kidney injury molecule 1


Gene Symbol: kidney injury molecule 1
Description: hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1
Alias: KIM-1, Kim1, hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 homolog, HAVcr-1, TIMD-1, kidney injury molecule 1, t cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 1
Species: rat
Products:     kidney injury molecule 1

Top Publications

  1. Han W, Bailly V, Abichandani R, Thadhani R, Bonventre J. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1): a novel biomarker for human renal proximal tubule injury. Kidney Int. 2002;62:237-44 pubmed
  2. Kuehn E, Park K, Somlo S, Bonventre J. Kidney injury molecule-1 expression in murine polycystic kidney disease. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;283:F1326-36 pubmed
    ..Although the functional role of the protein in cysts remains unknown, Kim-1 expression in tubules is strongly associated with partial dedifferentiation of epithelial cells and may play a role in the development of interstitial fibrosis. ..
  3. Ichimura T, Bonventre J, Bailly V, Wei H, Hession C, Cate R, et al. Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), a putative epithelial cell adhesion molecule containing a novel immunoglobulin domain, is up-regulated in renal cells after injury. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:4135-42 pubmed
    ..KIM-1 may play an important role in the restoration of the morphological integrity and function to postischemic kidney. ..
  4. Santiago C, Ballesteros A, Martínez Muñoz L, Mellado M, Kaplan G, Freeman G, et al. Structures of T cell immunoglobulin mucin protein 4 show a metal-Ion-dependent ligand binding site where phosphatidylserine binds. Immunity. 2007;27:941-51 pubmed
    ..Our results also revealed an important role of the MILIBS in the trafficking of TIM-1 to the cell surface. ..
  5. Vaidya V, Ford G, Waikar S, Wang Y, Clement M, Ramirez V, et al. A rapid urine test for early detection of kidney injury. Kidney Int. 2009;76:108-14 pubmed publisher
  6. Prozialeck W, Edwards J, Lamar P, Liu J, Vaidya V, Bonventre J. Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;238:306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule. ..
  7. Vaidya V, Ramirez V, Ichimura T, Bobadilla N, Bonventre J. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1: a sensitive quantitative biomarker for early detection of kidney tubular injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F517-29 pubmed
  8. van Timmeren M, Bakker S, Vaidya V, Bailly V, Schuurs T, Damman J, et al. Tubular kidney injury molecule-1 in protein-overload nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291:F456-64 pubmed
    ..These results implicate involvement of Kim-1 in the pathogenesis of proteinuria-induced renal damage/repair. Urinary Kim-1 levels may serve as a marker of proteinuria-induced renal damage. ..
  9. Wasilewska A, Taranta Janusz K, Debek W, Zoch Zwierz W, Kuroczycka Saniutycz E. KIM-1 and NGAL: new markers of obstructive nephropathy. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011;26:579-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to confirm a potential application of uKIM-1 and uNGAL as useful biomarkers for the diagnosis and progression of chronic kidney disease...

More Information


  1. Zhou Y, Vaidya V, Brown R, Zhang J, Rosenzweig B, Thompson K, et al. Comparison of kidney injury molecule-1 and other nephrotoxicity biomarkers in urine and kidney following acute exposure to gentamicin, mercury, and chromium. Toxicol Sci. 2008;101:159-70 pubmed
    ..Urinary Kim-1 and kidney Kim-1/Havcr1 expression appear to be sensitive and tissue-specific biomarkers that will improve detection of early acute kidney injury following exposure to nephrotoxic chemicals and drugs. ..
  2. Ichimura T, Asseldonk E, Humphreys B, Gunaratnam L, Duffield J, Bonventre J. Kidney injury molecule-1 is a phosphatidylserine receptor that confers a phagocytic phenotype on epithelial cells. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1657-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, KIM-1 is the first nonmyeloid phosphatidylserine receptor identified to our knowledge that transforms epithelial cells into semiprofessional phagocytes. ..
  3. Eirin A, Gloviczki M, Tang H, Rule A, Woollard J, Lerman A, et al. Chronic renovascular hypertension is associated with elevated levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2012;27:4153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may also imply the occurrence of the inflammation process in chronic RVH, which might contribute to the poorer outcomes of RVH compared with EH patients. ..
