interleukin 13


Gene Symbol: interleukin 13
Description: interleukin 13
Alias: interleukin-13, IL-13, T-cell activation protein P600
Species: rat
Products:     interleukin 13

Top Publications

  1. Zheng T, Zhu Z, Wang Z, Homer R, Ma B, Riese R, et al. Inducible targeting of IL-13 to the adult lung causes matrix metalloproteinase- and cathepsin-dependent emphysema. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:1081-93 pubmed
    ..They also demonstrate that IL-13 causes emphysema via a MMP- and cathepsin-dependent mechanism(s) and highlight common mechanisms that may underlie COPD and asthma. ..
  2. Matsushita M, Yamamoto T, Nishioka K. Upregulation of interleukin-13 and its receptor in a murine model of bleomycin-induced scleroderma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2004;135:348-56 pubmed
  3. Jiang L, He B, Zhao M, Ning L, Li X, Yao W. Association of gene polymorphisms of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-13 with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Han nationality in Beijing. Chin Med J (Engl). 2005;118:541-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, it does not appear that these SNPs are independent factors in COPD for Han nationality in Beijing. However, these SNPs may increase the risk of COPD among smokers. ..
  4. Pawankar R, Okuda M, Hasegawa S, Suzuki K, Yssel H, Okubo K, et al. Interleukin-13 expression in the nasal mucosa of perennial allergic rhinitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152:2059-67 pubmed
    ..b>Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a novel T-cell-derived cytokine that shares several functional properties with IL-4 and has been ..
  5. Akbari O, Stock P, Meyer E, Kronenberg M, Sidobre S, Nakayama T, et al. Essential role of NKT cells producing IL-4 and IL-13 in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity. Nat Med. 2003;9:582-8 pubmed
    ..Therapies that target V(alpha)14i NKT cells may be clinically effective in limiting the development of AHR and asthma. ..
  6. Kim H, Lee Y, Lee S, Jung J, Jin H, Kim J, et al. Gene-gene interaction between IL-13 and IL-13Ralpha1 is associated with total IgE in Korean children with atopic asthma. J Hum Genet. 2006;51:1055-62 pubmed
    ..002, 0.010). These findings indicate that the IL-13 G+2044A is associated with asthma development and the IL-13 and IL-13Ralpha1 polymorphisms may interact to enhance IgE production. ..
  7. Arshad S, Karmaus W, Kurukulaaratchy R, Sadeghnejad A, Huebner M, Ewart S. Polymorphisms in the interleukin 13 and GATA binding protein 3 genes and the development of eczema during childhood. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158:1315-22 pubmed publisher
    Atopic eczema is characterized by Th2-dominant immunity with the cytokine interleukin 13 and the transcription factor GATA binding protein 3 playing a critical role...
  8. Kim J, Min J, Lee J. Polymorphisms in the IL-13 and IL-4 receptor alpha genes and allergic rhinitis. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;264:395-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the IL-13 exon 4 G2044A polymorphism confers susceptibility to the development of allergic rhinitis in Koreans, whereas the IL-4Ralpha Gln551Arg polymorphism is not related to allergic rhinitis. ..
  9. Wang M, Xing Z, Lu C, Ma Y, Yu D, Yan Z, et al. A common IL-13 Arg130Gln single nucleotide polymorphism among Chinese atopy patients with allergic rhinitis. Hum Genet. 2003;113:387-90 pubmed
    ..b>Interleukin 13 (IL-13) has been implicated in the pathogenesis and in the regulation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) production...

More Information


  1. Hasegawa M, Fujimoto M, Kikuchi K, Takehara K. Elevated serum levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10, and IL-13 in patients with systemic sclerosis. J Rheumatol. 1997;24:328-32 pubmed
    ..We suggest that IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 may be some of the cytokines that contribute to the disease process, and that IL-13 may be a serologic indicator of systemic inflammation in patients with SSc. ..
  2. Duffin K, Freeny I, Schrodi S, Wong B, Feng B, Soltani Arabshahi R, et al. Association between IL13 polymorphisms and psoriatic arthritis is modified by smoking. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2777-83 pubmed publisher
    ..88, P=0.74, CC/non-smoker, prevalence 42% (reference), CC/smoker prevalence 47%, OR 1.21, P=0.47). This study suggests that IL13 polymorphisms associate most strongly with PsA and that smoking may modulate this effect...
