Insr

Summary

Gene Symbol: Insr
Description: insulin receptor
Alias: insulin receptor, insulin receptor preproprotein
Species: rat
Products:     Insr

Top Publications

  1. Sugimoto K, Murakawa Y, Sima A. Expression and localization of insulin receptor in rat dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord. J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2002;7:44-53 pubmed
    The expression and localization of the insulin receptor (IR) was examined in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord using Western blotting, in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry...
  2. Lester Coll N, Rivera E, Soscia S, Doiron K, Wands J, de la Monte S. Intracerebral streptozotocin model of type 3 diabetes: relevance to sporadic Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006;9:13-33 pubmed
    ..These abnormalities were associated reduced expression of genes encoding insulin, IGF-II, insulin receptor, IGF-I receptor, and insulin receptor substrate-1, and reduced ligand binding to the insulin and IGF-II ..
  3. Tornqvist H, Gunsalus J, Nemenoff R, Frackelton A, Pierce M, Avruch J. Identification of the insulin receptor tyrosine residues undergoing insulin-stimulated phosphorylation in intact rat hepatoma cells. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:350-9 pubmed
    ..Two major insulin-stimulated, Tyr(P) proteins were recovered: an Mr 95,000 protein (identified as the insulin receptor beta subunit by its immunoprecipitation by a patient-derived anti-insulin receptor serum and several anti-..
  4. Sugimoto K, Rashid I, Shoji M, Suda T, Yasujima M. Early changes in insulin receptor signaling and pain sensation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. J Pain. 2008;9:237-45 pubmed publisher
    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the time course of changes in peripheral nerve insulin receptor (IR) signaling and compare observed findings with behavioral responses to noxious mechanical and thermal stimuli in ..
  5. Kitamura T, Nakae J, Kitamura Y, Kido Y, Biggs W, Wright C, et al. The forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 links insulin signaling to Pdx1 regulation of pancreatic beta cell growth. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:1839-47 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking insulin receptor substrate-2 (Irs2) develop beta cell failure, suggesting that insulin signaling is required to maintain an ..
  6. Pandini G, Frasca F, Mineo R, Sciacca L, Vigneri R, Belfiore A. Insulin/insulin-like growth factor I hybrid receptors have different biological characteristics depending on the insulin receptor isoform involved. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:39684-95 pubmed
    The insulin receptor (IR) and the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) have a highly homologous structure, but different biological effects...
  7. Krieger Brauer H, Medda P, Kather H. Insulin-induced activation of NADPH-dependent H2O2 generation in human adipocyte plasma membranes is mediated by Galphai2. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:10135-43 pubmed
    ..The insulin receptor and Gi were co-adsorbed on anti-Galphai and anti-insulin receptor beta-subunit (anti-IRbeta) affinity columns...
  8. Rose P, Carroll J, Carroll P, Defilippis V, Lagunoff M, Moses A, et al. The insulin receptor is essential for virus-induced tumorigenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma. Oncogene. 2007;26:1995-2005 pubmed
    ..The expression of the insulin receptor (IR) was strongly induced in latently infected E-DMVEC, whereas the expression levels of the IGF-IR remained ..
  9. Diaz L, Chuan Y, Lewitt M, Fernandez Perez L, Carrasco Rodríguez S, Sanchez Gomez M, et al. IGF-II regulates metastatic properties of choriocarcinoma cells through the activation of the insulin receptor. Mol Hum Reprod. 2007;13:567-76 pubmed
    ..The actions of IGF-II but not those of IGF-I were sensitive to inhibition by the insulin receptor inhibitor HNMPA(AM)3...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Nef S, Verma Kurvari S, Merenmies J, Vassalli J, Efstratiadis A, Accili D, et al. Testis determination requires insulin receptor family function in mice. Nature. 2003;426:291-5 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase family, comprising Ir, Igf1r and Irr, is required for the appearance of male gonads and thus ..