  4. Abraham A, Ma F, Mulley W, Ozols E, Nikolic Paterson D. Macrophage infiltration and renal damage are independent of matrix metalloproteinase 12 in the obstructed kidney. Nephrology (Carlton). 2012;17:322-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to lung injury and antibody-dependent glomerular injury, MMP-12 is not required for renal interstitial macrophage accumulation, interstitial fibrosis or tubular damage in the obstructed kidney. ..
  5. Hosohata K, Ando H, Fujimura A. Early detection of renal injury using urinary vanin-1 in rats with experimental colitis. J Appl Toxicol. 2014;34:184-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with Kim-1 and MCP-1, vanin-1 might be an earlier biomarker for the detection of renal injury in rats with experimental colitis. ..
  6. Nijboer W, Schuurs T, Damman J, van Goor H, Vaidya V, van der Heide J, et al. Kidney injury molecule-1 is an early noninvasive indicator for donor brain death-induced injury prior to kidney transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2009;9:1752-9 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and 1 year (p < 0.05) after kidney transplantation. In conclusion, we think that Kim-1 is a promising novel marker for the early, organ specific and noninvasive detection of brain death-induced donor kidney damage. ..
  7. Vaidya V, Niewczas M, Ficociello L, Johnson A, Collings F, Warram J, et al. Regression of microalbuminuria in type 1 diabetes is associated with lower levels of urinary tubular injury biomarkers, kidney injury molecule-1, and N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase. Kidney Int. 2011;79:464-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, tubular dysfunction is a critical component of the early course of diabetic nephropathy. ..
  8. Abassi Z, Shalabi A, Sohotnik R, Nativ O, Awad H, Bishara B, et al. Urinary NGAL and KIM-1: biomarkers for assessment of acute ischemic kidney injury following nephron sparing surgery. J Urol. 2013;189:1559-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Renal injury severity after nephron sparing surgery could be quantitatively assessed by measuring urinary NGAL and KIM-1. ..
  9. Ajay A, Kim T, Ramírez González V, Park P, Frank D, Vaidya V. A bioinformatics approach identifies signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and checkpoint kinase 1 as upstream regulators of kidney injury molecule-1 after kidney injury. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25:105-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations highlight Chk1 and STAT3 as critical upstream regulators of KIM-1 expression after AKI and may suggest novel approaches for therapeutic intervention. ..
  10. Jin Y, Shao X, Sun B, Miao C, Li Z, Shi Y. Urinary kidney injury molecule?1 as an early diagnostic biomarker of obstructive acute kidney injury and development of a rapid detection method. Mol Med Rep. 2017;15:1229-1235 pubmed publisher
  11. Graves P, Siroux V, Guerra S, Klimecki W, Martinez F. Association of atopy and eczema with polymorphisms in T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase gene cluster in chromosome 5 q 33. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116:650-6 pubmed
    ..None of the polymorphisms studied was related to asthma. Our findings support a potential role for SNPs in TIM 1, TIM 3, and ITK, independent of each other, in allergic diseases. ..
  12. Yamanishi Y, Kitaura J, Izawa K, Kaitani A, Komeno Y, Nakamura M, et al. TIM1 is an endogenous ligand for LMIR5/CD300b: LMIR5 deficiency ameliorates mouse kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1501-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results indicate that TIM1 is an endogenous ligand for LMIR5 and that the TIM1-LMIR5 interaction plays a physiological role in immune regulation by myeloid cells. ..
  13. Lekawanvijit S, Kompa A, Zhang Y, Wang B, Kelly D, Krum H. Myocardial infarction impairs renal function, induces renal interstitial fibrosis, and increases renal KIM-1 expression: implications for cardiorenal syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2012;302:H1884-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, renal impairment occurs early post-MI and is associated with hemodynamic and structural changes in the kidney possibly via activation of the Smad2 signaling pathway. ..
  14. Alter M, Kretschmer A, von Websky K, Tsuprykov O, Reichetzeder C, Simon A, et al. Early urinary and plasma biomarkers for experimental diabetic nephropathy. Clin Lab. 2012;58:659-71 pubmed
    ..The new biomarkers might offer an advantage to urinary albumin and plasma cystatin c with respect to early detection. ..
