Gene Symbol: Irf1
Description: interferon regulatory factor 1
Alias: interferon regulatory factor 1, IRF-1
Species: rat
Products:     Irf1

Top Publications

  1. Wieland C, Siegmund B, Senaldi G, Vasil M, Dinarello C, Fantuzzi G. Pulmonary inflammation induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide, phospholipase C, and exotoxin A: role of interferon regulatory factor 1. Infect Immun. 2002;70:1352-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that different virulence factors from P. aeruginosa induce pulmonary inflammation in vivo and that IRF-1 is involved in some of the cytokine responses to LPS and ETA. ..
  2. Yu S, Xi Z, Hai Yan C, Ya Li C, Shao Hu X, Chuan Sen Z, et al. Interferon regulatory factor-1 as a positive regulator for high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:2671-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It could be presumed that Irf-1 is associated with the accelerated proliferation of VSMCs in diabetic vascular diseases and may prove to be a potential target gene for disease treatment. ..
  3. Wang Y, Ren Z, Tao D, Tilwalli S, Goswami R, Balabanov R. STAT1/IRF-1 signaling pathway mediates the injurious effect of interferon-gamma on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Glia. 2010;58:195-208 pubmed publisher
    ..The conclusion of this study is that STAT1 and IRF-1 function as components of the signaling pathway that mediates IFN-gamma-induced OPC death. ..
  4. Dutia B, Allen D, Dyson H, Nash A. Type I interferons and IRF-1 play a critical role in the control of a gammaherpesvirus infection. Virology. 1999;261:173-9 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that innate immune mechanisms are critical for the early control of MHV-68 and may play a role in the establishment of latency...
  5. Dornan D, Eckert M, Wallace M, Shimizu H, Ramsay E, Hupp T, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 1 binding to p300 stimulates DNA-dependent acetylation of p53. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10083-98 pubmed
    b>Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and p53 control distinct sets of downstream genes; however, these two antioncogenic transcription factors converge to regulate p21 gene expression and to inhibit tumor formation...
  6. Gao J, Senthil M, Ren B, Yan J, Xing Q, Yu J, et al. IRF-1 transcriptionally upregulates PUMA, which mediates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in IRF-1-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:699-709 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that IFN-gamma induces IRF-1-mediated upregulation of PUMA in cancer cells. We conclude that IRF-1 can induce apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway independent of the extrinsic pathway by upregulation of PUMA. ..
  7. Qi H, Zhu H, Lou M, Fan Y, Liu H, Shen J, et al. Interferon regulatory factor 1 transactivates expression of human DNA polymerase ? in response to carcinogen N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:12622-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that MNNG-induced Pol? expression in an interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1)-dependent manner in human cells...
  8. Liu J, Cao S, Herman L, Ma X. Differential regulation of interleukin (IL)-12 p35 and p40 gene expression and interferon (IFN)-gamma-primed IL-12 production by IFN regulatory factor 1. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1265-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, IRF-1 acts as a critical component of IFN-gamma signaling in the selective activation of IL-12 p35 transcription in synergy with LPS-mediated events. ..
  9. Liu L, Qiu W, Wang H, Li Y, Zhou J, Xia M, et al. Sublytic C5b-9 complexes induce apoptosis of glomerular mesangial cells in rats with Thy-1 nephritis through role of interferon regulatory factor-1-dependent caspase 8 activation. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:16410-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These novel findings indicate that GMC apoptosis of Thy-1N is associated with the IRF-1-activated caspase 8 pathway. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Fragale A, Gabriele L, Stellacci E, Borghi P, Perrotti E, Ilari R, et al. IFN regulatory factor-1 negatively regulates CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cell differentiation by repressing Foxp3 expression. J Immunol. 2008;181:1673-82 pubmed
    ..We conclude that IRF-1 is a key negative regulator of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells through direct repression of Foxp3 expression. ..
  2. Brien J, Daffis S, Lazear H, Cho H, Suthar M, Gale M, et al. Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) shapes both innate and CD8(+) T cell immune responses against West Nile virus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002230 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IRF-1 restricts WNV infection by modulating the expression of innate antiviral effector molecules while shaping the antigen-specific CD8(+) T cell response. ..