  2. Deger A, Kramer H, Rapp R, Koch R, Weber U. The nonclassical insulin binding of insulin receptors from rat liver is due to the presence of two interacting alpha-subunits in the receptor complex. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986;135:458-64 pubmed
    The binding characteristics of the insulin receptor tetramer (alpha 2 beta 2) and dimer (alpha beta) were examined. Unlabelled insulin enhanced the dilution-induced dissociation only of the receptor tetramer-bound 125I-insulin...
  3. Ellis L, Clauser E, Morgan D, Edery M, Roth R, Rutter W. Replacement of insulin receptor tyrosine residues 1162 and 1163 compromises insulin-stimulated kinase activity and uptake of 2-deoxyglucose. Cell. 1986;45:721-32 pubmed
    Insulin stimulates the autophosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the beta subunit of the insulin receptor (IR); this modified insulin-independent kinase has increased activity toward exogenous substrates in vitro...
  4. Mielke J, Taghibiglou C, Wang Y. Endogenous insulin signaling protects cultured neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cell death. Neuroscience. 2006;143:165-73 pubmed
    ..Similar to other receptor tyrosine kinases, ligand interaction with the insulin receptor (IR) activates a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, particularly those relevant to cellular ..
  5. Temofonte N, Sajan M, Nimal S, Pastoor T, Fumero C, Casaubon L, et al. Combined thiazolidinedione-metformin treatment synergistically improves insulin signalling to insulin receptor substrate-1-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, atypical protein kinase C and protein kinase B/Akt in human diabetic muscle. Diabetologia. 2009;52:60-4 pubmed publisher
    ..therapy for activation of muscle aPKC and PKBbeta and their upstream activators, the insulin receptor (IR) and IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), during euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp ..
  6. Fiory F, Alberobello A, Miele C, Oriente F, Esposito I, Corbo V, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 by the insulin receptor is necessary for insulin metabolic signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10803-14 pubmed
    ..In L6 cells expressing IR(WT), the C-terminal peptide also impaired insulin-dependent PDK-1 membrane persistence. Thus, PDK-1 directly binds to the insulin receptor, followed by PDK-1 activation and insulin metabolic effects.
  7. Hami J, Sadr Nabavi A, Sankian M, Balali Mood M, Haghir H. The effects of maternal diabetes on expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin receptors in male developing rat hippocampus. Brain Struct Funct. 2013;218:73-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effects of maternal diabetes on insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor (InsR) expression in the developing rat hippocampus...
  8. Spampinato D, Giaccari A, Trischitta V, Costanzo B, Morviducci L, Buongiorno A, et al. Rats that are made insulin resistant by glucosamine treatment have impaired skeletal muscle insulin receptor phosphorylation. Metabolism. 2003;52:1092-5 pubmed
    ..study sought to verify whether glucosamine (GlcN)-induced insulin resistance is associated with impaired insulin receptor (IR) autophosphorylation...
  9. Soos M, Field C, Siddle K. Purified hybrid insulin/insulin-like growth factor-I receptors bind insulin-like growth factor-I, but not insulin, with high affinity. Biochem J. 1993;290 ( Pt 2):419-26 pubmed
  10. Araujo E, Amaral M, Souza C, Bordin S, Ferreira F, Saad M, et al. Blockade of IRS1 in isolated rat pancreatic islets improves glucose-induced insulin secretion. FEBS Lett. 2002;531:437-42 pubmed
    ..In the present experiments we demonstrate that higher insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrates-1 and -2 (IRS1 and IRS2) concentrations are predominantly encountered in ..
  11. Frittitta L, Vigneri R, Papa V, Goldfine I, Grasso G, Trischitta V. Structural and functional studies of insulin receptors in human breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1993;25:73-82 pubmed
    ..We observed that the insulin receptor content, as determined by a specific radioimmunoassay, was four fold increased in human breast cancer tissue ..