  3. Keane M, Gomperts B, Weigt S, Xue Y, Burdick M, Nakamura H, et al. IL-13 is pivotal in the fibro-obliterative process of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. J Immunol. 2007;178:511-9 pubmed
    ..This supports the notion that IL-13 biological axis plays an important role during the pathogenesis of BOS independent of the IL-4 biological axis. ..
  4. Hocke A, Ermert M, Althoff A, Brell B, N Guessan P, Suttorp N, et al. Regulation of interleukin IL-4, IL-13, IL-10, and their downstream components in lipopolysaccharide-exposed rat lungs. Comparison of the constitutive expression between rats and humans. Cytokine. 2006;33:199-211 pubmed
    ..We conclude that non-leukocytic cells in the organism play an important role in the regulation of organ-specific inflammatory reactions, especially in lungs. ..
  5. Shimamura T, Fujisawa T, Husain S, Kioi M, Nakajima A, Puri R. Novel role of IL-13 in fibrosis induced by nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and its amelioration by IL-13R-directed cytotoxin in a rat model. J Immunol. 2008;181:4656-65 pubmed
  6. Kim S, Lee K, Park H, Jin S, Ahn W, Kim C. Topical delivery of interleukin-13 antisense oligonucleotides with cationic elastic liposome for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. J Gene Med. 2009;11:26-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggests that IL-13 ASO/cEL complex can provide a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of AD and also be applied to other immune diseases associated with the production of Il-13. ..
  7. Shazia M, Kanza M, Mehwish I, Irum S, Farida A, Asifa A. IL-13 gene polymorphisms and their association with atopic asthma and rhinitis in Pakistani patients. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2013;12:391-6 pubmed
    ..42 (2.04-5.76) relative to asthma 2.40 (1.41-4.09) for the C allele compared to controls.In conclusion the study provides the evidence A-1512C polymorphisms in IL-13 is a risk factor for asthma and AR. ..
  8. Hecker M, Zaslona Z, Kwapiszewska G, Niess G, Zakrzewicz A, Hergenreider E, et al. Dysregulation of the IL-13 receptor system: a novel pathomechanism in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:805-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The IL-13 system is a novel regulator of paSMC growth. Dysregulation of IL-13 receptor expression in IPAH may partially underlie smooth muscle hypertrophy associated with pathological vascular remodeling in IPAH. ..
  9. Yoshioka T, Imura K, Hikita I, Hirasawa T, Sakata T, Matsutani T, et al. Impact of T-cell receptor Vbeta haplotypes on the development of dermatitis in DS-Nh mice: synergistic production of interleukin-13 caused by staphylococcal enterotoxin C and peptide glycans from Staphylococcus aureus. Immunology. 2007;121:51-61 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggested that this TCR Vbeta-haplotype-dependent synergism with TLR2 plays an important role in the development of AD-like dermatitis in DS-Nh mice. ..
  10. Sandovici M, Henning R, van Goor H, Helfrich W, de Zeeuw D, Deelman L. Systemic gene therapy with interleukin-13 attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Kidney Int. 2008;73:1364-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the use of systemic IL-13 gene therapy may be useful in reducing renal tubulointerstitial damage and inflammation caused by ischemia-reperfusion. ..
  11. McKee A, Pearce E. CD25+CD4+ cells contribute to Th2 polarization during helminth infection by suppressing Th1 response development. J Immunol. 2004;173:1224-31 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that natural Treg cells and, to a lesser extent, Th2 cells play roles in suppressing Th1 responses and ensuring Th2 polarization during schistosomiasis. ..
  12. Xi D, Pan S, Cui T, Wu J. Association between IL-13 gene polymorphism and asthma in Han nationality in Hubei Chinese population. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2004;24:219-22 pubmed
    ..174, respectively). Our results suggest that the Arg110Gln polymorphism of IL-13 gene is associated with susceptibility of asthma and elevated total plasma IgE in Chinese children of Han nationality in Hubei, but not with them in adults. ..
  13. Hiromatsu Y, Fukutani T, Ichimura M, Mukai T, Kaku H, Nakayama H, et al. Interleukin-13 gene polymorphisms confer the susceptibility of Japanese populations to Graves' disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:296-301 pubmed
    ..There was no association between IL-13 gene polymorphisms and ophthalmopathy, severity, or serum IgE levels. In conclusion, IL-13 gene polymorphisms are associated with GD susceptibility in Japan. ..