  3. Ohteki T, Maki C, Koyasu S. Overexpression of Bcl-2 differentially restores development of thymus-derived CD4-8+ T cells and intestinal intraepithelial T cells in IFN-regulatory factor-1-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2001;166:6509-13 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that IRF-1 differentially regulates the development of these lymphocyte subsets and that survival signals involving Bcl-2 are critical for the development of thymus-dependent CD8+ T cells. ..
  4. Stadler K, Bierwirth C, Stoenica L, Battefeld A, Reetz O, Mix E, et al. Elevation in type I interferons inhibits HCN1 and slows cortical neuronal oscillations. Cereb Cortex. 2014;24:199-210 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these findings identify HCN1 channels as a novel neural target for type I IFNs providing the possibility to tune neural responses during the complex event of a CNS inflammation. ..
  5. Rizvi I, Robinson K, McFadden D, Riggs D, Jackson B, Vona Davis L. Peptide YY reverses TNF-alpha induced transcription factor binding of interferon regulatory factor-1 and p53 in pancreatic acinar cells. J Surg Res. 2006;136:25-30 pubmed
    ..Regulation of transcription factor activity by PYY may have therapeutic potential in altering the progression of pancreatitis. ..
  6. Tan H, Pan P, Zhao R, Qin Q, Wang H, Hu C. [Transcription factors in spinal dorsal root ganglion in rats recurrently infected with respiratory syncytial virus]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2009;34:1189-95 pubmed
  7. Cooper A, Pearl J, Brooks J, Ehlers S, Orme I. Expression of the nitric oxide synthase 2 gene is not essential for early control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the murine lung. Infect Immun. 2000;68:6879-82 pubmed
    ..rapid progression of disease in mice lacking IFN-gamma or a key member of the IFN signaling pathway, interferon regulatory factor 1. Thus while IFN-gamma is pivotal in early control of bacterial growth in the lung, this control does ..
  8. Zhu Y, Pan P, Tan H, Hu C. [Nerve growth factor increases sodium current via interferon regulatory factor-1 pathway in rat pheochromocytoma cells]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011;36:776-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Sodium current did not occur in PC-12 cells when IRF-1 was blocked. NGF can improve the sodium current in PC-12 cells concentration-dependently, and the improvement is regulated by IRF-1. ..
  9. Raghavendra Rao V, Dhodda V, Song G, Bowen K, Dempsey R. Traumatic brain injury-induced acute gene expression changes in rat cerebral cortex identified by GeneChip analysis. J Neurosci Res. 2003;71:208-19 pubmed
    ..Real-time PCR analysis confirmed the GeneChip data for many of these transcripts. The novel physiologically relevant gene expression changes observed here might explain some of the molecular mechanisms of TBI-induced neuronal damage. ..
  10. Song G, Cechvala C, Resnick D, Dempsey R, Rao V. GeneChip analysis after acute spinal cord injury in rat. J Neurochem. 2001;79:804-15 pubmed
    ..In addition to these effects, 24 h after SCI the repair and regeneration process begins in an attempt to stabilize the injured spinal cord. ..
  11. Eason D, Shepherd A, Blanck G. Interferon regulatory factor 1 tryptophan 11 to arginine point mutation abolishes DNA binding. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1446:140-4 pubmed
    ..The IRF-1 (W11R) mutation abolishes IRF-1 DNA binding and transactivating activities demonstrating the critical role of this invariant tryptophan in IRF-1 function. ..
  12. Dixit E, Boulant S, Zhang Y, Lee A, Odendall C, Shum B, et al. Peroxisomes are signaling platforms for antiviral innate immunity. Cell. 2010;141:668-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The interferon regulatory factor IRF1 plays a crucial role in regulating MAVS-dependent signaling from peroxisomes...
  13. Su Z, Sarkar D, Emdad L, Barral P, Fisher P. Central role of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) in controlling retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) expression. J Cell Physiol. 2007;213:502-10 pubmed
    ..IRF-1 is a tumor suppressor and the expression profile of RIG-I together with its regulation by IRF-1 and the presence of a caspase-recruitment domain in RIG-I suggest that RIG-I might also possess tumor suppressor properties. ..
  14. Fukushima A, Ozaki A, Fukata K, Ueno H. Differential expression and signaling of IFN-gamma in the conjunctiva between Lewis and Brown Norway rats. Microbiol Immunol. 2003;47:785-96 pubmed
    ..The findings demonstrate differential expression of IFN-gamma R and signaling through IFN-gamma in the conjunctiva between the two strains. This may be due to differences in histopathological character between the two strains. ..
