells. Differentiation. 2012;83:17-25 pubmed publisher
    Stem cell factor (SCF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) were originally discovered as growth factors for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs)...
  30. Fernando J, Faber T, Pullen N, Falanga Y, Kolawole E, Oskeritzian C, et al. Genotype-dependent effects of TGF-?1 on mast cell function: targeting the Stat5 pathway. J Immunol. 2013;191:4505-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that TGF-?1 regulates mast cell homeostasis, and that this feedback suppression may be dependent on genetic context, predisposing some individuals to atopic disease. ..
  31. Okajima Y, Matsumura I, Nishiura T, Hashimoto K, Yoshida H, Ishikawa J, et al. Insulin-like growth factor-I augments erythropoietin-induced proliferation through enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:22877-83 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that IGF-I may augment EPO-induced proliferation by enhancing tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5 and raise the possibility that Ras may be involved in the augmentation of STAT5 tyrosyl phosphorylation. ..
  32. Jiang C, Hall S, Boekelheide K. Cloning and characterization of the 5' flanking region of the stem cell factor gene in rat Sertoli cells. Gene. 1997;185:285-90 pubmed
    In order to elucidate the molecular basis of stem cell factor (SCF, or steel factor/kit ligand) expression in Sertoli cells of rat testis, 1.5 kb of the 5' flanking region of the SCF gene was isolated and characterized...
  33. Ning Y, Zhang W, Cheng J, Li X, Wang M, Lin L. [Insulin-like growth factor 1 regulates expression of stem cell factor through ERKMAPK signaling pathway in gastric smooth muscle cell]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;90:2402-6 pubmed
    ..signal transduction pathway of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the expression of stem cell factor (SCF) in gastric smooth muscle cells (SMC)...
  34. De Miguel M, Cheng L, Holland E, Federspiel M, Donovan P. Dissection of the c-Kit signaling pathway in mouse primordial germ cells by retroviral-mediated gene transfer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:10458-63 pubmed
    ..Such technology for manipulating gene expression in PGCs will allow many of the molecular mechanisms regulating germ cell growth, behavior, and differentiation to be comprehensively analyzed. ..
  35. Li J, Lu H, Plante E, Melendez G, Levick S, Janicki J. Stem cell factor is responsible for the rapid response in mature mast cell density in the acutely stressed heart. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;53:469-74 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in stem cell factor (SCF) may be responsible for this MC maturation process...
  36. Hollenbeck S, Sakakibara K, Faries P, Workhu B, Liu B, Kent K. Stem cell factor and c-kit are expressed by and may affect vascular SMCs through an autocrine pathway. J Surg Res. 2004;120:288-94 pubmed
    Stem cell factor (SCF) is a membrane-bound and soluble growth factor that activates the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor...
  37. Moe Behrens G, Klinger F, Eskild W, Grotmol T, Haugen T, De Felici M. Akt/PTEN signaling mediates estrogen-dependent proliferation of primordial germ cells in vitro. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2630-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we found that estrogens stimulate the transcription of the Steel gene and the production of c-Kit ligand in gonadal somatic cells, and that this growth factor is likely to be responsible for the observed stimulation ..
  38. Wehrle Haller B, Meller M, Weston J. Analysis of melanocyte precursors in Nf1 mutants reveals that MGF/KIT signaling promotes directed cell migration independent of its function in cell survival. Dev Biol. 2001;232:471-83 pubmed
    ..In mouse embryos, MPs express the receptor tyrosine kinase, KIT, and require its cognate ligand, Mast cell growth factor (MGF), for survival and differentiation...
  39. Yamasaki K, Setoguchi T, Takenouchi T, Yone K, Komiya S. Stem cell factor prevents neuronal cell apoptosis after acute spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009;34:323-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest the possibility that stem cell factor, a hematopoietic cytokine, could be useful as an agent for treatment of SCI. ..
  40. Lin H, Ge R, Chen G, Hu G, Dong L, Lian Q, et al. Involvement of testicular growth factors in fetal Leydig cell aggregation after exposure to phthalate in utero. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:7218-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Testicular T levels were doubled by the 10 mg/kg dose and halved at 750 mg/kg. The mRNA levels of IGF-1 and c-Kit ligand (KITL) were induced by 10 mg/kg DEHP...
  41. Lu H, Clogston C, Wypych J, Fausset P, Lauren S, Mendiaz E, et al. Amino acid sequence and post-translational modification of stem cell factor isolated from buffalo rat liver cell-conditioned medium. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:8102-7 pubmed
    Stem cell factor (SCF) isolated from culture medium conditioned by Buffalo rat liver cells was subjected to detailed structural analysis...