  14. Torisu Itakura H, Lee J, Scheri R, Huynh Y, Ye X, Essner R, et al. Molecular characterization of inflammatory genes in sentinel and nonsentinel nodes in melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:3125-32 pubmed
  15. Feng J, Zhang Z, Li W, Shen X, Song W, Yang C, et al. Missense mutations in the MEFV gene are associated with fibromyalgia syndrome and correlate with elevated IL-1beta plasma levels. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8480 pubmed publisher
  16. Cash E, Minty A, Ferrara P, Caput D, Fradelizi D, Rott O. Macrophage-inactivating IL-13 suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats. J Immunol. 1994;153:4258-67 pubmed
  17. Zhang X, Xu P, Liu Q, Yu C, Zhang Y, Chen S, et al. Effect of tea polyphenol on cytokine gene expression in rats with alcoholic liver disease. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2006;5:268-72 pubmed
    ..TP is able to attenuate alcoholic liver damage. Cytokine may contribute to alcoholic liver disease. ..
  18. Johnson T, Parker R, Johnson J, Graham B. IL-13 is sufficient for respiratory syncytial virus G glycoprotein-induced eosinophilia after respiratory syncytial virus challenge. J Immunol. 2003;170:2037-45 pubmed
  19. Mitchell P, Jensen J, Ritzenthaler J, Roman J, Pelaez A, Guidot D. Alcohol primes the airway for increased interleukin-13 signaling. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2009;33:505-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that alcohol primes the airway for increased IL-13 signaling and subsequent tissue remodeling upon injury such as transplantation. ..
  20. Park S, Ahn M, Jang H, Jang A, Kim D, Koh E, et al. Interleukin-13 and its receptors in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: clinical implications for lung function. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:614-20 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-13 and its receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of fibrosis in IIP and appear to be related to the severity of the disease. ..
  21. Li Y, Liu X, Liu C, Xu Y, Xiong W. Role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in regulating expression of interleukin 13 in lymphocytes from an asthmatic rat model. Chin Med J (Engl). 2010;123:1715-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, we intend to explore the role of ERK in the expression of the Th2 cytokine, interleukin 13 (IL-13) in lymphocytes in asthma...
  22. Rick F, Schally A, Block N, Halmos G, Perez R, Fernandez J, et al. LHRH antagonist Cetrorelix reduces prostate size and gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors in a rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate. 2011;71:736-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings shed light on the mechanism of action of LHRH antagonists in BPH. ..
  23. He X, Verma N, Plain K, Hall B. Interleukin 13 cloning from DA rats. Transplant Proc. 1999;31:1572-3 pubmed
  24. Therien A, Bernier V, Weicker S, Tawa P, Falgueyret J, Mathieu M, et al. Adenovirus IL-13-induced airway disease in mice: a corticosteroid-resistant model of severe asthma. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;39:26-35 pubmed publisher
    b>Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is considered to be a key driver of the development of airway allergic inflammation and remodeling leading to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR)...
  25. Dardalhon V, Awasthi A, Kwon H, Galileos G, Gao W, Sobel R, et al. IL-4 inhibits TGF-beta-induced Foxp3+ T cells and, together with TGF-beta, generates IL-9+ IL-10+ Foxp3(-) effector T cells. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:1347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus IL-9(+)IL-10(+) T cells lack suppressive function and constitute a distinct population of helper-effector T cells that promote tissue inflammation. ..
  26. de Kozak Y, Omri B, Smith J, Naud M, Thillaye Goldenberg B, Crisanti P. Protein kinase Czeta (PKCzeta) regulates ocular inflammation and apoptosis in endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU): signaling molecules involved in EIU resolution by PKCzeta inhibitor and interleukin-13. Am J Pathol. 2007;170:1241-57 pubmed
    ..Treatment accelerated endotoxin-induced uveitis resolution through premature apoptosis of neutrophils related to high expression of toll-like receptor 4 and caspase 3. ..
  27. Dmitrieva Zdorova E, Voron ko O, Aksenova M, Bodoev N. [Association of interleukin-13 gene polymorphisms with atopic bronchial asthma]. Genetika. 2010;46:111-7 pubmed
    ..39, 95% confidence interval 1.44-3.98, p = 0.001). Therefore, C(-1055)T polymorphism was shown to be associated with atopic BA progression. ..
  28. Miyake Y, Tanaka K, Arakawa M. Case-control study of IL13 polymorphisms, smoking, and rhinoconjunctivitis in Japanese women: the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study. BMC Med Genet. 2011;12:143 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a new pattern of biological interaction that affects the risk of rhinoconjunctivitis is described between SNP rs1800925 and smoking. ..