  15. Liu H, Ning H, Men H, Hou R, Fu M, Zhang H, et al. Regulation of CCL5 expression in smooth muscle cells following arterial injury. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30873 pubmed publisher
    ..Methods targeting MK2 expression could be used to selectively regulate CCL5 but not IP-10 expression in SMCs. ..
  16. Wang T, Chu Y, Chen W, Feng W, Shih N, Hsiang C, et al. Association of interferon-gamma and interferon regulatory factor 1 polymorphisms with asthma in a family-based association study in Taiwan. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006;36:1147-52 pubmed
    ..83, P=0.009) and IRF1 11 GT repeats (OR=1.88, P=0.007) to them...
  17. Book McAlexander M, Yu Lee L. Prolactin activation of IRF-1 transcription involves changes in histone acetylation. FEBS Lett. 2001;488:91-4 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a correlation between histone H4 hyperacetylation at the IRF-1 promoter and biphasic transcription of IRF-1 in response to PRL signaling in vivo. ..
  18. Samuelson E, Hedberg C, Nilsson S, Behboudi A. Molecular classification of spontaneous endometrial adenocarcinomas in BDII rats. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2009;16:99-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Pten, Ifr1, and Ctnnb1) and real-time gene expression analysis (Pten, Cdh1, P16, Erbb2, Ctnnb1, Tp53, and Irf1) to further characterize molecular alterations in this tumor model with respect to different subtypes of EC in ..
  19. Byun S, Jeon I, Lee H, Kim T. IFN-gamma upregulates expression of the mouse complement C1rA gene in keratinocytes via IFN-regulatory factor-1. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1187-96 pubmed
    ..We conclude that IFN-gamma stimulates mC1rA gene expression via IRF-1 in mouse keratinocytes. ..
  20. Sampath D, Castro M, Look D, Holtzman M. Constitutive activation of an epithelial signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway in asthma. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:1353-61 pubmed
  21. Armstrong M, Stang M, Liu Y, Gao J, Ren B, Zuckerbraun B, et al. Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF-1) induces p21(WAF1/CIP1) dependent cell cycle arrest and p21(WAF1/CIP1) independent modulation of survivin in cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2012;319:56-65 pubmed publisher
    We have shown that the ectopic expression of Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF-1) results in human cancer cell death accompanied by the down-regulation of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) survivin and the induction of the cyclin-..
  22. Teng X, Zhang H, Snead C, Catravas J. Molecular mechanisms of iNOS induction by IL-1 beta and IFN-gamma in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;282:C144-52 pubmed
    ..We conclude that in RASMC, NF-kappa B and C/EBP mediate the IL-1 beta-induced iNOS expression, whereas IRF-1 and STAT1 mediate the IFN-gamma-enhanced iNOS induction...
  23. Stirnweiss A, Ksienzyk A, Klages K, Rand U, Grashoff M, Hauser H, et al. IFN regulatory factor-1 bypasses IFN-mediated antiviral effects through viperin gene induction. J Immunol. 2010;184:5179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism becomes important when viruses evade innate immunity by antagonizing the induction and function of the IFN system. ..
  24. Chen C, Xiao J, Wei H, Zhou X, Mao X, Zhang W, et al. An Up-regulation of IRF-1 After a Spinal Cord Injury: Implications for Neuronal Apoptosis. J Mol Neurosci. 2015;57:595-604 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this is the first description of IRF-1 expression in spinal cord injury. Our results suggested that IRF-1 might play crucial roles in CNS pathophysiology after SCI. ..
  25. Shao L, Guo Z, Geller D. Transcriptional suppression of cytokine-induced iNOS gene expression by IL-13 through IRF-1/ISRE signaling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;362:582-6 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that IL-13 down-regulates the cytokine-induced iNOS transcription by decreasing iNOS specific IRF-1/ISRE binding activity. ..
  26. Dogusan Z, Book M, Verdood P, Yu Lee L, Hooghe Peters E. Prolactin activates interferon regulatory factor-1 expression in normal lympho-hemopoietic cells. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2000;11:435-42 pubmed
    ..01 microg/ml), stimulates the expression of the IRF-1 gene in these normal cells. PRL could thus affect several aspects of the immune response. ..