  15. Gauer S, Urbschat A, Gretz N, Hoffmann S, Kränzlin B, Geiger H, et al. Kidney Injury Molecule-1 Is Specifically Expressed in Cystically-Transformed Proximal Tubules of the PKD/Mhm (cy/+) Rat Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17: pubmed publisher
    ..Its exact role in interfering with tubulo-interstitial alterations in polycystic kidney disease warrants future investigations. ..
  16. Khademi M, Illes Z, Gielen A, Marta M, Takazawa N, Baecher Allan C, et al. T Cell Ig- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (TIM-3) and TIM-1 molecules are differentially expressed on human Th1 and Th2 cells and in cerebrospinal fluid-derived mononuclear cells in multiple sclerosis. J Immunol. 2004;172:7169-76 pubmed
    ..These data imply the differential expression of human TIM molecules by Th1 and Th2 cells and may suggest their differential involvement in different phases of a human autoimmune disease. ..
  17. Toker A, Ziypak T, Orsal E, Laloglu E, Bedir F, Aksoy Y. Is urinary kidney injury molecule-1 a noninvasive marker for renal scarring in children with vesicoureteral reflux?. Urology. 2013;81:168-72 pubmed publisher
    ..004). Urinary KIM-1 levels might be used as a noninvasive marker, particularly in showing severe scarring in children with VUR. ..
  18. Kondratowicz A, Lennemann N, Sinn P, Davey R, Hunt C, Moller Tank S, et al. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is a receptor for Zaire Ebolavirus and Lake Victoria Marburgvirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:8426-31 pubmed publisher
    ..ARD5, a monoclonal antibody against the IgV domain of TIM-1, blocked EBOV binding and infection, suggesting that antibodies or small molecules directed against this cellular receptor may provide effective filovirus antivirals. ..
  19. Kramer A, van der Meulen E, Hamming I, van Goor H, Navis G. Effect of combining ACE inhibition with aldosterone blockade on proteinuria and renal damage in experimental nephrosis. Kidney Int. 2007;71:417-24 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, ACEi/aldoRB effectively reduced proteinuria and markers of tubular injury and prevented renal damage in this rat model of chronic proteinuria-induced renal damage...
  20. Sabbisetti V, Ito K, Wang C, Yang L, Mefferd S, Bonventre J. Novel assays for detection of urinary KIM-1 in mouse models of kidney injury. Toxicol Sci. 2013;131:13-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Mouse KIM-1 was stable for multiple freeze-thaw cycles, for up to 5 days at room temperature and up to at least an year when stored at -80°C. ..
  21. Carlsson A, Larsson A, Helmersson Karlqvist J, Lind L, Ingelsson E, Larsson T, et al. Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 and incidence of heart failure in elderly men. Eur J Heart Fail. 2013;15:441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to clarify the causal role of KIM-1 in the development of heart failure, and to evaluate the clinical utility of urinary KIM-1 measurements. ..
  22. de Borst M, van Timmeren M, Vaidya V, de Boer R, van Dalen M, Kramer A, et al. Induction of kidney injury molecule-1 in homozygous Ren2 rats is attenuated by blockade of the renin-angiotensin system or p38 MAP kinase. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F313-20 pubmed
    ..01). Kim-1 is associated with development of RAS-mediated renal damage. Antifibrotic treatment through RAS blockade or p38 MAP kinase inhibition reduced Kim-1 in the homozygous Ren2 model. ..
  23. Ji X, Ma L, Lu J, Zhang S, Huang Y, Hou X, et al. [Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 in renal ischemic postconditioning and its protective effect against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2012;44:511-7 pubmed
    ..Kim-1, as a biomarker and protective factor of acute kidney injury (AKI), can sensitively reflect the renal protective effect by ischemic postconditioning. ..
  24. Rouse R, Stewart S, Thompson K, Zhang J. Kidney injury biomarkers in hypertensive, diabetic, and nephropathy rat models treated with contrast media. Toxicol Pathol. 2013;41:662-80 pubmed publisher
    ..BUN), serum creatinine (sCr), and urinary biomarkers; albumin, lipocalin 2 (Lcn-2), osteopontin (Opn), kidney injury molecule 1 (Kim-1), renal papillary antigen 1 (Rpa-1), ?-glutathione S-transferase (?-Gst), µ-glutathione S-..