  12. Zeng G, Nystrom F, Ravichandran L, Cong L, Kirby M, Mostowski H, et al. Roles for insulin receptor, PI3-kinase, and Akt in insulin-signaling pathways related to production of nitric oxide in human vascular endothelial cells. Circulation. 2000;101:1539-45 pubmed
    ..In contrast, HUVECs overexpressing a tyrosine kinase-deficient mutant insulin receptor had a dose-response curve similar to that of control cells...
  13. Hirata A, Alvarez Rojas F, Carvalheira J, Carvalho C, Dolnikoff M, Abdalla Saad M. Modulation of IR/PTP1B interaction and downstream signaling in insulin sensitive tissues of MSG-rats. Life Sci. 2003;73:1369-81 pubmed
    ..In 28-week-old-MSG rats there was an increase in IR/PTP1B interaction and reduced insulin signaling in liver, muscle and adipocytes, and a more pronounced insulin resistance. ..
  14. Rajala R, McClellan M, Chan M, Tsiokas L, Anderson R. Interaction of the retinal insulin receptor beta-subunit with the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Biochemistry. 2004;43:5637-50 pubmed
    ..shown that phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) in retina is regulated in vivo through light activation of the insulin receptor beta-subunit...
  15. Takahashi M, Papavero V, Yuhas J, Kort E, Kanayama H, Kagawa S, et al. Altered expression of members of the IGF-axis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2005;26:923-31 pubmed
    ..In addition, we demonstrate that the expression of the A isoform of the insulin receptor is significantly upregulated, while that of IGFBP-5 are significantly downregulated in this tumour subtype.
  16. Seki N, Yagi S, Suzuki Y, Shimada F, Taira M, Makino H, et al. Protein tyrosine phosphatase regulation in fibroblasts from patients with an insulin receptor gene mutation. Horm Metab Res. 2008;40:833-7 pubmed publisher
    Tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor is the initial event following receptor binding to insulin, and it induces further tyrosine phosphorylation of various intracellular molecules...
  17. Scalia P, Heart E, Comai L, Vigneri R, Sung C. Regulation of the Akt/Glycogen synthase kinase-3 axis by insulin-like growth factor-II via activation of the human insulin receptor isoform-A. J Cell Biochem. 2001;82:610-8 pubmed
    ..Recently, we identified the insulin receptor isoform A (IR(A)) as an additional high affinity receptor for IGF-II in both fetal and cancer cells...
  18. Hennes M, Shrago E, Kissebah A. Mechanism of free fatty acid effects on hepatocyte insulin receptor binding and processing. Obes Res. 1993;1:18-28 pubmed
    We determined whether the palmitate effects on hepatocyte insulin receptor binding and post-receptor trafficking were mediated by accelerated mitochondrial beta-oxidation or accumulation of intracellular fatty acyl-CoA derivatives and ..
  19. Kotnik K, Popova E, Todiras M, Mori M, Alenina N, Seibler J, et al. Inducible transgenic rat model for diabetes mellitus based on shRNA-mediated gene knockdown. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5124 pubmed publisher
    ..To this purpose, we employed a tetracycline-inducible shRNA expression system targeting the insulin receptor (IR)...
  20. Kwon H, Jeong K, Hwang E, Park J, Pak Y. A novel domain of caveolin-2 that controls nuclear targeting: regulation of insulin-specific ERK activation and nuclear translocation by caveolin-2. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15:888-908 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data demonstrate that translocation of phospho-ERK to the nuclear envelope is mediated by Ser¹?? -Val¹?? -Ser¹?? domain of cav-2 and this event is an insulin-specific action. ..
  21. Ben Lulu S, Coran A, Mogilner J, Shaoul R, Shamir R, Shehadeh N, et al. Oral insulin stimulates intestinal epithelial cell turnover in correlation with insulin-receptor expression along the villus-crypt axis in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Real-time PCR was used to determine the level of insulin receptor-beta (IRB) mRNA...