  27. Sunil V, Connor A, Guo Y, Laskin J, Laskin D. Activation of type II alveolar epithelial cells during acute endotoxemia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;282:L872-80 pubmed
    ..In contrast, IRF-1 activation was delayed in AM. These data demonstrate that type II cells, like AM, are highly responsive during acute endotoxemia and may contribute to pulmonary inflammation. ..
  28. Kim J, Kim S, Jung S, Cho J, Chung E, Kim M, et al. Identification of differentially expressed genes after heat shock in isolated rat aorta. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;34:636-40 pubmed
    ..factor, stress-inducible protein 1 and heat shock protein 25 were upregulated, whereas a gene for interferon regulatory factor 1 was downregulated...
  29. Muto V, Stellacci E, Lamberti A, Perrotti E, Carrabba A, Matera G, et al. Human papillomavirus type 16 E5 protein induces expression of beta interferon through interferon regulatory factor 1 in human keratinocytes. J Virol. 2011;85:5070-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This stimulation is specifically mediated by the induction of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) which, in turn, induces transcriptional activation of IRF-1-targeted interferon-stimulated ..
  30. Negishi H, Fujita Y, Yanai H, Sakaguchi S, Ouyang X, Shinohara M, et al. Evidence for licensing of IFN-gamma-induced IFN regulatory factor 1 transcription factor by MyD88 in Toll-like receptor-dependent gene induction program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:15136-41 pubmed
    ..In this study we demonstrate that IRF1, which is induced by IFN-gamma, also interacts with and is activated by MyD88 upon TLR activation...
  31. Noguchi E, Shibasaki M, Arinami T, Yamakawa Kobayashi K, Yokouchi Y, Takeda K, et al. Mutation screening of interferon regulatory factor 1 gene (IRF-1) as a candidate gene for atopy/asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000;30:1562-7 pubmed
    ..b>Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) is located approximately 300 kb telomeric to IL-4 and recent study reveals that IRF-1 ..
  32. Cvetkovic I, Miljkovic D, Vuckovic O, Harhaji L, Nikolic Z, Trajkovic V, et al. Taxol activates inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat astrocytes: the role of MAP kinases and NF-kappaB. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004;61:1167-75 pubmed
    ..Finally, NO release by taxol-stimulated astrocytes was blocked with the microtubule-depolymerizing agent colchicine, suggesting the involvement of a microtubule-stabilizing activity of taxol in the observed effect. ..
  33. Moore F, Naamane N, Colli M, Bouckenooghe T, Ortis F, Gurzov E, et al. STAT1 is a master regulator of pancreatic {beta}-cell apoptosis and islet inflammation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:929-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study elucidates the transcriptional networks through which the IFN-?/STAT1/IRF-1 axis controls ?-cell function/differentiation, demise, and islet inflammation. ..
  34. Kelley T, Elmer H. In vivo alterations of IFN regulatory factor-1 and PIAS1 protein levels in cystic fibrosis epithelium. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:403-10 pubmed
    ..We propose that increased levels of PIAS1 diminish certain cell-signaling pathways, resulting in reduced IRF-1 and NOS2 expression in CF epithelial cells. ..
  35. Mori K, Yoshida K, Tani J, Nakagawa Y, Hoshikawa S, Ito S. Double-stranded RNA-induced interferon regulatory factor-1 gene expression in FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;184:77-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results suggest that the dsRNA-activated signaling pathway may be involved in the regulation of IFN-inducible genes in the thyroid. ..
  36. Yu Lee L, Hrachovy J, Stevens A, Schwarz L. Interferon-regulatory factor 1 is an immediate-early gene under transcriptional regulation by prolactin in Nb2 T cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:3087-94 pubmed
    ..The gene for IRF-1 is one of the earliest genes known to be transcriptionally regulated by Prl. ..
  37. Sun Y, Qiao L, Xia H, Lin M, Zou B, Yuan Y, et al. Regulation of XAF1 expression in human colon cancer cell by interferon beta: activation by the transcription regulator STAT1. Cancer Lett. 2008;260:62-71 pubmed
    ..Results suggested that induction of an immediate early response gene-XAF1 by IFNbeta was mediated by the transcription regulator Stat1 through the ISRE site within the promoter region of XAF1 gene in colon cancer. ..