  29. Aspord C, Pedroza Gonzalez A, Gallegos M, Tindle S, Burton E, Su D, et al. Breast cancer instructs dendritic cells to prime interleukin 13-secreting CD4+ T cells that facilitate tumor development. J Exp Med. 2007;204:1037-47 pubmed
    ..There, CD4(+) T cells promote early tumor development. This is dependent on DCs and can be partially prevented by administration of IL-13 antagonists. Thus, breast cancer targets DCs to facilitate its development. ..
  30. Birrell M, McCluskie K, Haddad E, Battram C, Webber S, Foster M, et al. Pharmacological assessment of the nitric-oxide synthase isoform involved in eosinophilic inflammation in a rat model of sephadex-induced airway inflammation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;304:1285-91 pubmed
  31. Lee Y, Lee K, Lee H, Rhee Y. Serum levels of interleukins (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, and interferon-gamma in acute asthma. J Asthma. 2001;38:665-71 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that serum levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 may be elevated in acute asthma, and that higher levels of IL-5 and/or lower levels of IFN-gamma are associated with severe airway obstruction. ..
  32. Kedzierski L, Curtis J, Doherty P, Handman E, Kedzierska K. Decreased IL-10 and IL-13 production and increased CD44hi T cell recruitment contribute to Leishmania major immunity induced by non-persistent parasites. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:3090-100 pubmed publisher
  33. Nmorsi O, Nkot B, Che J. Relationship between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines profiles and some haematological parameters in some Cameroonians infected with Onchocerca volvulus. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5:713-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, these IL-6 and IL-13 are associated with O. volvulus infection among Cameroonians. ..
  34. Miotto D, Ruggieri M, Boschetto P, Cavallesco G, Papi A, Bononi I, et al. Interleukin-13 and -4 expression in the central airways of smokers with chronic bronchitis. Eur Respir J. 2003;22:602-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, T-helper-2 and -1 protein expression is present in the central airways of smokers and interleukin-4 and -13 could contribute to mucus hypersecretion in chronic bronchitis. ..
  35. Howard T, Whittaker P, Zaiman A, Koppelman G, Xu J, Hanley M, et al. Identification and association of polymorphisms in the interleukin-13 gene with asthma and atopy in a Dutch population. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2001;25:377-84 pubmed
    ..Further investigation is required to determine which specific alleles or combination of alleles contribute to these phenotypes, and the possible downstream effects of the resulting change in IL-13 levels or activity. ..
  36. Lorenzetti B, Poole S, Veiga F, Cunha F, Ferreira S. Cytokine-mediated inflammatory hyperalgesia limited by interleukin-13. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2001;12:260-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that IL-13, released by lymphocytes, limits inflammatory hyperalgesia by the inhibition of the production TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8 and PGs. ..
  37. Watanabe T, Kitani A, Murray P, Wakatsuki Y, Fuss I, Strober W. Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 deficiency leads to dysregulated TLR2 signaling and induction of antigen-specific colitis. Immunity. 2006;25:473-85 pubmed
    ..Thus, NOD2-deficient mice become susceptible to colitis as a result of increased TLR2 responses when they have the capacity to respond to an antigen expressed by mucosal bacteria. ..
  38. Matsukawa A, Hogaboam C, Lukacs N, Lincoln P, Evanoff H, Strieter R, et al. Expression and contribution of endogenous IL-13 in an experimental model of sepsis. J Immunol. 2000;164:2738-44 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that endogenous IL-13 protected mice from CLP-induced lethality by modulating inflammatory responses via suppression of overzealous production of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in tissues. ..
  39. Gao Y, Zou J, Zheng J, Shang M, Chen X, Geng S, et al. Promoting effects of IL-13 on Ca2+ release and store-operated Ca2+ entry in airway smooth muscle cells. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2010;23:182-9 pubmed publisher
  40. van Hamburg J, de Bruijn M, Ribeiro de Almeida C, Van Zwam M, van Meurs M, de Haas E, et al. Enforced expression of GATA3 allows differentiation of IL-17-producing cells, but constrains Th17-mediated pathology. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2573-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore conclude that although GATA3 allows Th17 differentiation, it acts as an inhibitor of Th17-mediated pathology, through IL-4-dependent and IL-4-independent pathways. ..