  22. Agrawal R, Tyagi E, Shukla R, Nath C. Insulin receptor signaling in rat hippocampus: a study in STZ (ICV) induced memory deficit model. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011;21:261-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Hippocampal IR system might be playing an important role in regulation of memory functions, however only IR/IRS-1/Akt pathway in CA3 region is associated with STZ induced memory deficit. ..
  23. Yao J, Gao X, Chow C, Zhan X, Hu C, Mei Y. Neuritin activates insulin receptor pathway to up-regulate Kv4.2-mediated transient outward K+ current in rat cerebellar granule neurons. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:41534-45 pubmed publisher
    ..2 are attenuated by ERK, Akt, or mTOR inhibitors. Unexpectedly, pharmacological blockade of insulin receptor, but not the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, abrogates the effect of neuritin on I(A) amplification ..
  24. Depetris R, Hu J, Gimpelevich I, Holt L, Daly R, Hubbard S. Structural basis for inhibition of the insulin receptor by the adaptor protein Grb14. Mol Cell. 2005;20:325-33 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have demonstrated that Grb14 is a tissue-specific negative regulator of insulin receptor signaling and that inhibition is mediated by the BPS region...
  25. Martineau L, Chadan S, Parkhouse W. Age-associated alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle glucose transporters, insulin and IGF-1 receptors, and PI3-kinase protein contents in the C57BL/6 mouse. Mech Ageing Dev. 1999;106:217-32 pubmed
    ..Cardiac insulin receptor and the p85 alpha subunit of PI3-kinase both declined by about 40%, whereas the skeletal muscle content of ..
  26. Boutchueng Djidjou M, Collard Simard G, Fortier S, Hébert S, Kelly I, Landry C, et al. The last enzyme of the de novo purine synthesis pathway 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (ATIC) plays a central role in insulin signaling and the Golgi/endosomes protein network. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015;14:1079-92 pubmed publisher
    ..which is a rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway, and PTPLAD1 are associated with insulin receptor (IR) internalization...
  27. Ofer P, Heidegger I, Eder I, Schöpf B, Neuwirt H, Geley S, et al. Both IGF1R and INSR Knockdown Exert Antitumorigenic Effects in Prostate Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:1694-707 pubmed publisher
    The IGF network with its main receptors IGF receptor 1 (IGF1R) and insulin receptor (INSR) is of major importance for cancer initiation and progression...
  28. Nyman E, Fagerholm S, Jullesson D, Stralfors P, Cedersund G. Mechanistic explanations for counter-intuitive phosphorylation dynamics of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate-1 in response to insulin in murine adipocytes. FEBS J. 2012;279:987-99 pubmed publisher
    Insulin signaling through insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) is important for insulin control of target cells...
  29. Aleem E, Nehrbass D, Klimek F, Mayer D, Bannasch P. Upregulation of the insulin receptor and type I insulin-like growth factor receptor are early events in hepatocarcinogenesis. Toxicol Pathol. 2011;39:524-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that in N-nitrosomorpholine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) is strongly expressed in GSF and reduced during progression to HCC, thus correlating with ..
  30. Gan K, Wang C, Chen J, Zhu C, Song G. Mitofusin-2 ameliorates high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in liver of rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2013;19:1572-81 pubmed publisher
    ..or phosphorylation levels of MFN2 and essential molecules in the insulin signaling pathway, such as insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase beta (AKT2) and ..
  31. Jiang Y, Pagadala J, Miller D, Steinle J. Reduced insulin receptor signaling in retinal Müller cells cultured in high glucose. Mol Vis. 2013;19:804-11 pubmed
    ..assay (ELISA) measurements were made for protein changes in TNF?, suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), insulin receptor (IR), Akt, and cell death proteins (Fas, fas ligand, cytochrome C, Bax, ..
