Gene Symbol: Kcna4
Description: potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 4
Alias: KCHAN, Kv1.4, Kv4, RHK1, RK3, potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily A member 4, RCK4, potassium channel, voltage gated shaker related subfamily A, member 4, potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related subfamily, member 4, voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv1.4
Species: rat
Products:     Kcna4

Top Publications

  1. Schulte U, Thumfart J, Klocker N, Sailer C, Bildl W, Biniossek M, et al. The epilepsy-linked Lgi1 protein assembles into presynaptic Kv1 channels and inhibits inactivation by Kvbeta1. Neuron. 2006;49:697-706 pubmed
    ..The results establish Lgi1 as a novel subunit of Kv1.1-associated protein complexes and suggest that changes in inactivation gating of presynaptic A-type channels may promote epileptic activity. ..
  2. Tao Y, Zeng R, Shen B, Jia J, Wang Y. Neuronal transmission stimulates the phosphorylation of Kv1.4 channel at Ser229 through protein kinase A1. J Neurochem. 2005;94:1512-22 pubmed
    ..4 at Ser229 via the Ca2+ influx through NMDA receptor. Thus, it is possible that neuronal transmission regulates neuronal excitability partially through the phosphorylation of Kv1.4S229. ..
  3. Aydar E, Palmer C, Klyachko V, Jackson M. The sigma receptor as a ligand-regulated auxiliary potassium channel subunit. Neuron. 2002;34:399-410 pubmed
    ..The ligand-independent effects on channels suggest that sigma receptors serve as auxiliary subunits to voltage-gated K+ channels with distinct functional interactions, depending on the presence or absence of ligand. ..
  4. Lujan R, de Cabo de la Vega C, Dominguez del Toro E, Ballesta J, Criado M, Juiz J. Immunohistochemical localization of the voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv1.4 in the central nervous system of the adult rat. J Chem Neuroanat. 2003;26:209-24 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate that Kv1.4 channels are widely distributed in the rat brain and suggest that activation of this channel would have different modulatory effects on neuronal excitability. ..
  5. Hayashi Y, Takimoto K, Chancellor M, Erickson K, Erickson V, Kirimoto T, et al. Bladder hyperactivity and increased excitability of bladder afferent neurons associated with reduced expression of Kv1.4 alpha-subunit in rats with cystitis. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;296:R1661-70 pubmed publisher
    ..4 alpha-subunits. Similar changes in capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber afferent terminals may contribute to bladder hyperactivity and hyperalgesia due to acid-induced bladder inflammation. ..
  6. Tanimoto T, Takeda M, Nasu M, Kadoi J, Matsumoto S. Immunohistochemical co-expression of carbonic anhydrase II with Kv1.4 and TRPV1 in rat small-diameter trigeminal ganglion neurons. Brain Res. 2005;1044:262-5 pubmed
    ..The fact that CAII-immunoreactive TG neurons revealed a common expression of both Kv1.4 and TRPV1 leads us to suggest that CAII may be one of the nociceptive neuronal markers. ..
  7. Brooke R, Atkinson L, Batten T, Deuchars S, Deuchars J. Association of potassium channel Kv3.4 subunits with pre- and post-synaptic structures in brainstem and spinal cord. Neuroscience. 2004;126:1001-10 pubmed
    ..Therefore the pre and postsynaptic localization of Kv3.4-IR suggests a role both in the control of transmitter release and in regulating neuronal excitability. ..
  8. Tseng Crank J, Tseng G, Schwartz A, Tanouye M. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a potassium channel cDNA isolated from a rat cardiac library. FEBS Lett. 1990;268:63-8 pubmed
    A full-length K+ channel cDNA (RHK1) was isolated from a rat cardiac library using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and degenerate oligonucleotide primers derived from K+ channel sequences conserved between Drosophila Shaker H4 ..
  9. Xie C, Su H, Guo T, Yan Y, Peng X, Cao R, et al. Synaptotagmin I delays the fast inactivation of Kv1.4 channel through interaction with its N-terminus. Mol Brain. 2014;7:4 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that synaptotagmin I is an interacting protein of Kv1.4 channel and, as a negative modulator, may play an important role in regulating neuronal excitability and synaptic efficacy. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Antz C, Geyer M, Fakler B, Schott M, Guy H, Frank R, et al. NMR structure of inactivation gates from mammalian voltage-dependent potassium channels. Nature. 1997;385:272-5 pubmed
    ..channels (Raw3 (Kv3.4) and RCK4 (Kv1.4))...
  2. Naisbitt S, Kim E, Tu J, Xiao B, Sala C, Valtschanoff J, et al. Shank, a novel family of postsynaptic density proteins that binds to the NMDA receptor/PSD-95/GKAP complex and cortactin. Neuron. 1999;23:569-82 pubmed
    ..Shank may function as a scaffold protein in the PSD, potentially cross-linking NMDA receptor/PSD-95 complexes and coupling them to regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  3. Nishiyama A, Ishii D, Backx P, Pulford B, Birks B, Tamkun M. Altered K(+) channel gene expression in diabetic rat ventricle: isoform switching between Kv4.2 and Kv1.4. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H1800-7 pubmed
    ..Although hypertrophy was not detected in diabetic rats at 12 wk after streptozocin treatment, ventricular Kv4.2 mRNA levels decreased 41% relative to nondiabetic controls. Kv1...