  41. Broen J, Dieude P, Vonk M, Beretta L, Carmona F, Herrick A, et al. Polymorphisms in the interleukin 4, interleukin 13, and corresponding receptor genes are not associated with systemic sclerosis and do not influence gene expression. J Rheumatol. 2012;39:112-8 pubmed publisher
    Polymorphisms in the genes encoding interleukin 4 (IL4), interleukin 13 (IL13), and their corresponding receptors have been associated with multiple immune-mediated diseases...
  42. Christmann R, Hayes E, Pendergrass S, Padilla C, Farina G, Affandi A, et al. Interferon and alternative activation of monocyte/macrophages in systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:1718-28 pubmed publisher
    ..MRC1, a marker for the effect of IL-13 on alternative monocyte/macrophage activation, is associated with this severe complication and is related to mortality. ..
  43. Nieuwenhuizen N, Herbert D, Brombacher F, Lopata A. Differential requirements for interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 in protein contact dermatitis induced by Anisakis. Allergy. 2009;64:1309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Interleukin-13 plays a central role in protein contact dermatitis associated with repeated epicutaneous exposure to Anisakis extract, whereas IL-4 drives systemic sensitization and resultant anaphylactic shock. ..
  44. Ripley D, Shoup B, Majewski A, Chegini N. Differential expression of interleukins IL-13 and IL-15 in normal ovarian tissue and ovarian carcinomas. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;92:761-8 pubmed
  45. Cao Y, Tu Y, Chen X, Wang B, Zhong Y, Liu M. Protective effect of Ulinastatin against murine models of sepsis: inhibition of TNF-? and IL-6 and augmentation of IL-10 and IL-13. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2012;64:543-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Ulinastatin may possess a protective role in the septic process by inhibiting TNF-? and IL-6, and augmenting IL-10 and IL-13 concentrations in intestine of septic rats. ..
  46. Wang W, Yao M, Jin J, Jia C, Gao L, Xie H, et al. Increased expression of non-interleukin-2 T cell growth factors and their implications during liver allograft rejection in rats. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:1141-7 pubmed
    ..In the process of acute and chronic allograft rejections, non-IL-2 T cell growth factors such as IL-15, IL-7 and IL-13 play roles. Strategies should pay more attention to regulating these cytokines after liver transplantation. ..
  47. Hasegawa M, Sato S, Nagaoka T, Fujimoto M, Takehara K. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-13 are elevated in patients with localized scleroderma. Dermatology. 2003;207:141-7 pubmed
    ..Elevated IL-13 levels were significantly associated with the number of plaque lesions and the total number of lesions. These results suggest that TNF and IL-13 may be associated with the development of LSc. ..
  48. Wang Y, McCusker C. Interleukin-13-dependent bronchial hyper-responsiveness following isolated upper-airway allergen challenge in a murine model of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:1104-11 pubmed
    ..IL-13 mediates both airway inflammation and BHR and may play a role in the communication between the upper and lower airways. ..
  49. Lai K, Wei C, Tan L, Tan P, Chiang G, Lee C, et al. Overexpression of interleukin-13 induces minimal-change-like nephropathy in rats. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;18:1476-85 pubmed
  50. Ruth J, Warmington K, Shang X, Lincoln P, Evanoff H, Kunkel S, et al. Interleukin 4 and 13 participation in mycobacterial (type-1) and schistosomal (type-2) antigen-elicited pulmonary granuloma formation: multiparameter analysis of cellular recruitment, chemokine expression and cytokine networks. Cytokine. 2000;12:432-44 pubmed
    ..In fact, IL-13 down-regulated itself and other type-2 cytokines. In summary, IL-4 and IL-13 have common and disparate regulatory functions in types 1 and 2 responses. ..
  51. Bermejo Martin J, Ortiz de Lejarazu R, Pumarola T, Rello J, Almansa R, Ramirez P, et al. Th1 and Th17 hypercytokinemia as early host response signature in severe pandemic influenza. Crit Care. 2009;13:R201 pubmed publisher
    ..The exact role of Th1 and Th17 mediators in the evolution of nvH1N1 mild and severe disease merits further investigation as to the detrimental or beneficial role these cytokines play in severe illness. ..
  52. Bhandari V, Choo Wing R, Homer R, Elias J. Increased hyperoxia-induced mortality and acute lung injury in IL-13 null mice. J Immunol. 2007;178:4993-5000 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that the expression of the IL-13R is augmented and that the endogenous IL-13-IL-13R pathway contributes to the induction of inflammation and the inhibition of injury in hyperoxic acute lung injury. ..