  32. Genabai N, Briski K. Adaptation of arcuate insulin receptor, estrogen receptor-alpha, estrogen receptor-beta, and type-II glucocorticoid receptor gene profiles to chronic intermediate insulin-induced hypoglycemia in estrogen-treated ovariectomized female rats. J Mol Neurosci. 2010;41:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This peripheral input may be subject to ovarian control, since ovariectomy (OVX) increases insulin receptor transcripts and decreases glucocorticoid receptor protein in the hypothalamus...
  33. Rajesh P, Balasubramanian K. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate exposure impairs insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 gene expression in L6 myotubes. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2014;33:685-700 pubmed publisher
    ..At the end of exposure, cells were utilized for assessing various parameters. Insulin receptor and glucose transporter4 (GLUT4) gene expression, insulin receptor protein concentration, glucose uptake and ..
  34. de Borst M, Diks S, Bolbrinker J, Schellings M, van Dalen M, Peppelenbosch M, et al. Profiling of the renal kinome: a novel tool to identify protein kinases involved in angiotensin II-dependent hypertensive renal damage. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F428-37 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, insulin receptor signaling was reduced in Ren2 compared with control rats, and G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) ..
  35. Moloney A, Griffin R, Timmons S, O Connor R, Ravid R, O Neill C. Defects in IGF-1 receptor, insulin receptor and IRS-1/2 in Alzheimer's disease indicate possible resistance to IGF-1 and insulin signalling. Neurobiol Aging. 2010;31:224-43 pubmed publisher
    Insulin like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and insulin receptor (IR) signalling control vital growth, survival and metabolic functions in the brain...
  36. Rajala R, Rajala A, Brush R, Rotstein N, Politi L. Insulin receptor signaling regulates actin cytoskeletal organization in developing photoreceptors. J Neurochem. 2009;110:1648-60 pubmed publisher
    The insulin receptor (IR) and IR signaling proteins are widely distributed throughout the CNS...
  37. Zhou S, Hao L, Chen Y, Qu W. [Influence of chronic ethanol intake insulin sensitivity and IR, IRS-1, IRS-2 mRNA expression of liver in male rats]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2006;35:294-6 pubmed
    ..The present study showed that ethanol abuse could induce to insulin resistance. The decreased of IR, IRS-1, IRS-2 mRNA expression of liver may be involved in the molecular mechanism of the effects of ethanol on insulin insensitivity. ..
  38. Kasus Jacobi A, Perdereau D, Auzan C, Clauser E, Van Obberghen E, Mauvais Jarvis F, et al. Identification of the rat adapter Grb14 as an inhibitor of insulin actions. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:26026-35 pubmed
    We cloned by interaction with the beta-subunit of the insulin receptor the rat variant of the human adapter Grb14 (rGrb14). rGrb14 is specifically expressed in rat insulin-sensitive tissues and in the brain...
  39. Amessou M, Tahiri K, Chauvet G, Desbuquois B. Age-related changes in insulin receptor mRNA and protein expression in genetically obese Zucker rats. Diabetes Metab. 2010;36:120-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that obese Zucker rats display age-related alterations of IR gene expression at both pre- and post-translational stages and, in particular, increased endocytosis and degradation of IR protein. ..
  40. Yang Y, Xiao M, Mao Y, Li H, Zhao S, Gu Y, et al. Resistin and insulin resistance in hepatocytes: resistin disturbs glycogen metabolism at the protein level. Biomed Pharmacother. 2009;63:366-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased insulin receptor expression and GS activity and elevated GP activity was observed after the treatment of hepatocytes with ..
  41. Liu X, Zhang Y, Teng Z, Jiang L. [Abnormal expression of insulin receptor induced by A?(1-42) in rat hippocampus neuron]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2010;90:2897-901 pubmed
    To detect the expression change of insulin receptor under the induction of A?(1-42) in rat hippocampus neuron and thus from the receptor level explore the disorder of central nervous insulin signaling and molecular mechanism of Alzheimer'..
  42. Deng H, Deng H, Cen C, Chen K, Du M. Post-receptor crosstalk between growth hormone and insulin signal in rats born small for gestational age with catch-up growth. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e100459 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Insulin resistance in CUG-SGA rats is associated with impairment of IRS-1-PI3K-AKT signaling, which may result from GH signaling-induced up-regulation of SOCS3. ..