  25. Zhang J, Goering P, Espandiari P, Shaw M, Bonventre J, Vaidya V, et al. Differences in immunolocalization of Kim-1, RPA-1, and RPA-2 in kidneys of gentamicin-, cisplatin-, and valproic acid-treated rats: potential role of iNOS and nitrotyrosine. Toxicol Pathol. 2009;37:629-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that peroxynitrite formation may be involved in the pathogenesis of Gen and Cis nephrotoxicity and that Kim-1, RPA-1, and RPA-2 have the potential to serve as site-specific biomarkers for Gen or Cis AKI. ..
  26. Cuadros T, Trilla E, Vilà M, de Torres I, Vilardell J, Messaoud N, et al. Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1/kidney injury molecule-1 is a susceptibility gene for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and hepatitis A virus cellular receptor/kidney injury molecule-1 ectodomain shedding a predictive biomarker of tumour progress. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:2034-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced HAVCR/KIM-1 ectodomain shedding promotes invasive phenotype in vitro and more aggressive tumours in vivo. ..
  27. Sonar S, Hsu Y, Conrad M, Majeau G, Kilic A, Garber E, et al. Antagonism of TIM-1 blocks the development of disease in a humanized mouse model of allergic asthma. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2767-81 pubmed publisher
  28. Sadar S, Kaspate D, Vyawahare N. Protective effect of L-glutamine against diabetes-induced nephropathy in experimental animal: Role of KIM-1, NGAL, TGF-?1, and collagen-1. Ren Fail. 2016;38:1483-1495 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, results of present investigation suggest that treatment with LG ameliorated STZ-induced DN via the inhibition of oxidonitrosative stress as well as downregulation of KIM-1, NGAL, TGF-?1, and collagen-1 mRNA expressions. ..
  29. Vaidya V, Ozer J, Dieterle F, Collings F, Ramirez V, Troth S, et al. Kidney injury molecule-1 outperforms traditional biomarkers of kidney injury in preclinical biomarker qualification studies. Nat Biotechnol. 2010;28:478-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This should enable early identification and elimination of compounds that are potentially nephrotoxic. ..
  30. Fu W, Li B, Wang S, Chen M, Deng R, Ye C, et al. Changes of the tubular markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus with glomerular hyperfiltration. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012;95:105-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Tubular markers, such as urinary N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), as well as serum and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), were measured ..
  31. Ragab D, Abdallah D, El Abhar H. Cilostazol renoprotective effect: modulation of PPAR-?, NGAL, KIM-1 and IL-18 underlies its novel effect in a model of ischemia-reperfusion. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e95313 pubmed publisher
  32. Chen F, Smith R, Gu Y, Collins N, Nioi P. Toxicoepigenetic alteration of the kidney injury molecule 1 gene in gentamicin-exposed rat kidney. Toxicol Sci. 2010;117:375-80 pubmed publisher
    ..assay to investigate putative changes in the chromatin environment associated with the kidney injury molecule 1 (Kim1) gene upon exposure of rats to the nephrotoxicant, gentamicin...
  33. Sinha V, Vence L, Salahudeen A. Urinary tubular protein-based biomarkers in the rodent model of cisplatin nephrotoxicity: a comparative analysis of serum creatinine, renal histology, and urinary KIM-1, NGAL, and NAG in the initiation, maintenance, and recovery phases of acute kidne. J Investig Med. 2013;61:564-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative analyses of urinary biomarkers are warranted in clinical settings such as patients receiving CP to discern the time course and pattern of expression. ..
  34. Oh S, Lee E, Kim S, Na K, Chae D, Kim S, et al. Bilirubin attenuates the renal tubular injury by inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis. BMC Nephrol. 2013;14:105 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes were recovered by BIL (P?<?0.05). The direct administration of BIL protected against CsA-induced tubular injury via inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis. ..
  35. Peters H, Waanders F, Meijer E, van den Brand J, Steenbergen E, van Goor H, et al. High urinary excretion of kidney injury molecule-1 is an independent predictor of end-stage renal disease in patients with IgA nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:3581-8 pubmed publisher
    ..KIM-1 and NGAL excretion are increased in patients with IgAN and correlate with proteinuria but not with eGFR. Baseline serum creatinine and urinary KIM-1, but not proteinuria, are independent predictors of ESRD. ..