  53. Cooper P, Poll C, Barnes P, Sturton R. Involvement of IL-13 in tobacco smoke-induced changes in the structure and function of rat intrapulmonary airways. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;43:220-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic TS exposure induces increased responsiveness in intrapulmonary airways of rats that may be mediated in part by an increase in IL-13. ..
  54. Antunez C, Torres M, Mayorga C, Corzo J, Jurado A, Santamaria Babi L, et al. Cytokine production, activation marker, and skin homing receptor in children with atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2006;17:166-74 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the subpopulations (CLA+ vs. CLA-) expressing these changes were different, indicating that the underlying mechanisms in the two diseases are not exactly the same. ..
  55. Sinha S, Kaler L, Proctor T, Teuscher C, Vandenbark A, Offner H. IL-13-mediated gender difference in susceptibility to autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2008;180:2679-85 pubmed
  56. Inoue N, Watanabe M, Morita M, Tatusmi K, Hidaka Y, Akamizu T, et al. Association of functional polymorphisms in promoter regions of IL5, IL6 and IL13 genes with development and prognosis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;163:318-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, functional polymorphisms in the genes encoding Th2 cytokines are associated differently with the development and prognosis of AITD from each other. ..
  57. Fortin M, Wagner J, Brault J, Harkema J, Renzi P, Paquet L, et al. Spatial and temporal expression of CCR3 and the common beta chain of the IL-3, IL-5 and GM-CSF receptor in the nasal epithelium and lymphoid tissues in a rat model of allergic rhinitis. Cytokine. 2010;52:194-202 pubmed publisher
    ..c and CCR3 could play important roles in the modulation of the allergic response, and their inhibition may represent a promising therapeutic approach for AR. ..
  58. Tembhre M, Sharma V, Sharma A, Chattopadhyay P, Gupta S. T helper and regulatory T cell cytokine profile in active, stable and narrow band ultraviolet B treated generalized vitiligo. Clin Chim Acta. 2013;424:27-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased concentrations of serum IL-10, IL-13, and IL-17A and decreased concentrations of TGF-?1 suggested altered cell-mediated immunity that may facilitate the melanocyte cytotoxicity in vitiligo. ..
  59. Moissidis I, Chinoy B, Yanamandra K, Napper D, Thurmon T, Bocchini J, et al. Association of IL-13, RANTES, and leukotriene C4 synthase gene promoter polymorphisms with asthma and/or atopy in African Americans. Genet Med. 2005;7:406-10 pubmed
    ..1 for the mutant AC genotype in patients. If these findings become reproduced by larger studies, it may suggest that IL-13 and LTC4S SNPs can be used as predictive markers for asthma/atopy in African Americans. ..
  60. Van Den Berg J, Aten J, Annink C, Ravesloot J, Weber E, Weening J. Interleukin-4 and -13 promote basolateral secretion of H(+) and cathepsin L by glomerular epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;282:F26-33 pubmed
    ..We speculate that IL-4 and IL-13 influence intracellular trafficking of proteins and promote proteolysis at the basolateral surface of GVEC, which may play a pathogenic role in altered glomerular permeability...
  61. Takeda K, Hashimoto K, Uchikawa R, Tegoshi T, Yamada M, Arizono N. Direct effects of IL-4/IL-13 and the nematode Nippostrongylus brasiliensis on intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Parasite Immunol. 2010;32:420-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that HS3ST1 gene expression is strictly regulated by IL-4/IL-13, while ST3GalIV and MUC2 gene expressions are regulated by redundant mechanisms. ..
  62. Saha S, Berry M, Parker D, Siddiqui S, Morgan A, May R, et al. Increased sputum and bronchial biopsy IL-13 expression in severe asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121:685-91 pubmed publisher
    ..7, P = .007). IL-13+ cells within the submucosa and ASM correlated with sputum eosinophilia (R(s) = 0.4, P < or = .05). IL-13 overexpression in sputum and bronchial biopsy specimens is a feature of severe asthma. ..
  63. Mitaka K, Miyazaki Y, Yasui M, Furuie M, Miyake S, Inase N, et al. Th2-biased immune responses are important in a murine model of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;154:264-74 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-?1 mRNA at 12 weeks was significantly increased in A/J mice compared with the other groups. Th2-biased genetic backgrounds may play an important role in fibrosing processes in the present chronic HP model. ..