  4. Gomez B, Zhu J, Recio Pinto E, Thornhill W. Amino Acid Properties of Trafficking Determinants in the Outer Pore-Forming Region of Kv1 Potassium Channels in Cell Lines. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2017;75:25-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that these four prolines and four lysines in a Kv1.4 homotetramer might provide a binding site for a putative endoplasmic reticulum-export molecule to ensure high cell surface protein expression of the channel. ..
  5. Al Sabi A, Kaza S, Le Berre M, O Hara L, Bodeker M, Wang J, et al. Position-dependent attenuation by Kv1.6 of N-type inactivation of Kv1.4-containing channels. Biochem J. 2011;438:389-96 pubmed publisher
    ..2 yielded slow-inactivating currents, because in this concatamer Kv1.4 and 1.6 should be together. These findings also confirm that the gene concatenation can generate K(+) channels with ? subunits in pre-determined positions. ..
  6. Liu B, Westhead D, Boyett M, Warwicker J. Modelling the pH-dependent properties of Kv1 potassium channels. J Mol Biol. 2007;368:328-35 pubmed
    ..This hypothesis is examined in the context of pH dependence for other members of the Kv1 family, and may represent a general tool with which to study potassium channels. ..
  7. Yuan W, Burkhalter A, Nerbonne J. Functional role of the fast transient outward K+ current IA in pyramidal neurons in (rat) primary visual cortex. J Neurosci. 2005;25:9185-94 pubmed
    ..exploited to directly test the hypothesis that voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel pore-forming (alpha) subunits of the Kv4 subfamily encode the fast transient outward K+ current (IA) in cortical pyramidal neurons and to explore the ..
  8. Kim E, Niethammer M, Rothschild A, Jan Y, Sheng M. Clustering of Shaker-type K+ channels by interaction with a family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases. Nature. 1995;378:85-8 pubmed
    ..3) and syntrophin), suggest that PDZ-domain-containing polypeptides may be widely involved in the organization of proteins at sites of membrane specialization. ..
  9. Wissmann R, Bildl W, Oliver D, Beyermann M, Kalbitzer H, Bentrop D, et al. Solution structure and function of the "tandem inactivation domain" of the neuronal A-type potassium channel Kv1.4. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:16142-50 pubmed
    ..Together, the concerted action of ID1 and ID2 may promote rapid inactivation of Kv1.4 that is crucial for the channel function in short term plasticity. ..
  10. Rhodes K, Strassle B, Monaghan M, Bekele Arcuri Z, Matos M, Trimmer J. Association and colocalization of the Kvbeta1 and Kvbeta2 beta-subunits with Kv1 alpha-subunits in mammalian brain K+ channel complexes. J Neurosci. 1997;17:8246-58 pubmed
  11. Niethammer M, Kim E, Sheng M. Interaction between the C terminus of NMDA receptor subunits and multiple members of the PSD-95 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases. J Neurosci. 1996;16:2157-63 pubmed
    ..Members of the PSD-95 family might serve to anchor NMDA receptors to the submembrane cytoskeleton and aid in the assembly of signal transduction complexes at postsynaptic sites. ..
  12. Takeda M, Tanimoto T, Nasu M, Matsumoto S. Temporomandibular joint inflammation decreases the voltage-gated K+ channel subtype 1.4-immunoreactivity of trigeminal ganglion neurons in rats. Eur J Pain. 2008;12:189-95 pubmed
    ..These results lead us to suggest that Kv channel openers may be a potential therapeutic agents for prevention of mechanical allodynia. ..
  13. Roepke T, Kontogeorgis A, Ovanez C, Xu X, Young J, Purtell K, et al. Targeted deletion of kcne2 impairs ventricular repolarization via disruption of I(K,slow1) and I(to,f). FASEB J. 2008;22:3648-60 pubmed publisher
    ..5--a previously unknown partner for MiRP1. I(to,f), generated by Kv4 alpha subunits, was also diminished, by approximately 25%...
  14. Kanda V, Lewis A, Xu X, Abbott G. KCNE1 and KCNE2 inhibit forward trafficking of homomeric N-type voltage-gated potassium channels. Biophys J. 2011;101:1354-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings illustrate two contrasting mechanisms controlling surface expression of N-type Kv ?-subunits and therefore, potentially, cellular excitability and refractory periods. ..
  15. Guan D, Horton L, Armstrong W, FOEHRING R. Postnatal development of A-type and Kv1- and Kv2-mediated potassium channel currents in neocortical pyramidal neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2011;105:2976-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The putative Kv2-mediated component was the largest at all ages. Immunocytochemistry indicated that protein expression for Kv4.2, Kv4.3, Kv1.4, and Kv2.1 increased between 1 wk and 4-5 wk of age.