  36. Chiusolo A, Defazio R, Zanetti E, Mongillo M, Mori N, Cristofori P, et al. Kidney injury molecule-1 expression in rat proximal tubule after treatment with segment-specific nephrotoxicants: a tool for early screening of potential kidney toxicity. Toxicol Pathol. 2010;38:338-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study suggested KIM-1 as a sensitive molecular marker of different levels of tubular injury, and it is likely to represent a potential tool for early screening of nephrotoxicants. ..
  37. Khandrika L, Koul S, Meacham R, Koul H. Kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in renal epithelial cells in response to oxalate in vitro and in renal tissues in response to hyperoxaluria in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44174 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that detection of KIM-1 over-expression and measurement of the ectodomain of KIM-1 in urine may hold promise as a marker to monitor oxalate nephrotoxicity in hyperoxaluria. ..
  38. Gao L, Li G, Zhao Y, Zang B. [Clinical study of kidney injury molecule-1 in the treatment of sepsis patients]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2012;24:647-50 pubmed
    ..It is very important for the appraisal of prognosis, development and prognosis in sepsis, combined with APACHEII score. ..
  39. Kwon S, Park M, Jeon J, Noh H, Choi S, Kim J, et al. KIM-1 expression predicts renal outcomes in IgA nephropathy. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2013;17:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The concentration of urinary KIM-1/Cr in patients with IgAN was significantly higher than that in the normal controls. Tissue KIM-1 expression is an independent predictor of adverse renal outcomes in IgA nephropathy patients. ..
  40. Chen G, Bridenbaugh E, Akintola A, Catania J, Vaidya V, Bonventre J, et al. Increased susceptibility of aging kidney to ischemic injury: identification of candidate genes changed during aging, but corrected by caloric restriction. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F1272-81 pubmed
    ..In summary, we identified genes changed by aging and changes attenuated by caloric restriction. This will facilitate investigation into the molecular mechanism mediating the age-related increase in susceptibility to injury. ..
  41. Hong M, Tseng C, Chuang C, Chen C, Lin S, Lin C. Urinary macrophage migration inhibitory factor serves as a potential biomarker for acute kidney injury in patients with acute pyelonephritis. Mediators Inflamm. 2012;2012:381358 pubmed publisher
    ..An elevated urinary MIF level, along with elevated IL-1? and KIM-1 levels, is speculated to be a potential biomarker for the presence of AKI in APN patients. ..
  42. Luo Q, Chen M, Sun F, Chen Z, Li M, Zeng W, et al. KIM-1 and NGAL as biomarkers of nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2014;397:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Both of the biomarkers are supported to be used as sensitive indicators of acute kidney injury caused by gentamicin. ..
  43. Tomczak J, Wasilewska A, Milewski R. Urine NGAL and KIM-1 in children and adolescents with hyperuricemia. Pediatr Nephrol. 2013;28:1863-9 pubmed publisher
    ..ratio (R?=?0.604, p?<?0.001). We demonstrated that male, obese, hypertensive adolescents with hyperuricemia have higher urine NGAL and KIM-1 levels relative to a reference group with normouricemia. ..
  44. Shanu A, Groebler L, Kim H, Wood S, Weekley C, Aitken J, et al. Selenium inhibits renal oxidation and inflammation but not acute kidney injury in an animal model of rhabdomyolysis. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2013;18:756-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a manifestation of rhabdomyolysis (RM). Extracellular myoglobin accumulating in the kidney after RM promotes oxidative damage, which is implicated in AKI...
  45. Jin Z, Tian P, Wang X, Xue W, Ding X, Zheng J, et al. Kidney injury molecule-1 and osteopontin: new markers for prediction of early kidney transplant rejection. Mol Immunol. 2013;54:457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..922). This study was the first to demonstrate that serum KIM-1 and OPN may be the promising and elegant markers for prediction of early acute kidney allograft rejection. ..