  64. Leung T, Tang N, Chan I, Li A, Ha G, Lam C. A polymorphism in the coding region of interleukin-13 gene is associated with atopy but not asthma in Chinese children. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31:1515-21 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the R130Q polymorphism of the IL-13 gene is associated with elevated serum total and allergen-specific IgE but not asthma in Chinese children. ..
  65. Lin W, Truong N, Grossman W, Haribhai D, Williams C, Wang J, et al. Allergic dysregulation and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E in Foxp3 mutant mice. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116:1106-15 pubmed
    ..Allergic dysregulation is a common and fundamental consequence of loss of CD4(+)CD25(+) T(R) cells caused by Foxp3 deficiency in different species. Abnormalities affecting T(R) cells might contribute to a variety of allergic diseases. ..
  66. Feng Y, Sun L, Zhang C, Zuo X, Kang X, Wu W, et al. Genetic variants of the genes encoding zinc finger protein 313 and interleukin-13 confer a risk for psoriasis in a Chinese Uygur population. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2013;38:768-74 pubmed
    ..5%, P < 0.001). ZNF313 and IL-13 are associated with risk for psoriasis in a Chinese Uygur population, and there is an effect of interaction between the two genes on this risk. ..
  67. Uzuner N, Gurcu O, Olmez D, Babayigit A, Islekel H, Karaman O, et al. Relation between serum IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-gamma levels and recurrence of wheezing episodes in infants with acute bronchiolitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2008;19:648-51 pubmed publisher
    ..High serum IL-13 levels and a positive history of allergy may have important roles in the recurrence of acute bronchiolitis. ..
  68. Kim H, Kang M, Lee S, Jin H, Kim J, Kim B, et al. Combined effect of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-13 polymorphisms on bronchial hyperresponsiveness in Korean children with asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:774-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, there appears to be a synergistic effect between the TNF-alpha promoter polymorphism and an IL-13 coding region polymorphism in terms of asthma susceptibility and BHR in this population. ..
  69. Hartl D, Griese M, Kappler M, Zissel G, Reinhardt D, Rebhan C, et al. Pulmonary T(H)2 response in Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected patients with cystic fibrosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006;117:204-11 pubmed
    ..The modulation of the pulmonary T(H)2 response in P aeruginosa infection may be an option for the treatment of P aeruginosa lung disease in patients with CF. ..
  70. Srabovici N, Mujagic Z, Mujanovic Mustedanagic J, Muminović Z, Softić A, Begić L. Interleukin 13 expression in the primary breast cancer tumour tissue. Biochem Med (Zagreb). 2011;21:131-8 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and the expression levels of the interleukin 13 (I1-13) in the primary breast cancer tumour tissue in relation to the unchanged breast tissue in the same patients and to the breast ..
    ..At the same time, atropine in malathion intoxicated rats had no effect on suppression of the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-1g and IL-6 as well as the content of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-13. ..
  72. Davidson C, Verma N, Robinson C, Plain K, Tran G, Hodgkinson S, et al. IL-13 prolongs allograft survival: association with inhibition of macrophage cytokine activation. Transpl Immunol. 2007;17:178-86 pubmed
  73. Goldman D, Davis J, Bommarito F, Shao X, Casadevall A. Enhanced allergic inflammation and airway responsiveness in rats with chronic Cryptococcus neoformans infection: potential role for fungal pulmonary infection in the pathogenesis of asthma. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1178-86 pubmed
    ..neoformans infection to potentiate allergic responses and airway reactivity and suggest a potential role for subclinical pulmonary cryptococcosis in the pathogenesis of asthma...
  74. Elnaggar R, Hanawa H, Liu H, Yoshida T, Hayashi M, Watanabe R, et al. The effect of hydrodynamics-based delivery of an IL-13-Ig fusion gene for experimental autoimmune myocarditis in rats and its possible mechanism. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:1995-2005 pubmed
    ..We conclude that IL-13-Ig ameliorates EAM and suppose that its effectiveness may be due to the influence on these immunologic molecules in CD11b(+) and NCNI cells. ..
  75. Pierrot C, Beniguel L, Begue A, Khalife J. Expression of a functional IL-13Ralpha1 by rat B cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;287:969-76 pubmed
  76. Formentini A, Prokopchuk O, Sträter J, Kleeff J, Grochola L, Leder G, et al. Interleukin-13 exerts autocrine growth-promoting effects on human pancreatic cancer, and its expression correlates with a propensity for lymph node metastases. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2009;24:57-67 pubmed publisher
    ..0134). IL-13 can act as an autocrine growth factor in PDAC. Endogenous expression of IL-13 in conjunction with IL-4R in the cancer cells seems to facilitate lymph node metastasis. ..