  43. Wu J, Tseng Y, Xu C, Neubert T, White M, Hubbard S. Structural and biochemical characterization of the KRLB region in insulin receptor substrate-2. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:251-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1 and -2) are crucial adaptor proteins in mediating the metabolic and mitogenic effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1...
  44. Khamzina L, Gruppuso P, Wands J. Insulin signaling through insulin receptor substrate 1 and 2 in normal liver development. Gastroenterology. 2003;125:572-85 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the roles of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1 and IRS-2)-mediated growth cascades in rapidly growing fetal rat liver...
  45. Kim M, Hong S, Lee M. Insulin receptor-overexpressing ?-cells ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic rats through Wnt signaling activation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67802 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of ?-cells with insulin receptor (IR) overexpression on diabetes mellitus (DM), rat insulinoma (INS-1) cells were engineered to stably express human insulin receptor (INS-IR cells), ..
  46. Muthusamy T, Dhevika S, Murugesan P, Balasubramanian K. Testosterone deficiency impairs glucose oxidation through defective insulin and its receptor gene expression in target tissues of adult male rats. Life Sci. 2007;81:534-42 pubmed
    ..The present study has been designed to assess the impact of testosterone on insulin receptor gene expression and glucose oxidation in target tissues of adult male rat...
  47. Seino S, Seino M, Bell G. Human insulin-receptor gene. Partial sequence and amplification of exons by polymerase chain reaction. Diabetes. 1990;39:123-8 pubmed
  48. Goldstein B, Dudley A. The rat insulin receptor: primary structure and conservation of tissue-specific alternative messenger RNA splicing. Mol Endocrinol. 1990;4:235-44 pubmed
    To investigate whether alterations in the polypeptide structure of the insulin receptor might explain the heterogeneity observed in its properties between species and in different tissues, we obtained the complete primary structure of the ..
  49. Maegawa H, Kashiwagi A, Fujita T, Ugi S, Hasegawa M, Obata T, et al. SHPTP2 serves adapter protein linking between Janus kinase 2 and insulin receptor substrates. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;228:122-7 pubmed
    ..After insulin stimulation, pp185 proteins (insulin receptor substrate, IRS) were co-immunoprecipitated with both kinases by alpha JAK1 and alpha JAK2 antibodies...
  50. Schenker E, Kohanski R. The native alpha 2 beta 2 tetramer is the only subunit structure of the insulin receptor in intact cells and purified receptor preparations. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1991;290:79-85 pubmed
    The native subunit structure of the insulin receptor was reinvestigated by two-dimensional nonreducing/reducing gel electrophoresis...
  51. Muthusamy T, Murugesan P, Srinivasan C, Balasubramanian K. Sex steroids influence glucose oxidation through modulation of insulin receptor expression and IRS-1 serine phosphorylation in target tissues of adult male rat. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;352:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous study showed that orchidectomy impairs glucose oxidation through decreased insulin receptor (IR) mRNA expression in skeletal muscles, liver, and adipose tissue of male rat...
  52. Lacroix M, Badonnel K, Meunier N, Tan F, Schlegel Le Poupon C, Durieux D, et al. Expression of insulin system in the olfactory epithelium: first approaches to its role and regulation. J Neuroendocrinol. 2008;20:1176-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We first established the expression of insulin receptor (IR) in rat olfactory mucosa...
  53. Limin T, Hou X, Liu J, Zhang X, Sun N, Gao L, et al. Chronic ethanol consumption resulting in the downregulation of insulin receptor-beta subunit, insulin receptor substrate-1, and glucose transporter 4 expression in rat cardiac muscles. Alcohol. 2009;43:51-8 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic ethanol intake on the expression of insulin receptor beta subunit (IR-beta), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), and glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) in rat cardiac ..