  46. Rached E, Hoffmann D, Blumbach K, Weber K, Dekant W, Mally A. Evaluation of putative biomarkers of nephrotoxicity after exposure to ochratoxin a in vivo and in vitro. Toxicol Sci. 2008;103:371-81 pubmed publisher
  47. Adil M, Kandhare A, Ghosh P, Venkata S, Raygude K, Bodhankar S. Ameliorative effect of naringin in acetaminophen-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in laboratory rats: role of FXR and KIM-1. Ren Fail. 2016;38:1007-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Naringin treatment also reduced histological alteration induced by APAP in the liver and kidney. Naringin exerts its hepato- and nephroprotective effect via modulation of oxido-nitrosative stress, FXR and KIM-1 mRNA expression. ..
  48. Gardiner L, Akintola A, Chen G, Catania J, Vaidya V, Burghardt R, et al. Structural equation modeling highlights the potential of Kim-1 as a biomarker for chronic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2012;35:152-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Models also indicate a strong relationship between age and renal damage and dysfunction. SEM can be used to model CKD and could be useful to examine biomarkers in CKD patients. ..
  49. Trujillo J, Cruz C, Tovar A, Vaidya V, Zambrano E, Bonventre J, et al. Renoprotective mechanisms of soy protein intake in the obese Zucker rat. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F1574-82 pubmed publisher
  50. Prozialeck W, Edwards J, Vaidya V, Bonventre J. Preclinical evaluation of novel urinary biomarkers of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;238:301-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide additional evidence that Kim-1 is a sensitive biomarker of the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. ..
  51. Sabbisetti V, Waikar S, Antoine D, Smiles A, Wang C, Ravisankar A, et al. Blood kidney injury molecule-1 is a biomarker of acute and chronic kidney injury and predicts progression to ESRD in type I diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25:2177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify KIM-1 as a blood biomarker that specifically reflects acute and chronic kidney injury. ..
  52. Swain A, Turton J, Scudamore C, Maguire D, Pereira I, Freitas S, et al. Nephrotoxicity of hexachloro-1:3-butadiene in the male Hanover Wistar rat; correlation of minimal histopathological changes with biomarkers of renal injury. J Appl Toxicol. 2012;32:417-28 pubmed publisher
  53. Soljancic A, Ruiz A, Chandrashekar K, Marañón R, Liu R, Reckelhoff J, et al. Protective role of testosterone in ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute kidney injury. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2013;304:R951-8 pubmed publisher
  54. Quiros Y, Sánchez González P, Lopez Hernandez F, Morales A, Lopez Novoa J. Cardiotrophin-1 administration prevents the renal toxicity of iodinated contrast media in rats. Toxicol Sci. 2013;132:493-501 pubmed publisher
    ..damage; urinary excretion of markers of tubular damage, including N-acetyl beta glucosaminidase (NAG), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; lipid peroxidation; and renal apoptosis...
  55. Lieberthal J, Cuthbertson D, Carette S, Hoffman G, Khalidi N, Koening C, et al. urinary biomarkers in relapsing antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. J Rheumatol. 2013;40:674-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Either urinary MCP-1 is not specific for GN in AAV, or it identifies early GN not detected by standard assessment and thus has potential to improve care. A followup study with kidney biopsy as the gold standard is needed. ..
  56. Aoyama M, Isshiki K, Kume S, Chin Kanasaki M, Araki H, Araki S, et al. Fructose induces tubulointerstitial injury in the kidney of mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;419:244-9 pubmed publisher
    ..fibrosis localized on the outer cortex of the kidney together with the increase of mRNA expression of Kim1 and Ngal in the absence of distinct glomerular lesions and albuminuria - decidedly different from diabetic ..
  57. Sundaram N, Bennett M, Wilhelm J, Kim M, ATWEH G, Devarajan P, et al. Biomarkers for early detection of sickle nephropathy. Am J Hematol. 2011;86:559-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies potential biomarkers for SN, and suggests longitudinal validation of these biomarkers for early detection of SN, so that therapeutic interventions can be applied before renal damage becomes irreversible. ..
  58. Kramer A, van Timmeren M, Schuurs T, Vaidya V, Bonventre J, van Goor H, et al. Reduction of proteinuria in adriamycin-induced nephropathy is associated with reduction of renal kidney injury molecule (Kim-1) over time. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F1136-45 pubmed publisher