  77. Takahashi K, Oharaseki T, Nagao T, Yokouchi Y, Yamada H, Nagi Miura N, et al. Mizoribine provides effective treatment of sequential histological change of arteritis and reduction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in an animal model of Kawasaki disease. Pediatr Rheumatol Online J. 2011;9:30 pubmed publisher
    ..MZR treatment suppressed not only the incidence, range, and degree of vasculitis, but also inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the plasma of the KD vasculitis model mice, suggesting that MZR may be useful for treatment of KD. ..
  78. Kuperman D, Huang X, Koth L, Chang G, Dolganov G, Zhu Z, et al. Direct effects of interleukin-13 on epithelial cells cause airway hyperreactivity and mucus overproduction in asthma. Nat Med. 2002;8:885-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the importance of direct effects of IL-13 on epithelial cells in causing two central features of asthma. ..
  79. Wang X, Zhao W, Liu S, Feng X. [Correlation of IL-4 and IL-13 gene polymorphisms with asthma and total serum IgE levels]. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi. 2009;32:161-4 pubmed
    ..The IL-4 gene and IL-13 gene may be important candidate genes for asthma. ..
  80. Pertovaara M, Antonen J, Hurme M. Th2 cytokine genotypes are associated with a milder form of primary Sjogren's syndrome. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:666-70 pubmed
    ..The polymorphisms of the genes encoding for interleukin 4 (IL4) -590 C/T, interleukin 13 (IL13) +2044 G/A, and interferon gamma (IFNG) +874 T/A were analysed in 63 white Finnish patients with pSS (61 ..
  81. Ward P, Lentsch A. Endogenous regulation of the acute inflammatory response. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002;234-235:225-8 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that endogenous IL-10, IL-13 and SLPI are important regulators of the inflammatory response by reducing gene activation with resultant generation of peptide mediators/cytokines and chemokines. ..
  82. Bottema R, Nolte I, Howard T, Koppelman G, Dubois A, de Meer G, et al. Interleukin 13 and interleukin 4 receptor-? polymorphisms in rhinitis and asthma. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;153:259-67 pubmed publisher
    ..IL13 and IL4R polymorphisms are associated with asthma and show gene-gene interaction in asthma. Their role in rhinitis has not been extensively studied...
  83. Hu R, Xu Y, Zhang Z. [Study on the correlation of interleukin-13 polymorphism and susceptibility to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Chinese Han population]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2004;25:607-11 pubmed
    ..05). The genotype of IL-13 1103C/T SNP site was associated with the susceptibility to COPD in Chinese Han population and 1103CC accounted for relative lower plasma IL-13 concentration and lower risk for COPD. ..
  84. Sajjan U, Ganesan S, Comstock A, Shim J, Wang Q, Nagarkar D, et al. Elastase- and LPS-exposed mice display altered responses to rhinovirus infection. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;297:L931-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar mechanisms may be operative in COPD. ..
  85. Asquith K, Horvat J, Kaiko G, Carey A, Beagley K, Hansbro P, et al. Interleukin-13 promotes susceptibility to chlamydial infection of the respiratory and genital tracts. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001339 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively our findings demonstrate that innate IL-13 release promotes infection that results in enhanced inflammation and have broad implications for the treatment of chlamydial infections and IL-13-associated diseases...
  86. Ward W, Li A, Siddiqui Y, Federiuk I, Wang X. Increased expression of Interleukin-13 and connective tissue growth factor, and their potential roles during foreign body encapsulation of subcutaneous implants. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2008;19:1065-72 pubmed publisher
  87. Thanaporn P, Myers D, Wrobleski S, Hawley A, Farris D, Wakefield T, et al. P-selectin inhibition decreases post-thrombotic vein wall fibrosis in a rat model. Surgery. 2003;134:365-71 pubmed
    ..05). P-selectin inhibition with rPSGL-Ig or LMWH decreases post-DVT vein wall fibrosis, and is associated with decreased vein wall profibrotic mediators. This effect is independent of thrombus mass and vein wall leukocytes. ..
  88. Sandovici M, Deelman L, van Goor H, Helfrich W, de Zeeuw D, Henning R. Adenovirus-mediated interleukin-13 gene therapy attenuates acute kidney allograft injury. J Gene Med. 2007;9:1024-32 pubmed