  38. Horiuchi M, Itoh A, Pleasure D, Ozato K, Itoh T. Cooperative contributions of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) and IRF8 to interferon-?-mediated cytotoxic effects on oligodendroglial progenitor cells. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:8 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike IFN?, IFN? did not induce apoptosis of OPCs. Among nine IRFs, IRF1 and IRF8 were preferentially up-regulated by IFN?. In contrast, IRF7 was more robustly induced by IFN? than by IFN?...
  39. Raghavendra Rao V, Bowen K, Dhodda V, Song G, Franklin J, Gavva N, et al. Gene expression analysis of spontaneously hypertensive rat cerebral cortex following transient focal cerebral ischemia. J Neurochem. 2002;83:1072-86 pubmed
    ..Antisense knockdown of ischemia-induced SOCS-3 protein expression exacerbated transient MCAO-induced infarct volume assigning a neuroprotective role to SOCS-3, a gene not heretofore implicated in ischemic neuronal damage. ..
  40. Choi W, Ji K, Jeon S, Yang M, Kim H, Min K, et al. Anti-inflammatory roles of retinoic acid in rat brain astrocytes: Suppression of interferon-gamma-induced JAK/STAT phosphorylation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:125-31 pubmed
    ..SOCS3 may be at least one of the mechanisms that mediate the anti-inflammatory roles of RA. ..
  41. Le Stunff C, Rotwein P. Growth hormone stimulates interferon regulatory factor-1 gene expression in the liver. Endocrinology. 1998;139:859-66 pubmed
    ..Our results identify another component of the rapid nuclear response to GH, and support the idea that multiple primary and secondary signaling pathways contribute to the acute actions of GH on gene expression. ..
  42. Zhang X, Liu L, Chen C, Chi Y, Yang X, Xu Y, et al. Interferon regulatory factor-1 together with reactive oxygen species promotes the acceleration of cell cycle progression by up-regulating the cyclin E and CDK2 genes during high glucose-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2013;12:147 pubmed publisher
    ..The Irf-1 overexpression-induced proliferation of VSMCs, the up-regulation of cyclin E/CDK2 and the acceleration of cell cycle progression are associated with ROS/Erk1/2 signaling pathway under high glucose conditions. ..
  43. Qiu W, Zhou J, Zhu G, Zhao D, He F, Zhang J, et al. Sublytic C5b-9 triggers glomerular mesangial cell apoptosis via XAF1 gene activation mediated by p300-dependent IRF-1 acetylation. Cell Death Dis. 2014;5:e1176 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data implicate that sublytic C5b-9 induces the expression of both p300 and IRF-1, as well as p300-dependent IRF-1 acetylation that may contribute to XAF1 gene activation and subsequent GMC apoptosis in Thy-1N rats. ..
  44. Silverstein D, Travis B, Thornhill B, Schurr J, Kolls J, Leung J, et al. Altered expression of immune modulator and structural genes in neonatal unilateral ureteral obstruction. Kidney Int. 2003;64:25-35 pubmed
    ..05). Multiple genes are aberrantly expressed in the kidney of rats subjected to chronic neonatal UUO. Elucidation of these genes involved in neonatal UUO may lead to new insight about congenital obstructive nephropathy. ..
  45. Sun Q, Peng J, Xia H, Yang Y. IFN-gamma promotes apoptosis of the uterus and placenta in pregnant rat and human cytotrophoblast cells. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2007;27:567-78 pubmed
    ..Expression of IRF-1 was induced and expression of active caspase-3 was promoted by IFN-gamma treatment, but IFN-gamma did not affect the expression of IFNGR and p53. ..
  46. Maratheftis C, Giannouli S, Spachidou M, Panayotou G, Voulgarelis M. RNA interference of interferon regulatory factor-1 gene expression in THP-1 cell line leads to Toll-like receptor-4 overexpression/activation as well as up-modulation of annexin-II. Neoplasia. 2007;9:1012-20 pubmed
    ..It is plausible that this overexpression may lead to the activation of TLR-4 contributing to the increased apoptosis characterizing MDS. ..
  47. Nozawa H, Oda E, Ueda S, Tamura G, Maesawa C, Muto T, et al. Functionally inactivating point mutation in the tumor-suppressor IRF-1 gene identified in human gastric cancer. Int J Cancer. 1998;77:522-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the loss of functional IRF-1 is critical for the development of human gastric cancers. ..