  16. Suzuki T, Takimoto K. Differential expression of Kv4 pore-forming and KChIP auxiliary subunits in rat uterus during pregnancy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;288:E335-41 pubmed
    ..rapidly inactivating K(v) current is prominent in myometrial cells and may be carried by complexes consisting of Kv4 pore-forming and KChIP auxiliary subunits...
  17. Stuhmer W, Ruppersberg J, Schröter K, Sakmann B, Stocker M, Giese K, et al. Molecular basis of functional diversity of voltage-gated potassium channels in mammalian brain. EMBO J. 1989;8:3235-44 pubmed
  18. Feng X, Zhou Y, Meng X, Qi F, Chen W, Jiang X, et al. Hydrogen sulfide increases excitability through suppression of sustained potassium channel currents of rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. Mol Pain. 2013;9:4 pubmed publisher
  19. Schreier C, Auer A, Kalbitzer H, Kremer W. NMR assignments of a 48 kDa tetramer of the T1 domain of the mammalian voltage gated potassium channel Kv1.4. Biomol NMR Assign. 2009;3:167-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The secondary structure analysis derived from the chemical shifts is in line with the expectations from X-ray structures of related proteins. ..
  20. Po S, Roberds S, Snyders D, Tamkun M, Bennett P. Heteromultimeric assembly of human potassium channels. Molecular basis of a transient outward current?. Circ Res. 1993;72:1326-36 pubmed
    ..However, one combination of subunits could not be excluded. Therefore, this mechanism of channel assembly may underlie some of the functional diversity of potassium channels found in the cardiovascular system. ..
  21. González Pérez V, Neely A, Tapia C, Gonzalez Gutierrez G, Contreras G, Orio P, et al. Slow inactivation in Shaker K channels is delayed by intracellular tetraethylammonium. J Gen Physiol. 2008;132:633-50 pubmed publisher
    ..1, cause severe changes in inactivation kinetics. ..
  22. Angelova P, Müller W. Arachidonic acid potently inhibits both postsynaptic-type Kv4.2 and presynaptic-type Kv1.4 IA potassium channels. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;29:1943-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This inhibition is blocked by some antioxidants. The somatodendritic I(A) is mediated by Kv4.2 gene products, whereas presynaptic I(A) is mediated by Kv1.4 channel subunits...
  23. Ramaswami M, Gautam M, Kamb A, Rudy B, Tanouye M, Mathew M. Human potassium channel genes: Molecular cloning and functional expression. Mol Cell Neurosci. 1990;1:214-23 pubmed
    ..Differences are observed between the pharmacological sensitivities of human channels and the reported sensitivities of their rat homology. ..
  24. Sheng M, Liao Y, Jan Y, Jan L. Presynaptic A-current based on heteromultimeric K+ channels detected in vivo. Nature. 1993;365:72-5 pubmed
    ..We propose that Kv1.4/Kv1.2 heteromultimers may form the molecular basis of a presynaptic A-type K+ channel involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. ..
  25. Kanda V, Lewis A, Xu X, Abbott G. KCNE1 and KCNE2 provide a checkpoint governing voltage-gated potassium channel ?-subunit composition. Biophys J. 2011;101:1364-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The KCNE1/2-enforced checkpoint ensures N-type ?-subunits only reach the cell surface as part of intra-subfamily mixed-? complexes, thereby governing channel composition, inactivation rate, and-by extension-cellular excitability. ..
  26. Niethammer M, Valtschanoff J, Kapoor T, Allison D, Weinberg R, Craig A, et al. CRIPT, a novel postsynaptic protein that binds to the third PDZ domain of PSD-95/SAP90. Neuron. 1998;20:693-707 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that CRIPT may regulate PSD-95 interaction with a tubulin-based cytoskeleton in excitatory synapses. ..
  27. Sahoo N, Goradia N, Ohlenschläger O, Schönherr R, Friedrich M, Plass W, et al. Heme impairs the ball-and-chain inactivation of potassium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E4036-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Heme binding to the N-terminal inactivation domain induces a conformational constraint that prevents it from reaching its receptor site at the vestibule of the channel pore. ..
  28. Wickenden A, Jegla T, Kaprielian R, Backx P. Regional contributions of Kv1.4, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 to transient outward K+ current in rat ventricle. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:H1599-607 pubmed
    ..free wall and the interventricular septum of the adult rat ventricle and to evaluate the relative contributions of Kv4.2, Kv4.3, and Kv1.4 to Ito in these regions...
  29. Watanabe I, Zhu J, Recio Pinto E, Thornhill W. Glycosylation affects the protein stability and cell surface expression of Kv1.4 but Not Kv1.1 potassium channels. A pore region determinant dictates the effect of glycosylation on trafficking. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:8879-85 pubmed